Abstract

Measurements of up-looking spectral radiances measured during the Convection and Moisture Experiment and down-looking spectral radiances measured at one of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement sites are compared with simulations with use of two different line-by-line models. Simulations are performed in tightly controlled conditions to verify the behavior of the models. Spectra computed at higher samplings are used to study the spectral structure of the differences between simulations and measurements. A revised list of water vapor spectroscopic parameters is used to test the impact of improved spectroscopic data on the accuracy of the line-by-line calculations. The sensitivity of the results to errors that result from uncertainties in the input atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles is also investigated.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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2000

R. A. Toth, “Air- and N2-broadening Parameters of water vapor: 604 to 2271 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 218–243 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

R. A. Toth, “Analysis of line positions and strengths of H216O ground and hot bands connecting to interacting upper States: (020), (100), and (001),” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 194, 28–42 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Toth, “HDO and D2O low pressure, long path spectra in the 600–3100 cm-1 region HDO line positions and strength,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 195, 73–97 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Toth, “Air-and N2-broadening parameters of HDO and D2O, 709 to 1936 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 198, 358–360 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rodriguez, K. W. Jukus, N. Lacome, G. Blanquest, J. Valrand, W. A. Traub, B. Khalil, R. LeDoucent, A. Valentin, C. Camy-Peiret, L. Bonamy, J. M. Hartmann, “Model, software and data base for computation of line mixing effects in infrared Q branchesof atmospheric CO2. I. Symmetric isotopomers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 61, 153–184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Matricardi, R. Saunders, “Fast radiative transfer model for simulation of infrared atmospheric sounding interferometer radiances,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5679–5691 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Toth, “Water vapour measurements between 590 and 2582 cm-1: line positions and strengths,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 190, 379–396 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. Plymate, “Self-broadned widths and frequency shifts of water vapour lines between 590 and 2400 cm-1,” J. Quant. Spectr. Radiat. Transfer 59, 529–652 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Rabier, J. Thépaut, P. Courtier, “Extended assimilation and forecast experiments with a four dimensional variational assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 124, 1861–1887 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

G. M. Stokes, S. E. Schwartz, “The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: programmatic background and design of the cloud and radiation test bed,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc 75, 1201–1221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Strow, D. C. Tobin, S. E. Hannon, “A compilation of first-order line-mixing coefficients for CO2Q-branches,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 281–294 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. R. Eyre, G. A. Kelly, A. P. McNally, E. Anderson, A. Persson, “Assimilation of TOVS radiance information through one-dimensional variational analysis,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 1427–1463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Menoux, R. Le Doucen, C. Boulet, A. Roblin, A. M. Bouchardy, “Collision induced absorption in the fundamental band of N2,” Appl. Opt. 32, 263–268 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsald, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

C. P. Rinsland, J. S. Zander, J. S. Namkung, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Stratospheric infrared continuum absorption observed by the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16303–16322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davis, “Line shape and the water vapour continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, T. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure sea waters for the model of sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985

1978

Y. M. Timofeyev, M. V. Tonkov, “Effect of the induced oxygen absorption band on the transformation of radiation in the 6 µm region of the Earth’s atmosphere,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 14, 437–441 (1978).

1973

1969

1967

B. H. Armstrong, “Spectrum line profiles: the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 7, 66–88 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, L. W.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, R. D. Worsham, “FASCOD 3: spectral simulation,” in Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium IRS’88, Lille, France, 18–24 August 1988, J. Lenoble, J.-F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1989), pp. 372–375.

Anderson, E.

J. R. Eyre, G. A. Kelly, A. P. McNally, E. Anderson, A. Persson, “Assimilation of TOVS radiance information through one-dimensional variational analysis,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 1427–1463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, R. D. Worsham, “FASCOD 3: spectral simulation,” in Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium IRS’88, Lille, France, 18–24 August 1988, J. Lenoble, J.-F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1989), pp. 372–375.

Arié, E.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, B. H.

B. H. Armstrong, “Spectrum line profiles: the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 7, 66–88 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, J. E.

