Abstract

A system for the photodynamic laser treatment of massive tumors that employs multiple optical fibers to be inserted into the tumor mass is described. The light flux through the tumor can be assessed by use of the individual fibers both as transmitters and as receivers. With a computer model that describes the diffusive light propagation, optical dosimetry is under development. The system has been tested in an experimental animal tumor model in preparation for clinical work. Currently, delta-aminolevulinic acid is used as a sensitizer, activated by 635-nm radiation from a 2.0-W compact diode laser system. With the availability of future, highly selective drugs absorbing approximately 750 nm, larger tumor volumes should be treatable, and surrounding, sensitive normal tissue should be spared.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. L. Marcus, “Photodynamic therapy of human cancer: clinical status, potential and needs,” in Future Directions and Applications in Photodynamic Therapy, C. J. Gomer, ed., Proc. SPIEIS-6, 5–56 (1990).
  2. L. I. Grossweiner, The Science of Phototherapy (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1994).
  3. T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 889–905 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, D. C. Pross, “Photodynamic therapy with endogenous protoporphyrin IX: basic principles and present clinical experience,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 6, 143–148 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, “Endogenous protoporphyrin IX, a clinically useful photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 14, 275–292 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Q. Peng, T. Warloe, K. Berg, J. Moan, M. Kongshaug, K.-E. Giercksky, J. M. Nesland, “5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: clinical research and future challenges,” Cancer 79, 2282–2308 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. I. Wang, B. Bauer, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy utilising topical δ-aminolevulinic acid in non-melanoma skin malignancies of the eyelid and the periocular skin,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 77, 182–188 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. I. Wang, N. Bendsoe, C. af Klinteberg, A. M. K. Enejder, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy versus cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas: results of a phase III randomized clinical trial,” Br. J. Dermatol. 144, 832–840 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. J. Dougherty, R. E. Thoma, D. G. Boyle, K. R. Weishaupt, “Interstitial photoradiation therapy for primary solid tumors in pet cats and dogs,” Cancer Res. 41, 401–404 (1981).
    [PubMed]
  11. J. P. A. Marijnissen, J. A. C. Versteeg, W. M. Star, W. L. J. van Putten, “Tumor and normal response to interstitial photodynamic therapy of the rat R-1 rhabdomyosarcoma,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 22, 963–972 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. P. Lowdell, D. V. Ash, I. Driver, S. B. Brown, “Interstitial photodynamic therapy. Clinical experience with diffusing fibres in the treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumours,” Br. J. Cancer 67, 1398–1403 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. F. Purkiss, R. Dean, J. T. Allardice, M. Grahn, N. S. Williams, “An interstitial light delivery system for photodynamic therapy within the liver,” Lasers Med. Sci. 8, 253–257 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, “System for laser treatments of tumours,” Swedish patent503408 (10June1996).
  15. A. M. K. Nilsson, R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, “Measurements of the optical properties of tissue in conjunction with photodynamic therapy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4609–4619 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. N. Ohlsson, O. Rylow, “Development of a multifibre system for interstitial photodynamic therapy of malignant tumours,” MSc thesis (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, LRAP-240, 1998).
  17. S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. N. S. Ottosen, H. Petersson, Introduction to the Finite Element Method (Prentice Hall International, London, 1992).
  19. S. S. Rao, The Finite Element Method in Engineering (Pergamon, New York, 1989).
  20. G. Hedlund, H. O. Sjögren, “Induction of transplantation immunity to rat colon carcinoma isografts by implantation of intact fetal colon tissue,” Int. J. Cancer 26, 71–73 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Johansson, R. Berg, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Laser-induced fluorescence studies of normal and malignant tumour tissue of rat following intravenous injection of δ-amino levulinic acid,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 272–279 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. af Klinteberg, M. Andreasson, O. Sandström, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg are preparing a manuscript to be called “Compact medical fluorosensor for minimally invasive tissue characterization.”
  23. T. Andersson, R. Berg, J. Johansson, D. Killander, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, Y. L. Yang, “Photodynamic therapy in interplay with fluorescence diagnostics in the treatment of human superficial malignancies,” in Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1645, pp. 187–199 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. T. V. Grattan, Z. Y. Zhang, Fiber Optic Fluorescence Thermometry (Chapman Hall, London, 1995).

