Abstract

We describe our efforts to study and compare the ocean-color data derived from the Japanese Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) and the French Polarization and Directionality of the Earth’s Reflectances (POLDER). OCTS and POLDER were both on board Japan’s Sun-synchronous Advanced Earth Observing Satellite from August 1996 to June 1997, collecting approximately 10 months of global ocean-color data. This operation provided a unique opportunity for the development of methods and strategies for the merging of ocean-color data from multiple ocean-color sensors. We describe our approach to the development of consistent data-processing algorithms for both OCTS and POLDER and the use of a common in situ data set to calibrate vicariously the two sensors. Therefore the OCTS- and POLDER-measured radiances are bridged effectively through common in situ measurements. With this approach to the processing of data from two different sensors, the only differences in the derived products from OCTS and POLDER are the differences that are inherited from the instrument characteristics. Results show that there are no obvious bias differences between the OCTS- and POLDER-derived ocean-color products, whereas the differences due to noise, which stem from variations in sensor characteristics, are difficult to correct at the pixel level. The ocean-color data from OCTS and POLDER therefore can be compared and merged in the sense that there is no significant bias between two.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Tanii, T. Machida, H. Ayada, Y. Katsuyama, J. Ishida, N. Iwasaki, Y. Tange, Y. Miyachi, R. Sato, “Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) for ADEOS,” in Future European and Japanese Remote-Sensing Sensors and Programs: Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, Fla, April 1, 2, 1991, P. N. Slater, ed. Proc. SPIE1490, 200–206 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. R. McClain, G. S. Fargion, “SIMBIOS Project 1999 Annual Report,” SIMBIOS Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-209486 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).
  4. M. Wang, B. A. Franz, “Comparing the ocean color measurements between MOS and SeaWiFS: a vicarious intercalibration approach for MOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 184–197 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Zimmermann, A. Neumann, “The Spaceborne imaging spectrometer MOS for ocean remote sensing,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on MOS-IRS and Ocean Color, Berlin, April 28–30 (Institute of Space Sensor Technology, German Aerospace Center, Berlin, 1997), pp. 1–9.
  6. S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).
  7. C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).
  8. D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 417–430 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Baith, R. Lindsay, G. Fu, C. R. McClain, “Data analysis system developed for ocean color satellite sensors,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union82 (Eos electronic supplement: http//www.agu.org/eos_elec/00289e.html , May1, 2001).
  13. W. W. Gregg, “Initial analysis of ocean color data from the ocean color and temperature scanner. I. Imagery analysis,” Appl. Opt. 38, 476–485 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Shimada, H. Oaku, Y. Mitomi, H. Murakami, Y. Nakamura, J. Ishizaka, H. Kawamura, T. Tanaka, M. Kishino, H. Fukushima, “Calibration and validation of the ocean color version-3 product from ADEOS OCTS,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 401–416 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. S. Patt, W. W. Gregg, “Exact closed-form geolocation algorithm for earth survey sensors,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 3719–3734 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. S. Patt, R. H. Woodward, W. W. Gregg, “An automated method for navigation assessment for Earth survey sensors using island targets,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 3311–3336 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensor,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7754–7763 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. Antoine, A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Wang, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors: computing atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 38, 451–455 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Wang, “A sensitivity study of SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm: Effects of spectral band variations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 67, 348–359 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Ding, H. R. Gordon, “Analysis of the influence of O2 A-band absorption on atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2068–2080 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Wang, “Validation study of the SeaWiFS oxygen A-band absorption correction: comparing the retrieved cloud optical thicknesses from SeaWiFS measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 937–944 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Wang, “The SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm updates,” Vol. 9 of SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).
  28. D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Surface roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. 1. the Rayleigh scattering component,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4247–4260 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. Wang, “The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWiFS data processing: including effects of ocean surface roughness,” Int. J. Remote Sens. (to be published).
  31. M. Wang, S. Bailey, “Correction of the sun glint contamination on the SeaWiFS ocean and atmosphere products,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4790–4798.
  32. R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  33. K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 15, 496–509 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  34. K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493–6499 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  35. E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214, (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).
  36. M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 342–348 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  37. B. Fougnie, O. Hagolle, F. Cabot, “In-flight measurement and correction of nonlinearity of the POLDER-1’s sensitivity,” in Proceedings of Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, Aussois, France, January 8–12, 2001 (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 211–219.
  38. H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265–278 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  39. W. Robinson, M. Wang, “Vicarious calibration of the SeaWiFS band 7,” Vol 9 of SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).
  40. R. E. Eplee, C. R. McClain, “MOBY Data Analysis for the Vicarious Calibration of SeaWiFS Bands 1-6,” Vol. 9 of SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).
  41. O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550–1566 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 342–348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, “Comparing the ocean color measurements between MOS and SeaWiFS: a vicarious intercalibration approach for MOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 184–197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493–6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (6)

