Abstract

It is well known and demonstrated that interference spectroscopy offers capabilities to obtain passive remote optical sensing spectra of high precision and also achieves economies in size, cost, and ease of deployment compared with more conventional systems. We describe the development of a near-ultraviolet spatial heterodyne spectrometer designed for remote sensing of the global distribution of the hydroxyl radical OH in the Earth’ middle atmosphere. The instrument, known as SHIMMER (Spatial Heterodyne Imager for Mesospheric Radicals), is expected to obtain its first OH measurement from space in early 2002 from the Space Shuttle.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. R. Bates, M. Nicolet, “The photochemistry of atmospheric water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 55, 301–327 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. E. Summers, R. R. Conway, D. E. Siskind, D. Offermann, P. Preusse, J. M. Russel, “Implications of satellite OH observations for middle atmospheric H2O and ozone,” Science 277, 1967–1970 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. R. Conway, M. E. Summers, M. H. Stevens, J. G. Cardon, P. Preusse, D. Offermann, “Satellite observations of upper stratospheric and mesospheric OH: the HOx dilemma,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 2613–2626 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. E. Summers, R. R. Conway, “Insights into middle atmospheric hydrogen chemistry from analysis of MAHRSI OH observations,” Geophys. Monogr. Am. Geophys. Union 123, 117–130 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. E. Thomas, “Mesospheric clouds and the physics of the mesopause region,” Rev. Geophys. 29, 553–575 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. R. Conway, M. H. Stevens, C. M. Brown, J. G. Cardon, S. E. Zasadil, G. H. Mount, “The Middle Atmosphere High Resolution Spectrograph Investigations,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16327–16348 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Harlander, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy: interferometric performance at any wavelength without scanning,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wis., 1991).
  8. J. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. W. Brault, “Fourier transform spectroscopy,” in High Resolution in Astronomy: Fifteenth Advanced Course of the Swiss Society of Astronomy and Astrophysics, A. Benz, M. Huber, M. Mayor, eds. (Geneva Observatory, Sauverny, Switzerland, 1985), pp. 1–61.
  10. J. M. Harlander, F. L. Roesler are preparing a manuscript to be called “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy.”
  11. J. M. Harlander, H. T. Tran, F. L. Roesler, K. P. Jaehnig, S. M. Seo, W. T. Sanders, R. J. Reynolds, “Field-widened spatial heterodyne spectroscopy: correcting for optical defects and new vacuum ultraviolet performance tests,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation of Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 310–319 (1994).
  12. B. W. Smith, J. M. Harlander, “Imaging spatial heterodyne spectroscopy: theory and practice,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXV, B. F. Andresen, M. S. Scholl, eds., Proc. SPIE3698, 925–931 (1999).
  13. E. Hilsenrath, D. E. Williams, R. T. Caffrey, R. P. Cebula, S. J. Hynes, “Calibration and radiometric stability of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) experiment,” Metrologia 30(4), 243–248 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Janz, E. Hilsenrath, J. Butler, D. F. Heath, R. P. Cebula, “Uncertainties in radiance calibrations of backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) instruments,” Metrologia 32(6), 637–641 (1996).

2000 (2)

R. R. Conway, M. E. Summers, M. H. Stevens, J. G. Cardon, P. Preusse, D. Offermann, “Satellite observations of upper stratospheric and mesospheric OH: the HOx dilemma,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 2613–2626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Summers, R. R. Conway, “Insights into middle atmospheric hydrogen chemistry from analysis of MAHRSI OH observations,” Geophys. Monogr. Am. Geophys. Union 123, 117–130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. R. Conway, M. H. Stevens, C. M. Brown, J. G. Cardon, S. E. Zasadil, G. H. Mount, “The Middle Atmosphere High Resolution Spectrograph Investigations,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16327–16348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. E. Summers, R. R. Conway, D. E. Siskind, D. Offermann, P. Preusse, J. M. Russel, “Implications of satellite OH observations for middle atmospheric H2O and ozone,” Science 277, 1967–1970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Janz, E. Hilsenrath, J. Butler, D. F. Heath, R. P. Cebula, “Uncertainties in radiance calibrations of backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) instruments,” Metrologia 32(6), 637–641 (1996).

1993 (1)

E. Hilsenrath, D. E. Williams, R. T. Caffrey, R. P. Cebula, S. J. Hynes, “Calibration and radiometric stability of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) experiment,” Metrologia 30(4), 243–248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. E. Thomas, “Mesospheric clouds and the physics of the mesopause region,” Rev. Geophys. 29, 553–575 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1950 (1)

D. R. Bates, M. Nicolet, “The photochemistry of atmospheric water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 55, 301–327 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Bates, D. R.