2000 (1)

I. Wang, N. Bendsoe, C. af Klinteberg, A. M. K. Enejder, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy versus cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas: results of a phase III randomized clinical trial,” Br. J. Dermatol. 144, 832–840 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

I. Wang, B. Bauer, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy utilising topical δ-aminolevulinic acid in non-melanoma skin malignancies of the eyelid and the periocular skin,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 77, 182–188 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

Q. Peng, T. Warloe, K. Berg, J. Moan, M. Kongshaug, K.-E. Giercksky, J. M. Nesland, “5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: clinical research and future challenges,” Cancer 79, 2282–2308 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Johansson, R. Berg, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Laser-induced fluorescence studies of normal and malignant tumour tissue of rat following intravenous injection of δ-amino levulinic acid,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 272–279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

C. P. Lowdell, D. V. Ash, I. Driver, S. B. Brown, “Interstitial photodynamic therapy. Clinical experience with diffusing fibres in the treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumours,” Br. J. Cancer 67, 1398–1403 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Purkiss, R. Dean, J. T. Allardice, M. Grahn, N. S. Williams, “An interstitial light delivery system for photodynamic therapy within the liver,” Lasers Med. Sci. 8, 253–257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

J. P. A. Marijnissen, J. A. C. Versteeg, W. M. Star, W. L. J. van Putten, “Tumor and normal response to interstitial photodynamic therapy of the rat R-1 rhabdomyosarcoma,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 22, 963–972 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, “Endogenous protoporphyrin IX, a clinically useful photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 14, 275–292 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, D. C. Pross, “Photodynamic therapy with endogenous protoporphyrin IX: basic principles and present clinical experience,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 6, 143–148 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

T. J. Dougherty, R. E. Thoma, D. G. Boyle, K. R. Weishaupt, “Interstitial photoradiation therapy for primary solid tumors in pet cats and dogs,” Cancer Res. 41, 401–404 (1981).
[PubMed]

1980 (1)

G. Hedlund, H. O. Sjögren, “Induction of transplantation immunity to rat colon carcinoma isografts by implantation of intact fetal colon tissue,” Int. J. Cancer 26, 71–73 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

af Klinteberg, C.

I. Wang, N. Bendsoe, C. af Klinteberg, A. M. K. Enejder, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy versus cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas: results of a phase III randomized clinical trial,” Br. J. Dermatol. 144, 832–840 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. af Klinteberg, M. Andreasson, O. Sandström, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg are preparing a manuscript to be called “Compact medical fluorosensor for minimally invasive tissue characterization.”

Allardice, J. T.

S. F. Purkiss, R. Dean, J. T. Allardice, M. Grahn, N. S. Williams, “An interstitial light delivery system for photodynamic therapy within the liver,” Lasers Med. Sci. 8, 253–257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, T.

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Andersson, R. Berg, J. Johansson, D. Killander, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, Y. L. Yang, “Photodynamic therapy in interplay with fluorescence diagnostics in the treatment of human superficial malignancies,” in Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1645, pp. 187–199 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

I. Wang, N. Bendsoe, C. af Klinteberg, A. M. K. Enejder, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy versus cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas: results of a phase III randomized clinical trial,” Br. J. Dermatol. 144, 832–840 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Wang, B. Bauer, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy utilising topical δ-aminolevulinic acid in non-melanoma skin malignancies of the eyelid and the periocular skin,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 77, 182–188 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. K. Nilsson, R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, “Measurements of the optical properties of tissue in conjunction with photodynamic therapy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4609–4619 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, “System for laser treatments of tumours,” Swedish patent503408 (10June1996).

C. af Klinteberg, M. Andreasson, O. Sandström, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg are preparing a manuscript to be called “Compact medical fluorosensor for minimally invasive tissue characterization.”

Andreasson, M.

C. af Klinteberg, M. Andreasson, O. Sandström, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg are preparing a manuscript to be called “Compact medical fluorosensor for minimally invasive tissue characterization.”

Arridge, S. R.

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ash, D. V.

C. P. Lowdell, D. V. Ash, I. Driver, S. B. Brown, “Interstitial photodynamic therapy. Clinical experience with diffusing fibres in the treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumours,” Br. J. Cancer 67, 1398–1403 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauer, B.

I. Wang, B. Bauer, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy utilising topical δ-aminolevulinic acid in non-melanoma skin malignancies of the eyelid and the periocular skin,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 77, 182–188 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bendsoe, N.