V. L. Griffin, A. R. Guillory, M. Susko, J. E. Arnold, “Operations summary for the Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-1),” NASA Technical memorandum, NASA TM-108445 (National Aeronautics and Space Adminstration, Washington, D.C., 1994).

Ballard, J.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Best, F. A.

H. F. Revercomb, F. A. Best, R. G. Dedecker, R. P. Dirkx, A. Herbsleb, R. O. Knuteson, J. F. Short, W. L. Smith, “Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) for ARM,” in Fourth Symposium on Global Change Studies, Anaheim, Calif., January 17–22 1993, (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1993), 46–49.

Bjoraker, G.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blanquest, G.

R. Rodriguez, K. W. Jukus, N. Lacome, G. Blanquest, J. Valrand, W. A. Traub, B. Khalil, R. LeDoucent, A. Valentin, C. Camy-Peiret, L. Bonamy, J. M. Hartmann, “Model, software and data base for computation of line mixing effects in infrared Q branchesof atmospheric CO2. I. Symmetric isotopomers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 61, 153–184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bonamy, L.

R. Rodriguez, K. W. Jukus, N. Lacome, G. Blanquest, J. Valrand, W. A. Traub, B. Khalil, R. LeDoucent, A. Valentin, C. Camy-Peiret, L. Bonamy, J. M. Hartmann, “Model, software and data base for computation of line mixing effects in infrared Q branchesof atmospheric CO2. I. Symmetric isotopomers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 61, 153–184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bonnet, B.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bonzagni, M.

F. Miskolczi, R. Rizzi, R. Guzzi, M. Bonzagni, “A new high resolution transmittance code and its application in the field of remote sensing,” in International Radiation Symposium’88: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, J. Lenoble, ed. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1989), pp. 388–391.

F. Miskolczi, M. Bonzagni, R. Guzzi, “High resolution atmospheric radiance-transmittance code (HARTCODE),” in Meteorology and Environmental Sciences (World Scientific, Singapore, 1990), pp. 743–790.

Bouchardy, A. M.

Boulet, C.

Brown, L. R.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. Plymate, “Self-broadned widths and frequency shifts of water vapour lines between 590 and 2400 cm-1,” J. Quant. Spectr. Radiat. Transfer 59, 529–652 (1998).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsald, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
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Camy-Peiret, C.

R. Rodriguez, K. W. Jukus, N. Lacome, G. Blanquest, J. Valrand, W. A. Traub, B. Khalil, R. LeDoucent, A. Valentin, C. Camy-Peiret, L. Bonamy, J. M. Hartmann, “Model, software and data base for computation of line mixing effects in infrared Q branchesof atmospheric CO2. I. Symmetric isotopomers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 61, 153–184 (1999).
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Camy-Peyret, C.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsald, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
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Champion, J. P.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Chedin, A.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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Chetwynd, J. H.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, R. D. Worsham, “FASCOD 3: spectral simulation,” in Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium IRS’88, Lille, France, 18–24 August 1988, J. Lenoble, J.-F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1989), pp. 372–375.

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsald, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
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Chursin, A.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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Clerbaux, C.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, R. D. Worsham, “FASCOD 3: spectral simulation,” in Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium IRS’88, Lille, France, 18–24 August 1988, J. Lenoble, J.-F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1989), pp. 372–375.

Courtier, P.

F. Rabier, J. Thépaut, P. Courtier, “Extended assimilation and forecast experiments with a four dimensional variational assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 124, 1861–1887 (1998).
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Cousin, C.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Davies, R.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical line shape for H2O vapour: application to the continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapour, A. Deepak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, eds. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 25–46.

Davis, R. W.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davis, “Line shape and the water vapour continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
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Dedecker, R. G.

H. F. Revercomb, F. A. Best, R. G. Dedecker, R. P. Dirkx, A. Herbsleb, R. O. Knuteson, J. F. Short, W. L. Smith, “Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) for ARM,” in Fourth Symposium on Global Change Studies, Anaheim, Calif., January 17–22 1993, (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1993), 46–49.

Dirkx, R. P.

