Abstract

Gallogermanate glasses are the subject of intense study as a result of their unique combination of physical and optical properties, including transmission from 0.4 to beyond 5.0 µm. These glasses can be easily made into large optics with high-index homogeneity for numerous U.S. Department of Defense and commercial visible-IR window applications such as reconnaissance, missile domes, IR countermeasures, avionics, and collision avoidance on automobiles. These applications require a knowledge of the refractive index of glass throughout the region of transmission. Consequently, we have measured the refractive index of BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glass from 0.4 to 5.0 µm and calculated the Sellmeier coefficients required for optical device design.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. L. Higby, I. D. Aggarwal, “Properties of barium gallium germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 303–308 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Jewell, “Alkaline Earth gallogermanate glasses,” in Rare Elements in Glasses, J. E. Shelby, ed. (Trans Tech, Uetikon-Zurich-Switzerland, 1994), pp. 317–343.
  3. C. I. Merzbacher, “Infrared reflectance of barium gallogermanate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 33, 233–238 (1992).
  4. P. L. Higby, C. I. Merzbacher, I. D. Aggarwal, E. J. Friebele, “Gallogermanate glasses as near-IR optical materials,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 115–120 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. I. Merzbacher, D. A. Mckeown, “X-ray absorption studies of Ge and Ga environments in BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162, 81–100 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. M. Jewell, L. E. Busse, K. Crahan, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, “Optical properties of BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses for fiber and bulk optical applications,” in Properties and Characteristics of Optical Glass III, A. J. Marker, ed., Proc. SPIE2287, 154–163 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. Jewell, I. D. Aggarwal, “Structural influences on the hydroxyl spectra of barium gallogermanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181, 189–199 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. S. Bayya, B. B. Harbison, J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, “BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses with enhanced properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 212, 198–207 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1981), 197.
  10. I. H. Malitson, “A determination of some optical properties of calcium fluoride,” Appl. Opt. 2, 1103–1107 (1963).
    [CrossRef]

1997

S. S. Bayya, B. B. Harbison, J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, “BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses with enhanced properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 212, 198–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. M. Jewell, I. D. Aggarwal, “Structural influences on the hydroxyl spectra of barium gallogermanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181, 189–199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

C. I. Merzbacher, D. A. Mckeown, “X-ray absorption studies of Ge and Ga environments in BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162, 81–100 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Higby, I. D. Aggarwal, “Properties of barium gallium germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 303–308 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

C. I. Merzbacher, “Infrared reflectance of barium gallogermanate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 33, 233–238 (1992).

P. L. Higby, C. I. Merzbacher, I. D. Aggarwal, E. J. Friebele, “Gallogermanate glasses as near-IR optical materials,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 115–120 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1963

Aggarwal, I. D.

S. S. Bayya, B. B. Harbison, J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, “BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses with enhanced properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 212, 198–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Jewell, I. D. Aggarwal, “Structural influences on the hydroxyl spectra of barium gallogermanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181, 189–199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Higby, I. D. Aggarwal, “Properties of barium gallium germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 303–308 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Higby, C. I. Merzbacher, I. D. Aggarwal, E. J. Friebele, “Gallogermanate glasses as near-IR optical materials,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 115–120 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Jewell, L. E. Busse, K. Crahan, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, “Optical properties of BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses for fiber and bulk optical applications,” in Properties and Characteristics of Optical Glass III, A. J. Marker, ed., Proc. SPIE2287, 154–163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bayya, S. S.

S. S. Bayya, B. B. Harbison, J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, “BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses with enhanced properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 212, 198–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1981), 197.

Busse, L. E.

J. M. Jewell, L. E. Busse, K. Crahan, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, “Optical properties of BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses for fiber and bulk optical applications,” in Properties and Characteristics of Optical Glass III, A. J. Marker, ed., Proc. SPIE2287, 154–163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Crahan, K.