I. Wang, N. Bendsoe, C. af Klinteberg, A. M. K. Enejder, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy versus cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas: results of a phase III randomized clinical trial,” Br. J. Dermatol. 144, 832–840 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berg, K.

Q. Peng, T. Warloe, K. Berg, J. Moan, M. Kongshaug, K.-E. Giercksky, J. M. Nesland, “5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: clinical research and future challenges,” Cancer 79, 2282–2308 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg, R.

J. Johansson, R. Berg, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Laser-induced fluorescence studies of normal and malignant tumour tissue of rat following intravenous injection of δ-amino levulinic acid,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 272–279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. K. Nilsson, R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, “Measurements of the optical properties of tissue in conjunction with photodynamic therapy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4609–4619 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Andersson, R. Berg, J. Johansson, D. Killander, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, Y. L. Yang, “Photodynamic therapy in interplay with fluorescence diagnostics in the treatment of human superficial malignancies,” in Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1645, pp. 187–199 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, “System for laser treatments of tumours,” Swedish patent503408 (10June1996).

Boyle, D. G.

T. J. Dougherty, R. E. Thoma, D. G. Boyle, K. R. Weishaupt, “Interstitial photoradiation therapy for primary solid tumors in pet cats and dogs,” Cancer Res. 41, 401–404 (1981).
[PubMed]

Brown, S. B.

C. P. Lowdell, D. V. Ash, I. Driver, S. B. Brown, “Interstitial photodynamic therapy. Clinical experience with diffusing fibres in the treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumours,” Br. J. Cancer 67, 1398–1403 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dean, R.

S. F. Purkiss, R. Dean, J. T. Allardice, M. Grahn, N. S. Williams, “An interstitial light delivery system for photodynamic therapy within the liver,” Lasers Med. Sci. 8, 253–257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D. T.

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dougherty, T. J.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Dougherty, R. E. Thoma, D. G. Boyle, K. R. Weishaupt, “Interstitial photoradiation therapy for primary solid tumors in pet cats and dogs,” Cancer Res. 41, 401–404 (1981).
[PubMed]

Driver, I.

C. P. Lowdell, D. V. Ash, I. Driver, S. B. Brown, “Interstitial photodynamic therapy. Clinical experience with diffusing fibres in the treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumours,” Br. J. Cancer 67, 1398–1403 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enejder, A. M. K.

I. Wang, N. Bendsoe, C. af Klinteberg, A. M. K. Enejder, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy versus cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas: results of a phase III randomized clinical trial,” Br. J. Dermatol. 144, 832–840 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Giercksky, K.-E.

Q. Peng, T. Warloe, K. Berg, J. Moan, M. Kongshaug, K.-E. Giercksky, J. M. Nesland, “5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: clinical research and future challenges,” Cancer 79, 2282–2308 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomer, C. J.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grahn, M.

S. F. Purkiss, R. Dean, J. T. Allardice, M. Grahn, N. S. Williams, “An interstitial light delivery system for photodynamic therapy within the liver,” Lasers Med. Sci. 8, 253–257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

K. T. V. Grattan, Z. Y. Zhang, Fiber Optic Fluorescence Thermometry (Chapman Hall, London, 1995).

Grossweiner, L. I.

L. I. Grossweiner, The Science of Phototherapy (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1994).

Hedlund, G.

G. Hedlund, H. O. Sjögren, “Induction of transplantation immunity to rat colon carcinoma isografts by implantation of intact fetal colon tissue,” Int. J. Cancer 26, 71–73 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henderson, B. W.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiraoka, M.

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johansson, J.

J. Johansson, R. Berg, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Laser-induced fluorescence studies of normal and malignant tumour tissue of rat following intravenous injection of δ-amino levulinic acid,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 272–279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Andersson, R. Berg, J. Johansson, D. Killander, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, Y. L. Yang, “Photodynamic therapy in interplay with fluorescence diagnostics in the treatment of human superficial malignancies,” in Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1645, pp. 187–199 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, “System for laser treatments of tumours,” Swedish patent503408 (10June1996).

Jori, G.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, J. C.

J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, “Endogenous protoporphyrin IX, a clinically useful photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 14, 275–292 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, D. C. Pross, “Photodynamic therapy with endogenous protoporphyrin IX: basic principles and present clinical experience,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 6, 143–148 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kessel, D.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Killander, D.