D. R. Bates, M. Nicolet, “The photochemistry of atmospheric water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 55, 301–327 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Brault, J. W.

J. W. Brault, “Fourier transform spectroscopy,” in High Resolution in Astronomy: Fifteenth Advanced Course of the Swiss Society of Astronomy and Astrophysics, A. Benz, M. Huber, M. Mayor, eds. (Geneva Observatory, Sauverny, Switzerland, 1985), pp. 1–61.

Brown, C. M.

R. R. Conway, M. H. Stevens, C. M. Brown, J. G. Cardon, S. E. Zasadil, G. H. Mount, “The Middle Atmosphere High Resolution Spectrograph Investigations,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16327–16348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J.

S. Janz, E. Hilsenrath, J. Butler, D. F. Heath, R. P. Cebula, “Uncertainties in radiance calibrations of backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) instruments,” Metrologia 32(6), 637–641 (1996).

Caffrey, R. T.

E. Hilsenrath, D. E. Williams, R. T. Caffrey, R. P. Cebula, S. J. Hynes, “Calibration and radiometric stability of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) experiment,” Metrologia 30(4), 243–248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cardon, J. G.

R. R. Conway, M. E. Summers, M. H. Stevens, J. G. Cardon, P. Preusse, D. Offermann, “Satellite observations of upper stratospheric and mesospheric OH: the HOx dilemma,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 2613–2626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Conway, M. H. Stevens, C. M. Brown, J. G. Cardon, S. E. Zasadil, G. H. Mount, “The Middle Atmosphere High Resolution Spectrograph Investigations,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16327–16348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cebula, R. P.

S. Janz, E. Hilsenrath, J. Butler, D. F. Heath, R. P. Cebula, “Uncertainties in radiance calibrations of backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) instruments,” Metrologia 32(6), 637–641 (1996).

E. Hilsenrath, D. E. Williams, R. T. Caffrey, R. P. Cebula, S. J. Hynes, “Calibration and radiometric stability of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) experiment,” Metrologia 30(4), 243–248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Conway, R. R.

M. E. Summers, R. R. Conway, “Insights into middle atmospheric hydrogen chemistry from analysis of MAHRSI OH observations,” Geophys. Monogr. Am. Geophys. Union 123, 117–130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Conway, M. E. Summers, M. H. Stevens, J. G. Cardon, P. Preusse, D. Offermann, “Satellite observations of upper stratospheric and mesospheric OH: the HOx dilemma,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 2613–2626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Conway, M. H. Stevens, C. M. Brown, J. G. Cardon, S. E. Zasadil, G. H. Mount, “The Middle Atmosphere High Resolution Spectrograph Investigations,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16327–16348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Summers, R. R. Conway, D. E. Siskind, D. Offermann, P. Preusse, J. M. Russel, “Implications of satellite OH observations for middle atmospheric H2O and ozone,” Science 277, 1967–1970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harlander, J.

J. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Harlander, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy: interferometric performance at any wavelength without scanning,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wis., 1991).

Harlander, J. M.

J. M. Harlander, H. T. Tran, F. L. Roesler, K. P. Jaehnig, S. M. Seo, W. T. Sanders, R. J. Reynolds, “Field-widened spatial heterodyne spectroscopy: correcting for optical defects and new vacuum ultraviolet performance tests,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation of Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 310–319 (1994).

J. M. Harlander, F. L. Roesler are preparing a manuscript to be called “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy.”

B. W. Smith, J. M. Harlander, “Imaging spatial heterodyne spectroscopy: theory and practice,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXV, B. F. Andresen, M. S. Scholl, eds., Proc. SPIE3698, 925–931 (1999).

Heath, D. F.

S. Janz, E. Hilsenrath, J. Butler, D. F. Heath, R. P. Cebula, “Uncertainties in radiance calibrations of backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) instruments,” Metrologia 32(6), 637–641 (1996).

Hilsenrath, E.

S. Janz, E. Hilsenrath, J. Butler, D. F. Heath, R. P. Cebula, “Uncertainties in radiance calibrations of backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) instruments,” Metrologia 32(6), 637–641 (1996).

E. Hilsenrath, D. E. Williams, R. T. Caffrey, R. P. Cebula, S. J. Hynes, “Calibration and radiometric stability of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) experiment,” Metrologia 30(4), 243–248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hynes, S. J.

E. Hilsenrath, D. E. Williams, R. T. Caffrey, R. P. Cebula, S. J. Hynes, “Calibration and radiometric stability of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) experiment,” Metrologia 30(4), 243–248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jaehnig, K. P.