H. F. Revercomb, F. A. Best, R. G. Dedecker, R. P. Dirkx, A. Herbsleb, R. O. Knuteson, J. F. Short, W. L. Smith, “Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) for ARM,” in Fourth Symposium on Global Change Studies, Anaheim, Calif., January 17–22 1993, (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1993), 46–49.

Duxbury, G.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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D. P. Edwards, “GENLN2. A general line-by-line atmospheric transmittance and radiance model,” NCAR Technical note, NCAR/TN-367+STR (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder,Colo., 1992).

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J. R. Eyre, G. A. Kelly, A. P. McNally, E. Anderson, A. Persson, “Assimilation of TOVS radiance information through one-dimensional variational analysis,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 1427–1463 (1993).
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Farmer, C. B.

C. P. Rinsland, J. S. Zander, J. S. Namkung, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Stratospheric infrared continuum absorption observed by the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16303–16322 (1989).
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Fayt, A.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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Flaud, J.-M.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsald, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fourrié, N.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, D.

Gamache, R.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical line shape for H2O vapour: application to the continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapour, A. Deepak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, eds. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 25–46.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsald, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsald, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
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N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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H. F. Revercomb, F. A. Best, R. G. Dedecker, R. P. Dirkx, A. Herbsleb, R. O. Knuteson, J. F. Short, W. L. Smith, “Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) for ARM,” in Fourth Symposium on Global Change Studies, Anaheim, Calif., January 17–22 1993, (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1993), 46–49.

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Robert Knuteson, Robert Knuteson, Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, West Dayton Street, Madison, Wis. (personal communication, 1998).

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R. Rodriguez, K. W. Jukus, N. Lacome, G. Blanquest, J. Valrand, W. A. Traub, B. Khalil, R. LeDoucent, A. Valentin, C. Camy-Peiret, L. Bonamy, J. M. Hartmann, “Model, software and data base for computation of line mixing effects in infrared Q branchesof atmospheric CO2. I. Symmetric isotopomers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 61, 153–184 (1999).
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LeDoucent, R.

R. Rodriguez, K. W. Jukus, N. Lacome, G. Blanquest, J. Valrand, W. A. Traub, B. Khalil, R. LeDoucent, A. Valentin, C. Camy-Peiret, L. Bonamy, J. M. Hartmann, “Model, software and data base for computation of line mixing effects in infrared Q branchesof atmospheric CO2. I. Symmetric isotopomers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 61, 153–184 (1999).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Mikhailenko, S. N.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
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Y. M. Timofeyev, M. V. Tonkov, “Effect of the induced oxygen absorption band on the transformation of radiation in the 6 µm region of the Earth’s atmosphere,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 14, 437–441 (1978).

Tipping, R.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical line shape for H2O vapour: application to the continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapour, A. Deepak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, eds. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 25–46.

Tipping, R. H.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsald, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, D. C.

L. L. Strow, D. C. Tobin, S. E. Hannon, “A compilation of first-order line-mixing coefficients for CO2Q-branches,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 281–294 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tonkov, M. V.

Y. M. Timofeyev, M. V. Tonkov, “Effect of the induced oxygen absorption band on the transformation of radiation in the 6 µm region of the Earth’s atmosphere,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 14, 437–441 (1978).

Toth, R. A.

R. A. Toth, “Air- and N2-broadening Parameters of water vapor: 604 to 2271 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 218–243 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Toth, “HDO and D2O low pressure, long path spectra in the 600–3100 cm-1 region HDO line positions and strength,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 195, 73–97 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Toth, “Analysis of line positions and strengths of H216O ground and hot bands connecting to interacting upper States: (020), (100), and (001),” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 194, 28–42 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Toth, “Air-and N2-broadening parameters of HDO and D2O, 709 to 1936 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 198, 358–360 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Toth, “Water vapour measurements between 590 and 2582 cm-1: line positions and strengths,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 190, 379–396 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. Plymate, “Self-broadned widths and frequency shifts of water vapour lines between 590 and 2400 cm-1,” J. Quant. Spectr. Radiat. Transfer 59, 529–652 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsald, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Traub, W. A.