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors: computing atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 38, 451–455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, “Initial analysis of ocean color data from the ocean color and temperature scanner. I. Imagery analysis,” Appl. Opt. 38, 476–485 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “Validation study of the SeaWiFS oxygen A-band absorption correction: comparing the retrieved cloud optical thicknesses from SeaWiFS measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 937–944 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine, A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “A sensitivity study of SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm: Effects of spectral band variations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 67, 348–359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (6)

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

M. Shimada, H. Oaku, Y. Mitomi, H. Murakami, Y. Nakamura, J. Ishizaka, H. Kawamura, T. Tanaka, M. Kishino, H. Fukushima, “Calibration and validation of the ocean color version-3 product from ADEOS OCTS,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 401–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 417–430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Patt, R. H. Woodward, W. W. Gregg, “An automated method for navigation assessment for Earth survey sensors using island targets,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 3311–3336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (4)

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensor,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7754–7763 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. S. Patt, W. W. Gregg, “Exact closed-form geolocation algorithm for earth survey sensors,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 3719–3734 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1988 (2)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

D. Antoine, A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ayada, H.

J. Tanii, T. Machida, H. Ayada, Y. Katsuyama, J. Ishida, N. Iwasaki, Y. Tange, Y. Miyachi, R. Sato, “Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) for ADEOS,” in Future European and Japanese Remote-Sensing Sensors and Programs: Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, Fla, April 1, 2, 1991, P. N. Slater, ed. Proc. SPIE1490, 200–206 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S.

Bailleul, T.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R. A.

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 342–348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bréon, F. M.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Briottet, X.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Broenkow, W.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Buriez, J. C.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cabot, F.

B. Fougnie, O. Hagolle, F. Cabot, “In-flight measurement and correction of nonlinearity of the POLDER-1’s sensitivity,” in Proceedings of Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, Aussois, France, January 8–12, 2001 (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 211–219.

Carder, K. L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cosnefroy, H.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P. Y.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ding, K.

Eplee, R. E.

R. E. Eplee, C. R. McClain, “MOBY Data Analysis for the Vicarious Calibration of SeaWiFS Bands 1-6,” Vol. 9 of SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Esaias, W. E.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fargion, G. S.

C. R. McClain, G. S. Fargion, “SIMBIOS Project 1999 Annual Report,” SIMBIOS Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-209486 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

Feldman, G. C.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214, (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Fougnie, B.

B. Fougnie, O. Hagolle, F. Cabot, “In-flight measurement and correction of nonlinearity of the POLDER-1’s sensitivity,” in Proceedings of Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, Aussois, France, January 8–12, 2001 (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 211–219.

Franz, B. A.

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 342–348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, “Comparing the ocean color measurements between MOS and SeaWiFS: a vicarious intercalibration approach for MOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 184–197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fukushima, H.

M. Shimada, H. Oaku, Y. Mitomi, H. Murakami, Y. Nakamura, J. Ishizaka, H. Kawamura, T. Tanaka, M. Kishino, H. Fukushima, “Calibration and validation of the ocean color version-3 product from ADEOS OCTS,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 401–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 417–430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goloub, P.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493–6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Ding, H. R. Gordon, “Analysis of the influence of O2 A-band absorption on atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2068–2080 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensor,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7754–7763 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Surface roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. 1. the Rayleigh scattering component,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4247–4260 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gregg, W. W.