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Andersson, R. Berg, J. Johansson, D. Killander, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, Y. L. Yang, “Photodynamic therapy in interplay with fluorescence diagnostics in the treatment of human superficial malignancies,” in Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1645, pp. 187–199 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kongshaug, M.

Q. Peng, T. Warloe, K. Berg, J. Moan, M. Kongshaug, K.-E. Giercksky, J. M. Nesland, “5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: clinical research and future challenges,” Cancer 79, 2282–2308 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korbelik, M.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lowdell, C. P.

C. P. Lowdell, D. V. Ash, I. Driver, S. B. Brown, “Interstitial photodynamic therapy. Clinical experience with diffusing fibres in the treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumours,” Br. J. Cancer 67, 1398–1403 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcus, S. L.

S. L. Marcus, “Photodynamic therapy of human cancer: clinical status, potential and needs,” in Future Directions and Applications in Photodynamic Therapy, C. J. Gomer, ed., Proc. SPIEIS-6, 5–56 (1990).

Marijnissen, J. P. A.

J. P. A. Marijnissen, J. A. C. Versteeg, W. M. Star, W. L. J. van Putten, “Tumor and normal response to interstitial photodynamic therapy of the rat R-1 rhabdomyosarcoma,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 22, 963–972 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moan, J.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Peng, T. Warloe, K. Berg, J. Moan, M. Kongshaug, K.-E. Giercksky, J. M. Nesland, “5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: clinical research and future challenges,” Cancer 79, 2282–2308 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nesland, J. M.

Q. Peng, T. Warloe, K. Berg, J. Moan, M. Kongshaug, K.-E. Giercksky, J. M. Nesland, “5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: clinical research and future challenges,” Cancer 79, 2282–2308 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, A. M. K.

Ohlsson, N.

N. Ohlsson, O. Rylow, “Development of a multifibre system for interstitial photodynamic therapy of malignant tumours,” MSc thesis (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, LRAP-240, 1998).

Ottosen, N. S.

N. S. Ottosen, H. Petersson, Introduction to the Finite Element Method (Prentice Hall International, London, 1992).

Peng, Q.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Peng, T. Warloe, K. Berg, J. Moan, M. Kongshaug, K.-E. Giercksky, J. M. Nesland, “5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: clinical research and future challenges,” Cancer 79, 2282–2308 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petersson, H.

N. S. Ottosen, H. Petersson, Introduction to the Finite Element Method (Prentice Hall International, London, 1992).

Pottier, R. H.

J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, “Endogenous protoporphyrin IX, a clinically useful photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 14, 275–292 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, D. C. Pross, “Photodynamic therapy with endogenous protoporphyrin IX: basic principles and present clinical experience,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 6, 143–148 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pross, D. C.

J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, D. C. Pross, “Photodynamic therapy with endogenous protoporphyrin IX: basic principles and present clinical experience,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 6, 143–148 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Purkiss, S. F.

S. F. Purkiss, R. Dean, J. T. Allardice, M. Grahn, N. S. Williams, “An interstitial light delivery system for photodynamic therapy within the liver,” Lasers Med. Sci. 8, 253–257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rao, S. S.

S. S. Rao, The Finite Element Method in Engineering (Pergamon, New York, 1989).

Rylow, O.

N. Ohlsson, O. Rylow, “Development of a multifibre system for interstitial photodynamic therapy of malignant tumours,” MSc thesis (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, LRAP-240, 1998).

Sandström, O.

C. af Klinteberg, M. Andreasson, O. Sandström, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg are preparing a manuscript to be called “Compact medical fluorosensor for minimally invasive tissue characterization.”

Schweiger, M.

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sjögren, H. O.

G. Hedlund, H. O. Sjögren, “Induction of transplantation immunity to rat colon carcinoma isografts by implantation of intact fetal colon tissue,” Int. J. Cancer 26, 71–73 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Star, W. M.

J. P. A. Marijnissen, J. A. C. Versteeg, W. M. Star, W. L. J. van Putten, “Tumor and normal response to interstitial photodynamic therapy of the rat R-1 rhabdomyosarcoma,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 22, 963–972 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stenram, U.

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svanberg, K.