R. Rodriguez, K. W. Jukus, N. Lacome, G. Blanquest, J. Valrand, W. A. Traub, B. Khalil, R. LeDoucent, A. Valentin, C. Camy-Peiret, L. Bonamy, J. M. Hartmann, “Model, software and data base for computation of line mixing effects in infrared Q branchesof atmospheric CO2. I. Symmetric isotopomers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 61, 153–184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tyuterev, Vl. G.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Urban, S.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Valentin, A.

R. Rodriguez, K. W. Jukus, N. Lacome, G. Blanquest, J. Valrand, W. A. Traub, B. Khalil, R. LeDoucent, A. Valentin, C. Camy-Peiret, L. Bonamy, J. M. Hartmann, “Model, software and data base for computation of line mixing effects in infrared Q branchesof atmospheric CO2. I. Symmetric isotopomers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 61, 153–184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Valrand, J.

R. Rodriguez, K. W. Jukus, N. Lacome, G. Blanquest, J. Valrand, W. A. Traub, B. Khalil, R. LeDoucent, A. Valentin, C. Camy-Peiret, L. Bonamy, J. M. Hartmann, “Model, software and data base for computation of line mixing effects in infrared Q branchesof atmospheric CO2. I. Symmetric isotopomers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 61, 153–184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Watson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M.

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Woolf, H. M.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, “HIS: a satellite instrument to observe temperature and moisture profiles with high vertical resolution,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Baltimore, Md., October 31–November 4, 1983 (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1983).pp. 1–9.

Worsham, R. D.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, R. D. Worsham, “FASCOD 3: spectral simulation,” in Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium IRS’88, Lille, France, 18–24 August 1988, J. Lenoble, J.-F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1989), pp. 372–375.

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zander, J. S.

C. P. Rinsland, J. S. Zander, J. S. Namkung, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Stratospheric infrared continuum absorption observed by the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16303–16322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Atmos. Res.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davis, “Line shape and the water vapour continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc

G. M. Stokes, S. E. Schwartz, “The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: programmatic background and design of the cloud and radiation test bed,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc 75, 1201–1221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys.

Y. M. Timofeyev, M. V. Tonkov, “Effect of the induced oxygen absorption band on the transformation of radiation in the 6 µm region of the Earth’s atmosphere,” Izv. Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 14, 437–441 (1978).

J. Geophys. Res.

C. P. Rinsland, J. S. Zander, J. S. Namkung, C. B. Farmer, R. H. Norton, “Stratospheric infrared continuum absorption observed by the ATMOS instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16303–16322 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

R. A. Toth, “Water vapour measurements between 590 and 2582 cm-1: line positions and strengths,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 190, 379–396 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Toth, “Analysis of line positions and strengths of H216O ground and hot bands connecting to interacting upper States: (020), (100), and (001),” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 194, 28–42 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Toth, “HDO and D2O low pressure, long path spectra in the 600–3100 cm-1 region HDO line positions and strength,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 195, 73–97 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Toth, “Air-and N2-broadening parameters of HDO and D2O, 709 to 1936 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 198, 358–360 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Toth, “Air- and N2-broadening Parameters of water vapor: 604 to 2271 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 218–243 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Quant. Spectr. Radiat. Transfer

R. A. Toth, L. R. Brown, C. Plymate, “Self-broadned widths and frequency shifts of water vapour lines between 590 and 2400 cm-1,” J. Quant. Spectr. Radiat. Transfer 59, 529–652 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

N. Jaquinet-Husson, E. Arié, J. Ballard, A. Barbe, G. Bjoraker, B. Bonnet, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, J. P. Champion, A. Chedin, A. Chursin, C. Clerbaux, G. Duxbury, J.-M. Flaud, N. Fourrié, A. Fayt, G. Graner, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, Vl. Golovko, G. Guelachvili, J. M. Hartmann, J. C. Hilico, J. Hillman, G. Lefévre, E. Lellouch, S. N. Mikhailenko, O. V. Naumenko, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, D. C. Reuter, C. P. Rinsald, L. Rosenmann, L. S. Rothman, N. A. Scott, J. Selby, L. N. Sinitsa, J. M. Sirota, A. M. Smith, K. M. Smith, Vl. G. Tyuterev, R. H. Tipping, S. Urban, P. Varanasi, M. Weber, “The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 62, 205–254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Watson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsald, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Rodriguez, K. W. Jukus, N. Lacome, G. Blanquest, J. Valrand, W. A. Traub, B. Khalil, R. LeDoucent, A. Valentin, C. Camy-Peiret, L. Bonamy, J. M. Hartmann, “Model, software and data base for computation of line mixing effects in infrared Q branchesof atmospheric CO2. I. Symmetric isotopomers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 61, 153–184 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Armstrong, “Spectrum line profiles: the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 7, 66–88 (1967).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Strow, D. C. Tobin, S. E. Hannon, “A compilation of first-order line-mixing coefficients for CO2Q-branches,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 281–294 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.