W. W. Gregg, “Initial analysis of ocean color data from the ocean color and temperature scanner. I. Imagery analysis,” Appl. Opt. 38, 476–485 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

F. S. Patt, R. H. Woodward, W. W. Gregg, “An automated method for navigation assessment for Earth survey sensors using island targets,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 3311–3336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Patt, W. W. Gregg, “Exact closed-form geolocation algorithm for earth survey sensors,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 3719–3734 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Hagolle, O.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Fougnie, O. Hagolle, F. Cabot, “In-flight measurement and correction of nonlinearity of the POLDER-1’s sensitivity,” in Proceedings of Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, Aussois, France, January 8–12, 2001 (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 211–219.

Herman, M.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Higurashi, A.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 417–430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Ishida, J.

J. Tanii, T. Machida, H. Ayada, Y. Katsuyama, J. Ishida, N. Iwasaki, Y. Tange, Y. Miyachi, R. Sato, “Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) for ADEOS,” in Future European and Japanese Remote-Sensing Sensors and Programs: Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, Fla, April 1, 2, 1991, P. N. Slater, ed. Proc. SPIE1490, 200–206 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ishizaka, J.

M. Shimada, H. Oaku, Y. Mitomi, H. Murakami, Y. Nakamura, J. Ishizaka, H. Kawamura, T. Tanaka, M. Kishino, H. Fukushima, “Calibration and validation of the ocean color version-3 product from ADEOS OCTS,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 401–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, N.

J. Tanii, T. Machida, H. Ayada, Y. Katsuyama, J. Ishida, N. Iwasaki, Y. Tange, Y. Miyachi, R. Sato, “Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) for ADEOS,” in Future European and Japanese Remote-Sensing Sensors and Programs: Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, Fla, April 1, 2, 1991, P. N. Slater, ed. Proc. SPIE1490, 200–206 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Katsuyama, Y.

J. Tanii, T. Machida, H. Ayada, Y. Katsuyama, J. Ishida, N. Iwasaki, Y. Tange, Y. Miyachi, R. Sato, “Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) for ADEOS,” in Future European and Japanese Remote-Sensing Sensors and Programs: Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, Fla, April 1, 2, 1991, P. N. Slater, ed. Proc. SPIE1490, 200–206 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, H.

M. Shimada, H. Oaku, Y. Mitomi, H. Murakami, Y. Nakamura, J. Ishizaka, H. Kawamura, T. Tanaka, M. Kishino, H. Fukushima, “Calibration and validation of the ocean color version-3 product from ADEOS OCTS,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 401–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kishino, M.

M. Shimada, H. Oaku, Y. Mitomi, H. Murakami, Y. Nakamura, J. Ishizaka, H. Kawamura, T. Tanaka, M. Kishino, H. Fukushima, “Calibration and validation of the ocean color version-3 product from ADEOS OCTS,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 401–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuring, N.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

L. Cleave, M.

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

Lafrance, B.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leroy, M.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Machida, T.

J. Tanii, T. Machida, H. Ayada, Y. Katsuyama, J. Ishida, N. Iwasaki, Y. Tange, Y. Miyachi, R. Sato, “Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) for ADEOS,” in Future European and Japanese Remote-Sensing Sensors and Programs: Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, Fla, April 1, 2, 1991, P. N. Slater, ed. Proc. SPIE1490, 200–206 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 342–348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

C. R. McClain, G. S. Fargion, “SIMBIOS Project 1999 Annual Report,” SIMBIOS Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-209486 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

R. E. Eplee, C. R. McClain, “MOBY Data Analysis for the Vicarious Calibration of SeaWiFS Bands 1-6,” Vol. 9 of SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitomi, Y.

M. Shimada, H. Oaku, Y. Mitomi, H. Murakami, Y. Nakamura, J. Ishizaka, H. Kawamura, T. Tanaka, M. Kishino, H. Fukushima, “Calibration and validation of the ocean color version-3 product from ADEOS OCTS,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 401–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 417–430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miyachi, Y.

J. Tanii, T. Machida, H. Ayada, Y. Katsuyama, J. Ishida, N. Iwasaki, Y. Tange, Y. Miyachi, R. Sato, “Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) for ADEOS,” in Future European and Japanese Remote-Sensing Sensors and Programs: Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, Fla, April 1, 2, 1991, P. N. Slater, ed. Proc. SPIE1490, 200–206 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moore, K. D.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493–6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

D. Antoine, A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, H.

M. Shimada, H. Oaku, Y. Mitomi, H. Murakami, Y. Nakamura, J. Ishizaka, H. Kawamura, T. Tanaka, M. Kishino, H. Fukushima, “Calibration and validation of the ocean color version-3 product from ADEOS OCTS,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 401–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 417–430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, Y.