J. M. Harlander, H. T. Tran, F. L. Roesler, K. P. Jaehnig, S. M. Seo, W. T. Sanders, R. J. Reynolds, “Field-widened spatial heterodyne spectroscopy: correcting for optical defects and new vacuum ultraviolet performance tests,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation of Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 310–319 (1994).

Janz, S.

S. Janz, E. Hilsenrath, J. Butler, D. F. Heath, R. P. Cebula, “Uncertainties in radiance calibrations of backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) instruments,” Metrologia 32(6), 637–641 (1996).

Mount, G. H.

R. R. Conway, M. H. Stevens, C. M. Brown, J. G. Cardon, S. E. Zasadil, G. H. Mount, “The Middle Atmosphere High Resolution Spectrograph Investigations,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16327–16348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nicolet, M.

D. R. Bates, M. Nicolet, “The photochemistry of atmospheric water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 55, 301–327 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Offermann, D.

R. R. Conway, M. E. Summers, M. H. Stevens, J. G. Cardon, P. Preusse, D. Offermann, “Satellite observations of upper stratospheric and mesospheric OH: the HOx dilemma,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 2613–2626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Summers, R. R. Conway, D. E. Siskind, D. Offermann, P. Preusse, J. M. Russel, “Implications of satellite OH observations for middle atmospheric H2O and ozone,” Science 277, 1967–1970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Preusse, P.

R. R. Conway, M. E. Summers, M. H. Stevens, J. G. Cardon, P. Preusse, D. Offermann, “Satellite observations of upper stratospheric and mesospheric OH: the HOx dilemma,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 2613–2626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Summers, R. R. Conway, D. E. Siskind, D. Offermann, P. Preusse, J. M. Russel, “Implications of satellite OH observations for middle atmospheric H2O and ozone,” Science 277, 1967–1970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, R. J.

J. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harlander, H. T. Tran, F. L. Roesler, K. P. Jaehnig, S. M. Seo, W. T. Sanders, R. J. Reynolds, “Field-widened spatial heterodyne spectroscopy: correcting for optical defects and new vacuum ultraviolet performance tests,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation of Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 310–319 (1994).

Roesler, F. L.

J. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Harlander, F. L. Roesler are preparing a manuscript to be called “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy.”

J. M. Harlander, H. T. Tran, F. L. Roesler, K. P. Jaehnig, S. M. Seo, W. T. Sanders, R. J. Reynolds, “Field-widened spatial heterodyne spectroscopy: correcting for optical defects and new vacuum ultraviolet performance tests,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation of Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 310–319 (1994).

Russel, J. M.

M. E. Summers, R. R. Conway, D. E. Siskind, D. Offermann, P. Preusse, J. M. Russel, “Implications of satellite OH observations for middle atmospheric H2O and ozone,” Science 277, 1967–1970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, W. T.

J. M. Harlander, H. T. Tran, F. L. Roesler, K. P. Jaehnig, S. M. Seo, W. T. Sanders, R. J. Reynolds, “Field-widened spatial heterodyne spectroscopy: correcting for optical defects and new vacuum ultraviolet performance tests,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation of Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 310–319 (1994).

Seo, S. M.

J. M. Harlander, H. T. Tran, F. L. Roesler, K. P. Jaehnig, S. M. Seo, W. T. Sanders, R. J. Reynolds, “Field-widened spatial heterodyne spectroscopy: correcting for optical defects and new vacuum ultraviolet performance tests,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation of Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 310–319 (1994).

Siskind, D. E.

M. E. Summers, R. R. Conway, D. E. Siskind, D. Offermann, P. Preusse, J. M. Russel, “Implications of satellite OH observations for middle atmospheric H2O and ozone,” Science 277, 1967–1970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. W.

B. W. Smith, J. M. Harlander, “Imaging spatial heterodyne spectroscopy: theory and practice,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXV, B. F. Andresen, M. S. Scholl, eds., Proc. SPIE3698, 925–931 (1999).

Stevens, M. H.

R. R. Conway, M. E. Summers, M. H. Stevens, J. G. Cardon, P. Preusse, D. Offermann, “Satellite observations of upper stratospheric and mesospheric OH: the HOx dilemma,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 2613–2626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Conway, M. H. Stevens, C. M. Brown, J. G. Cardon, S. E. Zasadil, G. H. Mount, “The Middle Atmosphere High Resolution Spectrograph Investigations,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16327–16348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Summers, M. E.