J. M. Jewell, L. E. Busse, K. Crahan, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, “Optical properties of BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses for fiber and bulk optical applications,” in Properties and Characteristics of Optical Glass III, A. J. Marker, ed., Proc. SPIE2287, 154–163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

P. L. Higby, C. I. Merzbacher, I. D. Aggarwal, E. J. Friebele, “Gallogermanate glasses as near-IR optical materials,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 115–120 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Harbison, B. B.

S. S. Bayya, B. B. Harbison, J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, “BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses with enhanced properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 212, 198–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Jewell, L. E. Busse, K. Crahan, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, “Optical properties of BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses for fiber and bulk optical applications,” in Properties and Characteristics of Optical Glass III, A. J. Marker, ed., Proc. SPIE2287, 154–163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Higby, P. L.

P. L. Higby, I. D. Aggarwal, “Properties of barium gallium germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 303–308 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Higby, C. I. Merzbacher, I. D. Aggarwal, E. J. Friebele, “Gallogermanate glasses as near-IR optical materials,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 115–120 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, J. M.

J. M. Jewell, I. D. Aggarwal, “Structural influences on the hydroxyl spectra of barium gallogermanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181, 189–199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Jewell, “Alkaline Earth gallogermanate glasses,” in Rare Elements in Glasses, J. E. Shelby, ed. (Trans Tech, Uetikon-Zurich-Switzerland, 1994), pp. 317–343.

J. M. Jewell, L. E. Busse, K. Crahan, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, “Optical properties of BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses for fiber and bulk optical applications,” in Properties and Characteristics of Optical Glass III, A. J. Marker, ed., Proc. SPIE2287, 154–163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Malitson, I. H.

Mckeown, D. A.

C. I. Merzbacher, D. A. Mckeown, “X-ray absorption studies of Ge and Ga environments in BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162, 81–100 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Merzbacher, C. I.

C. I. Merzbacher, D. A. Mckeown, “X-ray absorption studies of Ge and Ga environments in BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162, 81–100 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Merzbacher, “Infrared reflectance of barium gallogermanate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 33, 233–238 (1992).

P. L. Higby, C. I. Merzbacher, I. D. Aggarwal, E. J. Friebele, “Gallogermanate glasses as near-IR optical materials,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 115–120 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

S. S. Bayya, B. B. Harbison, J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, “BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses with enhanced properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 212, 198–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1981), 197.

Appl. Opt.

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

P. L. Higby, I. D. Aggarwal, “Properties of barium gallium germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 303–308 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Merzbacher, D. A. Mckeown, “X-ray absorption studies of Ge and Ga environments in BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162, 81–100 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Jewell, I. D. Aggarwal, “Structural influences on the hydroxyl spectra of barium gallogermanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 181, 189–199 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Bayya, B. B. Harbison, J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, “BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses with enhanced properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 212, 198–207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.

P. L. Higby, C. I. Merzbacher, I. D. Aggarwal, E. J. Friebele, “Gallogermanate glasses as near-IR optical materials,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 244, 115–120 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Glasses

C. I. Merzbacher, “Infrared reflectance of barium gallogermanate glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 33, 233–238 (1992).

Other

J. M. Jewell, “Alkaline Earth gallogermanate glasses,” in Rare Elements in Glasses, J. E. Shelby, ed. (Trans Tech, Uetikon-Zurich-Switzerland, 1994), pp. 317–343.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1981), 197.

J. M. Jewell, L. E. Busse, K. Crahan, B. B. Harbison, I. D. Aggarwal, “Optical properties of BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses for fiber and bulk optical applications,” in Properties and Characteristics of Optical Glass III, A. J. Marker, ed., Proc. SPIE2287, 154–163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Visible-IR transmission of a silicate (BK-7) glass and BGG glass.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index of BGG glass as a function of wavelength. The solid curve represents the three-oscillator Sellmeier fit to the data.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Sellmeier Coefficients for BGG Glass

Equations (1)

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n2-1=Aλ2/λ2-B+Cλ2/λ2-D+Eλ2/λ2-F,

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