M. Shimada, H. Oaku, Y. Mitomi, H. Murakami, Y. Nakamura, J. Ishizaka, H. Kawamura, T. Tanaka, M. Kishino, H. Fukushima, “Calibration and validation of the ocean color version-3 product from ADEOS OCTS,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 401–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, A.

G. Zimmermann, A. Neumann, “The Spaceborne imaging spectrometer MOS for ocean remote sensing,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on MOS-IRS and Ocean Color, Berlin, April 28–30 (Institute of Space Sensor Technology, German Aerospace Center, Berlin, 1997), pp. 1–9.

Nicolas, J. M.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, T.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 417–430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oaku, H.

M. Shimada, H. Oaku, Y. Mitomi, H. Murakami, Y. Nakamura, J. Ishizaka, H. Kawamura, T. Tanaka, M. Kishino, H. Fukushima, “Calibration and validation of the ocean color version-3 product from ADEOS OCTS,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 401–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Parol, F.

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Patt, F. S.

F. S. Patt, R. H. Woodward, W. W. Gregg, “An automated method for navigation assessment for Earth survey sensors using island targets,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 3311–3336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Patt, W. W. Gregg, “Exact closed-form geolocation algorithm for earth survey sensors,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 3719–3734 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Podaire, A.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, W.

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Robinson, M. Wang, “Vicarious calibration of the SeaWiFS band 7,” Vol 9 of SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

Sato, R.

J. Tanii, T. Machida, H. Ayada, Y. Katsuyama, J. Ishida, N. Iwasaki, Y. Tange, Y. Miyachi, R. Sato, “Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) for ADEOS,” in Future European and Japanese Remote-Sensing Sensors and Programs: Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, Fla, April 1, 2, 1991, P. N. Slater, ed. Proc. SPIE1490, 200–206 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schwindling, M.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sèze, G.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214, (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Shimada, M.

M. Shimada, H. Oaku, Y. Mitomi, H. Murakami, Y. Nakamura, J. Ishizaka, H. Kawamura, T. Tanaka, M. Kishino, H. Fukushima, “Calibration and validation of the ocean color version-3 product from ADEOS OCTS,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 401–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

M. Shimada, H. Oaku, Y. Mitomi, H. Murakami, Y. Nakamura, J. Ishizaka, H. Kawamura, T. Tanaka, M. Kishino, H. Fukushima, “Calibration and validation of the ocean color version-3 product from ADEOS OCTS,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 401–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 417–430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tange, Y.

J. Tanii, T. Machida, H. Ayada, Y. Katsuyama, J. Ishida, N. Iwasaki, Y. Tange, Y. Miyachi, R. Sato, “Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) for ADEOS,” in Future European and Japanese Remote-Sensing Sensors and Programs: Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, Fla, April 1, 2, 1991, P. N. Slater, ed. Proc. SPIE1490, 200–206 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tanii, J.

J. Tanii, T. Machida, H. Ayada, Y. Katsuyama, J. Ishida, N. Iwasaki, Y. Tange, Y. Miyachi, R. Sato, “Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) for ADEOS,” in Future European and Japanese Remote-Sensing Sensors and Programs: Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, Fla, April 1, 2, 1991, P. N. Slater, ed. Proc. SPIE1490, 200–206 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Toratani, M.

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 417–430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Trees, C.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493–6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 342–348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, “Comparing the ocean color measurements between MOS and SeaWiFS: a vicarious intercalibration approach for MOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 184–197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “Validation study of the SeaWiFS oxygen A-band absorption correction: comparing the retrieved cloud optical thicknesses from SeaWiFS measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 937–944 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors: computing atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 38, 451–455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “A sensitivity study of SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm: Effects of spectral band variations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 67, 348–359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensor,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7754–7763 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Surface roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. 1. the Rayleigh scattering component,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4247–4260 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wang, “The SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm updates,” Vol. 9 of SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

W. Robinson, M. Wang, “Vicarious calibration of the SeaWiFS band 7,” Vol 9 of SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

M. Wang, “The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWiFS data processing: including effects of ocean surface roughness,” Int. J. Remote Sens. (to be published).

