Abstract

We present a joint transform correlator for color image recognition by using three liquid-crystal spatial light modulators. A method for simultaneously obtaining the correlation peaks of red, green, and blue is proposed and experimentally demonstrated.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. B. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).
  2. C. S. Weaver, J. W. Goodman, “A technique for optically convolving two functions,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1248–1249 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. X. J. Lu, F. T. S. Yu, D. A. Gregory, “Comparison of VanderLugt and joint transform correlators,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 153–164 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Lu, “A real-time programmable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–15 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. K. Shi, “Color-sensitive spatial filters,” Opt. Lett. 3, 85–87 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. T. S. Yu, T. H. Chao, “Color signal correlation detected by matched spatial filtering,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 1–6 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. T. S. Yu, B. Javidi, “Experiments on real-time polychromatic signal detection by matched spatial filtering,” Opt. Commun. 56, 384–388 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. T. S. Yu, S. Jutamulia, R. V. Yelamarty, D. Gregory, “Adaptive joint transform correlator for real-time color pattern recognition,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 189–192 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. T. S. Yu, Z. Yang, K. Pan, “Polychromatic target identification with a color liquid-crystal-TV-based joint-transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2170–2172 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Zhai, G. Mu, J. Sun, X. Zhu, F. Liu, H. Kang, Y. Zhan, “Color pattern recognition in white-light joint transform correlation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7238–7244 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1994 (1)

1990 (1)

X. J. Lu, F. T. S. Yu, D. A. Gregory, “Comparison of VanderLugt and joint transform correlators,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 153–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, S. Jutamulia, R. V. Yelamarty, D. Gregory, “Adaptive joint transform correlator for real-time color pattern recognition,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 189–192 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

F. T. S. Yu, B. Javidi, “Experiments on real-time polychromatic signal detection by matched spatial filtering,” Opt. Commun. 56, 384–388 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Lu, “A real-time programmable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–15 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

F. T. S. Yu, T. H. Chao, “Color signal correlation detected by matched spatial filtering,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 1–6 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1966 (1)

1964 (1)

A. B. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).

Campos, J.

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chao, T. H.

F. T. S. Yu, T. H. Chao, “Color signal correlation detected by matched spatial filtering,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 1–6 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, C.

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

Gregory, D.

F. T. S. Yu, S. Jutamulia, R. V. Yelamarty, D. Gregory, “Adaptive joint transform correlator for real-time color pattern recognition,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 189–192 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, D. A.

X. J. Lu, F. T. S. Yu, D. A. Gregory, “Comparison of VanderLugt and joint transform correlators,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 153–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

F. T. S. Yu, B. Javidi, “Experiments on real-time polychromatic signal detection by matched spatial filtering,” Opt. Commun. 56, 384–388 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jutamulia, S.

F. T. S. Yu, S. Jutamulia, R. V. Yelamarty, D. Gregory, “Adaptive joint transform correlator for real-time color pattern recognition,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 189–192 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H.

Liu, F.

Lu, X. J.

X. J. Lu, F. T. S. Yu, D. A. Gregory, “Comparison of VanderLugt and joint transform correlators,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 153–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Lu, “A real-time programmable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–15 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Millan, M. S.

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mu, G.

Pan, K.

Shi, N. K.

Sun, J.

VanderLugt, A. B.

A. B. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).

Weaver, C. S.

Yang, Z.

Yelamarty, R. V.

F. T. S. Yu, S. Jutamulia, R. V. Yelamarty, D. Gregory, “Adaptive joint transform correlator for real-time color pattern recognition,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 189–192 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yu, F. T. S.

F. T. S. Yu, Z. Yang, K. Pan, “Polychromatic target identification with a color liquid-crystal-TV-based joint-transform correlator,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2170–2172 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. J. Lu, F. T. S. Yu, D. A. Gregory, “Comparison of VanderLugt and joint transform correlators,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 153–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, S. Jutamulia, R. V. Yelamarty, D. Gregory, “Adaptive joint transform correlator for real-time color pattern recognition,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 189–192 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, B. Javidi, “Experiments on real-time polychromatic signal detection by matched spatial filtering,” Opt. Commun. 56, 384–388 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Lu, “A real-time programmable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–15 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, T. H. Chao, “Color signal correlation detected by matched spatial filtering,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 1–6 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yzuel, M.