J. R. Eyre, G. A. Kelly, A. P. McNally, E. Anderson, A. Persson, “Assimilation of TOVS radiance information through one-dimensional variational analysis,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 1427–1463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Rabier, J. Thépaut, P. Courtier, “Extended assimilation and forecast experiments with a four dimensional variational assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 124, 1861–1887 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, T. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure sea waters for the model of sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other

“Mission IASI,” http://www-projet.cst.cnes.fr:8060/IASI/index.html .

“AIRS - Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Homepage,” http:/www-airs.jpl.nasa.gov/.

V. L. Griffin, A. R. Guillory, M. Susko, J. E. Arnold, “Operations summary for the Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-1),” NASA Technical memorandum, NASA TM-108445 (National Aeronautics and Space Adminstration, Washington, D.C., 1994).

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. Davies, R. Gamache, R. Tipping, “Theoretical line shape for H2O vapour: application to the continuum,” in Atmospheric Water Vapour, A. Deepak, T. D. Wilkerson, L. H. Ruhnke, eds. (Academic, New York, 1980), pp. 25–46.

W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, “HIS: a satellite instrument to observe temperature and moisture profiles with high vertical resolution,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Baltimore, Md., October 31–November 4, 1983 (American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1983).pp. 1–9.

D. P. Edwards, “GENLN2. A general line-by-line atmospheric transmittance and radiance model,” NCAR Technical note, NCAR/TN-367+STR (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder,Colo., 1992).

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, G. P. Anderson, E. P. Shettle, J. H. Chetwynd, L. W. Abreu, L. A. Hall, R. D. Worsham, “FASCOD 3: spectral simulation,” in Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium IRS’88, Lille, France, 18–24 August 1988, J. Lenoble, J.-F. Geleyn, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1989), pp. 372–375.

Robert Knuteson, Robert Knuteson, Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, West Dayton Street, Madison, Wis. (personal communication, 1998).

H. F. Revercomb, F. A. Best, R. G. Dedecker, R. P. Dirkx, A. Herbsleb, R. O. Knuteson, J. F. Short, W. L. Smith, “Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) for ARM,” in Fourth Symposium on Global Change Studies, Anaheim, Calif., January 17–22 1993, (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1993), 46–49.

“Fall 1997 Integrated IOP”, http://www.arm.gov/docs/iops/1997/sep integrated/index.html .

F. Miskolczi, R. Rizzi, R. Guzzi, M. Bonzagni, “A new high resolution transmittance code and its application in the field of remote sensing,” in International Radiation Symposium’88: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, J. Lenoble, ed. (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1989), pp. 388–391.

F. Miskolczi, M. Bonzagni, R. Guzzi, “High resolution atmospheric radiance-transmittance code (HARTCODE),” in Meteorology and Environmental Sciences (World Scientific, Singapore, 1990), pp. 743–790.

Nicole Husson, Laboratoire de Météorolgie Dynamique, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, France (personal communication, 1999).