M. Wang, S. Bailey, “Correction of the sun glint contamination on the SeaWiFS ocean and atmosphere products,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4790–4798.

Woodward, R. H.

F. S. Patt, R. H. Woodward, W. W. Gregg, “An automated method for navigation assessment for Earth survey sensors using island targets,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 3311–3336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

Zimmermann, G.

G. Zimmermann, A. Neumann, “The Spaceborne imaging spectrometer MOS for ocean remote sensing,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on MOS-IRS and Ocean Color, Berlin, April 28–30 (Institute of Space Sensor Technology, German Aerospace Center, Berlin, 1997), pp. 1–9.

Appl. Opt. (11)

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 342–348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Surface roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. 1. the Rayleigh scattering component,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4247–4260 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensor,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7754–7763 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors: computing atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 38, 451–455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, “Initial analysis of ocean color data from the ocean color and temperature scanner. I. Imagery analysis,” Appl. Opt. 38, 476–485 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “Validation study of the SeaWiFS oxygen A-band absorption correction: comparing the retrieved cloud optical thicknesses from SeaWiFS measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 937–944 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Ding, H. R. Gordon, “Analysis of the influence of O2 A-band absorption on atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2068–2080 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, S. Bailey, “Correction of the sun glint contamination on the SeaWiFS ocean and atmosphere products,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4790–4798.

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (3)

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, “Comparing the ocean color measurements between MOS and SeaWiFS: a vicarious intercalibration approach for MOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 184–197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Hagolle, P. Goloub, P. Y. Deschamps, H. Cosnefroy, X. Briottet, T. Bailleul, J. M. Nicolas, F. Parol, B. Lafrance, M. Herman, “Results of POLDER in-flight calibration,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1550–1566 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (3)

F. S. Patt, W. W. Gregg, “Exact closed-form geolocation algorithm for earth survey sensors,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 15, 3719–3734 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Patt, R. H. Woodward, W. W. Gregg, “An automated method for navigation assessment for Earth survey sensors using island targets,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 18, 3311–3336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine, A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. (1)

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (7)

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: their contribution to water-leaving radiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6493–6499 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P. Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (case 1 waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10749–10768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17209–17217 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Oceanogr. (2)

H. Fukushima, A. Higurashi, Y. Mitomi, T. Nakajima, T. Noguchi, T. Tanaka, M. Toratani, “Correction of atmospheric effects on ADEOS/OCTS ocean color data: algorithm description and evaluation of its performance,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 417–430 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Shimada, H. Oaku, Y. Mitomi, H. Murakami, Y. Nakamura, J. Ishizaka, H. Kawamura, T. Tanaka, M. Kishino, H. Fukushima, “Calibration and validation of the ocean color version-3 product from ADEOS OCTS,” J. Oceanogr. 54, 401–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (2)

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “A sensitivity study of SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm: Effects of spectral band variations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 67, 348–359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sea Technol. (1)

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 39, 10–16 (1998).

Other (11)

J. Tanii, T. Machida, H. Ayada, Y. Katsuyama, J. Ishida, N. Iwasaki, Y. Tange, Y. Miyachi, R. Sato, “Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) for ADEOS,” in Future European and Japanese Remote-Sensing Sensors and Programs: Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, Fla, April 1, 2, 1991, P. N. Slater, ed. Proc. SPIE1490, 200–206 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Zimmermann, A. Neumann, “The Spaceborne imaging spectrometer MOS for ocean remote sensing,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on MOS-IRS and Ocean Color, Berlin, April 28–30 (Institute of Space Sensor Technology, German Aerospace Center, Berlin, 1997), pp. 1–9.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, An Overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color, Vol. 1 of SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

C. R. McClain, G. S. Fargion, “SIMBIOS Project 1999 Annual Report,” SIMBIOS Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 1999-209486 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

K. Baith, R. Lindsay, G. Fu, C. R. McClain, “Data analysis system developed for ocean color satellite sensors,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union82 (Eos electronic supplement: http//www.agu.org/eos_elec/00289e.html , May1, 2001).