I. Wang, N. Bendsoe, C. af Klinteberg, A. M. K. Enejder, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy versus cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas: results of a phase III randomized clinical trial,” Br. J. Dermatol. 144, 832–840 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Wang, B. Bauer, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy utilising topical δ-aminolevulinic acid in non-melanoma skin malignancies of the eyelid and the periocular skin,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 77, 182–188 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Johansson, R. Berg, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Laser-induced fluorescence studies of normal and malignant tumour tissue of rat following intravenous injection of δ-amino levulinic acid,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 272–279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Andersson, R. Berg, J. Johansson, D. Killander, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, Y. L. Yang, “Photodynamic therapy in interplay with fluorescence diagnostics in the treatment of human superficial malignancies,” in Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1645, pp. 187–199 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, “System for laser treatments of tumours,” Swedish patent503408 (10June1996).

Svanberg, S.

I. Wang, N. Bendsoe, C. af Klinteberg, A. M. K. Enejder, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy versus cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas: results of a phase III randomized clinical trial,” Br. J. Dermatol. 144, 832–840 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Wang, B. Bauer, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy utilising topical δ-aminolevulinic acid in non-melanoma skin malignancies of the eyelid and the periocular skin,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 77, 182–188 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Johansson, R. Berg, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Laser-induced fluorescence studies of normal and malignant tumour tissue of rat following intravenous injection of δ-amino levulinic acid,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 272–279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Andersson, R. Berg, J. Johansson, D. Killander, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, Y. L. Yang, “Photodynamic therapy in interplay with fluorescence diagnostics in the treatment of human superficial malignancies,” in Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1645, pp. 187–199 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, “System for laser treatments of tumours,” Swedish patent503408 (10June1996).

C. af Klinteberg, M. Andreasson, O. Sandström, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg are preparing a manuscript to be called “Compact medical fluorosensor for minimally invasive tissue characterization.”

Thoma, R. E.

T. J. Dougherty, R. E. Thoma, D. G. Boyle, K. R. Weishaupt, “Interstitial photoradiation therapy for primary solid tumors in pet cats and dogs,” Cancer Res. 41, 401–404 (1981).
[PubMed]

van Putten, W. L. J.

J. P. A. Marijnissen, J. A. C. Versteeg, W. M. Star, W. L. J. van Putten, “Tumor and normal response to interstitial photodynamic therapy of the rat R-1 rhabdomyosarcoma,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 22, 963–972 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Versteeg, J. A. C.

J. P. A. Marijnissen, J. A. C. Versteeg, W. M. Star, W. L. J. van Putten, “Tumor and normal response to interstitial photodynamic therapy of the rat R-1 rhabdomyosarcoma,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 22, 963–972 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, I.

I. Wang, N. Bendsoe, C. af Klinteberg, A. M. K. Enejder, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy versus cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas: results of a phase III randomized clinical trial,” Br. J. Dermatol. 144, 832–840 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Wang, B. Bauer, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy utilising topical δ-aminolevulinic acid in non-melanoma skin malignancies of the eyelid and the periocular skin,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 77, 182–188 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warloe, T.

Q. Peng, T. Warloe, K. Berg, J. Moan, M. Kongshaug, K.-E. Giercksky, J. M. Nesland, “5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: clinical research and future challenges,” Cancer 79, 2282–2308 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weishaupt, K. R.

T. J. Dougherty, R. E. Thoma, D. G. Boyle, K. R. Weishaupt, “Interstitial photoradiation therapy for primary solid tumors in pet cats and dogs,” Cancer Res. 41, 401–404 (1981).
[PubMed]

Williams, N. S.

S. F. Purkiss, R. Dean, J. T. Allardice, M. Grahn, N. S. Williams, “An interstitial light delivery system for photodynamic therapy within the liver,” Lasers Med. Sci. 8, 253–257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. L.

T. Andersson, R. Berg, J. Johansson, D. Killander, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, Y. L. Yang, “Photodynamic therapy in interplay with fluorescence diagnostics in the treatment of human superficial malignancies,” in Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1645, pp. 187–199 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. Y.