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, H.

Zhan, Y.

Zhu, X.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

X. J. Lu, F. T. S. Yu, D. A. Gregory, “Comparison of VanderLugt and joint transform correlators,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 153–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, T. H. Chao, “Color signal correlation detected by matched spatial filtering,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 1–6 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

A. B. VanderLugt, “Signal detection by complex spatial filtering,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-10, 139–145 (1964).

Opt. Commun. (3)

F. T. S. Yu, B. Javidi, “Experiments on real-time polychromatic signal detection by matched spatial filtering,” Opt. Commun. 56, 384–388 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Millan, J. Campos, C. Ferreira, M. Yzuel, “Matched filter and phase only filter performance in color image recognition,” Opt. Commun. 73, 277–284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. T. S. Yu, X. J. Lu, “A real-time programmable joint transform correlator,” Opt. Commun. 52, 10–15 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

F. T. S. Yu, S. Jutamulia, R. V. Yelamarty, D. Gregory, “Adaptive joint transform correlator for real-time color pattern recognition,” Opt. Laser Technol. 21, 189–192 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Color pattern recognition in a joint transform correlator system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Original input patterns.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Power spectra of two white input patterns.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Correlation output for two white patterns of Fig. 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Correlation output for white and blue patterns. The left image shows the input pattern of letters A’s in different colors. The upper A is blue, and the lower A is white. The right image shows the correlation output.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Correlation output for red and blue input patterns. The upper A is red, and the lower A is blue. The right image shows the correlation output.

Equations (6)

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finx, y=frx, y+fgx, y+fbx, y =grx-d2, y+hrx+d2, ytrx, y+ggx-d2, y+hgx+d2, ytgx, y+gbx-d2, y+hbx+d2, ytbx, y,
Fξ, η=Grξ, ηexp-i 2πλlrd2 ξ+Hrξ, ηexpi 2πλlrd2 ξTrξ, η+Ggξ, ηexp-i 2πλlgd2 ξ+Hgξ, ηexpi 2πλlgd2 ξTgξ, η+Gbξ, ηexp-i 2πλlbd2 ξ+Hbξ, ηexpi 2πλlbd2 ξTbξ, η,
Tiξ, η=mn Amnδξ+mξi, η+nηi, i=r, g, b, m=0, ±1, ±2,, n=0, ±1, ±2,,
F1ξ, η=c1Grξ-ξr, ηexp-i 2πλlrd2ξ-ξr+Hrξ-ξr, ηexpi 2πλlrd2ξ-ξr+c2Ggξ-ξg, ηexp-i 2πλlgd2ξ-ξg+Hgξ-ξg, ηexpi 2πλlgd2ξ-ξg+c3Gbξ-ξb, ηexp-i 2πλlbd2ξ-ξb+Hbξ-ξb, ηexpi 2πλlbd2ξ-ξb,
|F1ξ, η|2=C1|Grξ-ξr, η|2+|Hrξ-ξr, η|2+Grξ-ξr, η×Hr*ξ-ξr, ηexp-i 2πλlr dξ-ξr+c.c.+C2|Ggξ-ξg, η|2+|Hgξ-ξg, η|2+Ggξ-ξg, η×Hg*ξ-ξg, ηexp-i 2πλlg dξ-ξg+c.c.+C3|Gbξ-ξb, η|2+|Hbξ-ξb, η|2+Gbξ-ξb, η×Hb*ξ-ξb, ηexp-i 2πλlb dξ-ξb+c.c.,
Ioutput=|-1|F1ξ, η|2|2 =|C1gr  gr+hr  hr+C2gg  gg+hg  hg+C3gb  gb+hb  hb|2+C1gr  hrδx-llr d+C2gg  hgδx-llg d+C3gb  hbδx-llb d2+C1gr  hrδx+llr d+C2gg  hgδx+llg d+C3gb  hbδx+llb d2,

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