Abstract

We report the first application of a thermoelectrically cooled, distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser for continuous spectroscopic monitoring of CO in ambient air at a wavelength of 4.6 µm. A noise-equivalent detection limit of 12 parts per billion was demonstrated experimentally with a 102-cm optical pathlength and a 2.5-min data acquisition time at a 10-kHz pulsed-laser repetition rate. This sensitivity corresponds to a standard error in fractional absorbance of 3 × 10-5.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag., May2000, pp. 10–18.
  3. R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Single-mode tunable, pulsed, and continuous wave quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers at lambda ∼4.6–4.7 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1092–1094 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, R. F. Curl, R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Transportable automated ammonia sensor based on a pulsed thermoelectrically cooled QC-DFB laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 573–578 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5522–5529 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Courtesy of E. Dlugokencky, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Laboratory, Boulder, Colo.
  10. T. Töpfer, K. P. Petrov, Y. Mine, D. Jundt, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, “Room-temperature mid-infrared laser sensor for trace gas detection,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8042–8049 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2002

2001

2000

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Single-mode tunable, pulsed, and continuous wave quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers at lambda ∼4.6–4.7 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1092–1094 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Baillargeon, J. N.

A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5522–5529 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag., May2000, pp. 10–18.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cai, S.

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, R. F. Curl, R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Transportable automated ammonia sensor based on a pulsed thermoelectrically cooled QC-DFB laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 573–578 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5522–5529 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Single-mode tunable, pulsed, and continuous wave quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers at lambda ∼4.6–4.7 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1092–1094 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag., May2000, pp. 10–18.

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, R. F. Curl, R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Transportable automated ammonia sensor based on a pulsed thermoelectrically cooled QC-DFB laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 573–578 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5522–5529 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Single-mode tunable, pulsed, and continuous wave quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers at lambda ∼4.6–4.7 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1092–1094 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag., May2000, pp. 10–18.

Chu, S. N. G.

R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Single-mode tunable, pulsed, and continuous wave quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers at lambda ∼4.6–4.7 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1092–1094 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, R. F. Curl, R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Transportable automated ammonia sensor based on a pulsed thermoelectrically cooled QC-DFB laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 573–578 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5522–5529 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Single-mode tunable, pulsed, and continuous wave quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers at lambda ∼4.6–4.7 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1092–1094 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag., May2000, pp. 10–18.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5522–5529 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag., May2000, pp. 10–18.

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D.

Köhler, R.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, R. F. Curl, R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Transportable automated ammonia sensor based on a pulsed thermoelectrically cooled QC-DFB laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 573–578 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Single-mode tunable, pulsed, and continuous wave quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers at lambda ∼4.6–4.7 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1092–1094 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag., May2000, pp. 10–18.

Kosterev, A. A.

Liu, H. C.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Malinovsky, A. L.

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mine, Y.

Namjou, K.

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paiella, R.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, K. P.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, R. F. Curl, R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Transportable automated ammonia sensor based on a pulsed thermoelectrically cooled QC-DFB laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 573–578 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Cavity ringdown spectroscopic detection of nitric oxide with a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5522–5529 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, “Trace-gas detection in ambient air with a thermoelectrically cooled, pulsed quantum-cascade distributed feedback laser,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6866–6872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Single-mode tunable, pulsed, and continuous wave quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers at lambda ∼4.6–4.7 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1092–1094 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, S. Cai, E. A. Whittaker, J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, “Sensitive absorption spectroscopy with a room-temperature distributed-feedback quantum-cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 219–221 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag., May2000, pp. 10–18.

Tittel, F. K.

Töpfer, T.

Tredicucci, A.

R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Single-mode tunable, pulsed, and continuous wave quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers at lambda ∼4.6–4.7 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1092–1094 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag., May2000, pp. 10–18.

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, E. A.

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, “Single-mode tunable, pulsed, and continuous wave quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers at lambda ∼4.6–4.7 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1092–1094 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, R. Paiella, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, “New frontiers in quantum cascade lasers and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 931–946 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (HITRAN Atmospheric Workstation): 1996 Edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, “The sense-ability of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag., May2000, pp. 10–18.

Courtesy of E. Dlugokencky, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Laboratory, Boulder, Colo.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the CO gas sensor based on a thermoelectrically cooled pulsed QC-DFB laser. RD, SD-reference and signal IR detectors, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser scan calibration with an air-gap etalon formed by two uncoated ZnSe surfaces, FSR of 0.030 cm-1. Horizontal axis is a laser pulse number in the frequency scan. (a) Peaks of etalon interference fringes. Vertical axis is a relative FSR order, and the solid curve shows best linear fit. (b) Residual of the linear fit. Solid curve is the best fourth-order polynomial fit of the residual. The region between the two dashed vertical lines was used in the absorption data analysis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) An example of the CO absorption detected in ambient air; the data are fitted using Eq. (1). (b) Fit residual.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CO concentration measured in the gas from different sources: a cylinder with UHP grade of N2-triangles and a cylinder with rural US mountain air sample-circles. The measurements were performed every six minutes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Three test runs of continuous CO monitoring in ambient laboratory air. A test run started on Friday, 9 March, 2001 (diamonds). An example spectrum in Fig. 2(a) corresponds to the last measurement of this run. A second test run started on Tuesday, 13 March, 2001 (open circles) and a third test run that commenced on 14 March, 2001 (triangles). Interval between consecutive measurements was 5 min.

Equations (2)

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yi=Cfi-x+b
δA=σΔν g2νdν1/2

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