M. Wang, “The SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm updates,” Vol. 9 of SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

W. Robinson, M. Wang, “Vicarious calibration of the SeaWiFS band 7,” Vol 9 of SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

R. E. Eplee, C. R. McClain, “MOBY Data Analysis for the Vicarious Calibration of SeaWiFS Bands 1-6,” Vol. 9 of SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series, NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000).

B. Fougnie, O. Hagolle, F. Cabot, “In-flight measurement and correction of nonlinearity of the POLDER-1’s sensitivity,” in Proceedings of Physical Measurements and Signatures in Remote Sensing, Aussois, France, January 8–12, 2001 (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2001), pp. 211–219.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” AFGL-TR-79-0214, (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

M. Wang, “The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWiFS data processing: including effects of ocean surface roughness,” Int. J. Remote Sens. (to be published).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The OCTS and POLDER 765-nm band spectral response functions compared with that of SeaWiFS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral bandpass correction factor r(λ) as a function of the sensor-derived two-band ratio values in the normalized water-leaving radiances between wavelengths 490 and 565 nm for (a) the OCTS bands 412, 443, 490, 520, and 565 nm and (b) the POLDER bands 443, 490, and 565 nm. The curves are the least-squares fit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OCTS-derived ocean-color parameters compared with the in situ measurements for (a) [L w (λ)] N with OCTS NASDA Level-1B data; (b) [L w (λ)] N with OCTS Wallops Level-0 data; (c) ratio [L w (λ)] N /[L w (565)] N with OCTS NASDA Level-1B data; and (d) ratio [L w (λ)] N /[L w (565)] N with OCTS Wallops Level-0 data. Each plot indicates linear fit coefficients of slope, intercept (Int), and the correlation coefficient (R).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

POLDER-derived ocean-color parameters compared with the in situ measurements from POLDER CNES Level-1B data for (a) [L w (λ)] N and (b) ratio [L w (λ)] N /[L w (565)] N values. Each plot indicates linear fit coefficients of slope, intercept (Int), and the correlation coefficient (R).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

OCTS-retrieved normalized water-leaving radiance images at wavelengths 443, 490, and 565 nm compared with those derived from POLDER measurements for ocean water over the Sargasso Sea from Nov. 20, 1996 to May 20, 1997. The color scales for [L w (λ)] N are indicated at the bottom of Fig. 6.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The OCTS-retrieved normalized water-leaving radiance images at wavelengths 443, 490, and 565 nm compared with those derived from POLDER measurements for ocean water over the Bermuda area from Dec. 12, 1996 to June 10, 1997.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Histogram (%) of the OCTS-retrieved normalized water-leaving radiances at wavelengths 443, 490, and 565 nm compared with those from POLDER measurements as in Fig. 5 for (a)–(g) over the Sargasso Sea from Nov. 20, 1996 to Apr. 14, 1997.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Histogram (%) of the OCTS-retrieved normalized water-leaving radiances at wavelengths 443, 490, and 565 nm compared with those from POLDER measurements as for (a) the Sargasso Sea on May 20, 1997 and for (b)–(f) the Bermuda area from Dec. 12, 1996 to June 10, 1997.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

OCTS-retrieved chlorophyll a concentration compared with those derived from POLDER measurements for the Sargasso Sea from Nov. 20, 1996 to April 14, 1997. The color scale is indicated at the bottom of Fig. 10.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

OCTS-retrieved chlorophyll-a concentration compared with those derived from POLDER measurements for the Bermuda area from Dec. 12, 1996 to June 10, 1997. Some of the in situ measurements, which were acquired at the location near the center of the images, are also indicated as vertical bars in the histograms over the Bermuda area.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Derived Vicarious Gain Coefficients for OCTS and POLDER Spectral

Tables Icon

Table 2 OCTS/POLDER Comparisons in the Retrieved [L w (λ)] N (Mode Value) over the Sargasso Sea from Nov. 20, 1996 to May 20, 1997

Tables Icon

Table 3 OCTS/POLDER Comparisons in the Retrieved [L w (λ)] N (Mode Value) over the Bermuda Area from Dec. 12, 1996 to June 10, 1997

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

LwλN=Lwλ/cos θ0t0λ,
Chl=100.3164-2.132R+0.6303R2+0.004R3-0.0708,
R=ρw490N/ρw565N
ρwλN=πLwλN/F0λ,
LtVCλ=GVCλLtmeasλ,

Metrics