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral calculation scheme for GENLN2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral calculation scheme for HARTCODE.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative bias and rms of the difference between simulated [HARTCODE (HA) and GENLN2 (GE)] and measured spectra for the CAMEX-1 case. Values for HIS band 1 and band 2 are computed over intervals of 50 cm-1 width. The relative standard deviation of the HIS measurement is also shown (dotted line).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as Fig. 3 for HIS band 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Root mean square error of the difference between simulated [HARTCODE (HA) and GENLN2 (GE)] and measured spectra, over intervals of 50 cm-1 width, expressed as NEDT for a blackbody temperature of 280 K. The estimated HIS measurement error is shown as a dotted curve.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Examples showing the correlation between GENLN2 (GE) and HARTCODE (HA) spectra for the CAMEX-1 case. The lower dotted curve is the HIS radiance spectrum (the ordinate scale is not relevant). The upper solid curve is the HARTCODE spectrum minus the HIS spectrum. The upper dotted curve is the GENLN2 spectrum minus the HIS spectrum, and the two dashed curves identify the positive and negative HIS-estimated measurement errors (std). Absorption lines from H2O and CO2 are also shown as lower solid and lower dotted vertical lines, respectively. Data are shown in four spectral intervals: (a) 740–760 cm-1, (b) 780–800 cm-1, (c) 1400–1450 cm-1, (d) 2080–2200 cm-1.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectra obtained by resampling the HIS and HARTCODE spectra for the CAMEX-1 case. The upper solid curve is the difference between HARTCODE simulations and measurements at higher spacing, and the lower dotted curve is the measured spectrum at higher sampling. Absorption lines from H2O and CO2 are also shown as lower solid and lower dashed vertical lines, respectively. Data are shown in two spectral intervals: (a) 740–760 cm-1, (b) 780–800 cm-1.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relative bias and rms error of the difference between GENLN2 and measured spectra for the CAMEX-1 case. The spectrum computed with use of the extended HITRAN 96 database [GE (Extended HITRAN)] is compared with that computed with use of the reference HITRAN 96 (GE). Values are computed over intervals of 50 cm-1 width.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Relative bias and rms error of the difference between GENLN2 and measured spectra for the CAMEX-1 case. Spectra computed with use of a variable emissivity [GE (var. ems)] and a variable emissivity plus a revised skin temperature [GE (var. ems + new skin)] are compared with those computed using the emissivity and skin temperature reference values (GE).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Relative-humidity error profile for the CAMEX-1 case.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Relative bias of the difference between the reference GENLN2 spectra and those computed by increasing [GE (w + ew)] and decreasing [GE (w - ew)] the water vapor profile by the error profile for the CAMEX-1 case. The relative bias and rms error of the difference between the reference GENLN2 spectra and the measured spectra is also shown as solid and solid-diamond line (GE). Values computed over intervals of 50 cm-1 width are shown for (a) band 1, (b) band 2.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Relative bias and rms error of the difference between simulated [HARTCODE (HA) and GENLN2 (GE)] and measured spectra for the ARM-WVIOP case. Values are computed over intervals of 50 cm-1 width. The estimated AERI measurement error is shown as a dotted curve.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Spectral power density [in units of (cm-1 mol cm-2)-1] for the CKD water vapor foreign broadening coefficients. The solid line is version 2.4, and the dotted line is version 2.1.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Error of the rms of the difference between simulated [HARTCODE (HA) and GENLN2 (GE)] and measured spectra, over intervals of 50 cm-1 width, expressed as NEDT for a blackbody temperature of 280 K. The estimated AERI measurement error is shown as a dotted curve.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Relative bias and rms error of the difference between GENLN2 and measured spectra for the ARM-WVIOP case. The spectrum computed with use of the extended HITRAN 96 database [GE (Extended HITRAN)] is compared with that computed using the reference HITRAN 96 (GE). Values are computed over intervals of 50 cm-1.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

ARM-WVIOP case error profile for temperature and water vapor mixing ratio.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Relative bias of the difference between the reference GENLN2 spectra and those computed by (a) increasing [(GE (T + eT)] and decreasing [GE (T-eT)] the temperature profile by the error profile, and (b) increasing [GE (w + ew)] and decreasing [GE (w - ew)] the water vapor profile by the error profile are shown for the ARM-WVIOP case. The relative bias and rms error of the difference between the reference GENLN2 spectra and the measured spectra is also shown as solid and solid-diamond line (GE). Values are computed over intervals of 50 cm-1 width.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 HIS Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 2 AERI Parameters

Metrics