K. T. V. Grattan, Z. Y. Zhang, Fiber Optic Fluorescence Thermometry (Chapman Hall, London, 1995).

Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. (1)

I. Wang, B. Bauer, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy utilising topical δ-aminolevulinic acid in non-melanoma skin malignancies of the eyelid and the periocular skin,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 77, 182–188 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Br. J. Cancer (1)

C. P. Lowdell, D. V. Ash, I. Driver, S. B. Brown, “Interstitial photodynamic therapy. Clinical experience with diffusing fibres in the treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumours,” Br. J. Cancer 67, 1398–1403 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Dermatol. (2)

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Wang, N. Bendsoe, C. af Klinteberg, A. M. K. Enejder, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy versus cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas: results of a phase III randomized clinical trial,” Br. J. Dermatol. 144, 832–840 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cancer (1)

Q. Peng, T. Warloe, K. Berg, J. Moan, M. Kongshaug, K.-E. Giercksky, J. M. Nesland, “5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: clinical research and future challenges,” Cancer 79, 2282–2308 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

T. J. Dougherty, R. E. Thoma, D. G. Boyle, K. R. Weishaupt, “Interstitial photoradiation therapy for primary solid tumors in pet cats and dogs,” Cancer Res. 41, 401–404 (1981).
[PubMed]

Int. J. Cancer (1)

G. Hedlund, H. O. Sjögren, “Induction of transplantation immunity to rat colon carcinoma isografts by implantation of intact fetal colon tissue,” Int. J. Cancer 26, 71–73 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1)

J. P. A. Marijnissen, J. A. C. Versteeg, W. M. Star, W. L. J. van Putten, “Tumor and normal response to interstitial photodynamic therapy of the rat R-1 rhabdomyosarcoma,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 22, 963–972 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1)

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B (2)

J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, D. C. Pross, “Photodynamic therapy with endogenous protoporphyrin IX: basic principles and present clinical experience,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 6, 143–148 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, “Endogenous protoporphyrin IX, a clinically useful photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 14, 275–292 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

S. F. Purkiss, R. Dean, J. T. Allardice, M. Grahn, N. S. Williams, “An interstitial light delivery system for photodynamic therapy within the liver,” Lasers Med. Sci. 8, 253–257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

J. Johansson, R. Berg, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Laser-induced fluorescence studies of normal and malignant tumour tissue of rat following intravenous injection of δ-amino levulinic acid,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 272–279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (1)

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (9)

N. S. Ottosen, H. Petersson, Introduction to the Finite Element Method (Prentice Hall International, London, 1992).

S. S. Rao, The Finite Element Method in Engineering (Pergamon, New York, 1989).

S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, “System for laser treatments of tumours,” Swedish patent503408 (10June1996).

N. Ohlsson, O. Rylow, “Development of a multifibre system for interstitial photodynamic therapy of malignant tumours,” MSc thesis (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, LRAP-240, 1998).

S. L. Marcus, “Photodynamic therapy of human cancer: clinical status, potential and needs,” in Future Directions and Applications in Photodynamic Therapy, C. J. Gomer, ed., Proc. SPIEIS-6, 5–56 (1990).

L. I. Grossweiner, The Science of Phototherapy (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1994).

C. af Klinteberg, M. Andreasson, O. Sandström, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg are preparing a manuscript to be called “Compact medical fluorosensor for minimally invasive tissue characterization.”

T. Andersson, R. Berg, J. Johansson, D. Killander, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, Y. L. Yang, “Photodynamic therapy in interplay with fluorescence diagnostics in the treatment of human superficial malignancies,” in Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1645, pp. 187–199 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. T. V. Grattan, Z. Y. Zhang, Fiber Optic Fluorescence Thermometry (Chapman Hall, London, 1995).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of a multifiber interstitial PDT system with optical feedback.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Setup of the beam-splitting-light-flux-measuring unit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of the system with six emitting fibers and a dosimetry chart displayed on the computer screen.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photograph of an animal treatment session.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured signals as a function of distance measured in an Intralipid/ink phantom. These curves were used to calibrate the detection sensitivity of the six fibers in the detection mode.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dosimetry modeling and temporal evolution of delivered light dose. The dose at distances very close to the source fibers, a region in which the diffusion approximation is not valid, was increased manually.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

An example of graphs of measured fluence rates during a treatment that used three treatment fibers. Each graph represents the measured fluence rate for that detection fiber when the other two fibers were transmitting treatment light. The predicted values calculated before the treatment started are also indicated.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Demonstration of bleaching of PpIX inside the tumor mass, owing to the flux of red photons through the tumor. The fluorescence intensity at 635 nm was recorded.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of tumor volume before and three days after interstitial PDT in Wistar-Furth rats.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of volume development for treated and control tumors during a three-day period starting just before the PDT and extending three days after.

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