M. E. Summers, R. R. Conway, “Insights into middle atmospheric hydrogen chemistry from analysis of MAHRSI OH observations,” Geophys. Monogr. Am. Geophys. Union 123, 117–130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Conway, M. E. Summers, M. H. Stevens, J. G. Cardon, P. Preusse, D. Offermann, “Satellite observations of upper stratospheric and mesospheric OH: the HOx dilemma,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 2613–2626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Summers, R. R. Conway, D. E. Siskind, D. Offermann, P. Preusse, J. M. Russel, “Implications of satellite OH observations for middle atmospheric H2O and ozone,” Science 277, 1967–1970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, G. E.

G. E. Thomas, “Mesospheric clouds and the physics of the mesopause region,” Rev. Geophys. 29, 553–575 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tran, H. T.

J. M. Harlander, H. T. Tran, F. L. Roesler, K. P. Jaehnig, S. M. Seo, W. T. Sanders, R. J. Reynolds, “Field-widened spatial heterodyne spectroscopy: correcting for optical defects and new vacuum ultraviolet performance tests,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation of Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 310–319 (1994).

Williams, D. E.

E. Hilsenrath, D. E. Williams, R. T. Caffrey, R. P. Cebula, S. J. Hynes, “Calibration and radiometric stability of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) experiment,” Metrologia 30(4), 243–248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zasadil, S. E.

R. R. Conway, M. H. Stevens, C. M. Brown, J. G. Cardon, S. E. Zasadil, G. H. Mount, “The Middle Atmosphere High Resolution Spectrograph Investigations,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16327–16348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (1)

J. Harlander, R. J. Reynolds, F. L. Roesler, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy for the exploration of diffuse interstellar emission lines at far ultraviolet wavelengths,” Astrophys. J. 396, 730–740 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Monogr. Am. Geophys. Union (1)

M. E. Summers, R. R. Conway, “Insights into middle atmospheric hydrogen chemistry from analysis of MAHRSI OH observations,” Geophys. Monogr. Am. Geophys. Union 123, 117–130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

R. R. Conway, M. E. Summers, M. H. Stevens, J. G. Cardon, P. Preusse, D. Offermann, “Satellite observations of upper stratospheric and mesospheric OH: the HOx dilemma,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 2613–2626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

R. R. Conway, M. H. Stevens, C. M. Brown, J. G. Cardon, S. E. Zasadil, G. H. Mount, “The Middle Atmosphere High Resolution Spectrograph Investigations,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16327–16348 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Bates, M. Nicolet, “The photochemistry of atmospheric water vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 55, 301–327 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (2)

E. Hilsenrath, D. E. Williams, R. T. Caffrey, R. P. Cebula, S. J. Hynes, “Calibration and radiometric stability of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) experiment,” Metrologia 30(4), 243–248 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Janz, E. Hilsenrath, J. Butler, D. F. Heath, R. P. Cebula, “Uncertainties in radiance calibrations of backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) instruments,” Metrologia 32(6), 637–641 (1996).

Rev. Geophys. (1)

G. E. Thomas, “Mesospheric clouds and the physics of the mesopause region,” Rev. Geophys. 29, 553–575 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. E. Summers, R. R. Conway, D. E. Siskind, D. Offermann, P. Preusse, J. M. Russel, “Implications of satellite OH observations for middle atmospheric H2O and ozone,” Science 277, 1967–1970 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

J. W. Brault, “Fourier transform spectroscopy,” in High Resolution in Astronomy: Fifteenth Advanced Course of the Swiss Society of Astronomy and Astrophysics, A. Benz, M. Huber, M. Mayor, eds. (Geneva Observatory, Sauverny, Switzerland, 1985), pp. 1–61.

J. M. Harlander, F. L. Roesler are preparing a manuscript to be called “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy.”

J. M. Harlander, H. T. Tran, F. L. Roesler, K. P. Jaehnig, S. M. Seo, W. T. Sanders, R. J. Reynolds, “Field-widened spatial heterodyne spectroscopy: correcting for optical defects and new vacuum ultraviolet performance tests,” in EUV, X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation of Astronomy V, O. H. Siegmund, J. V. Vallerga, eds., Proc. SPIE2280, 310–319 (1994).

B. W. Smith, J. M. Harlander, “Imaging spatial heterodyne spectroscopy: theory and practice,” in Infrared Technology and Applications XXV, B. F. Andresen, M. S. Scholl, eds., Proc. SPIE3698, 925–931 (1999).

J. Harlander, “Spatial heterodyne spectroscopy: interferometric performance at any wavelength without scanning,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wis., 1991).

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