Abstract

We measure the optical limiting behavior of carbon black suspensions in various viscosity solvents by using a 10-Hz repetition rate, 532-nm, 5-ns pulsed laser. We found that, for common solvents used in the past such as water and ethanol, the limiting behavior ceases after a few laser firings and a turnover in the limiting curve appears. This can be explained by depletion of the carbon black within the focal volume. This turnover shifts to lower energies as the viscosity of the solvent becomes greater. However, for low viscosity liquids, such as carbon disulfide or pentane, the limiting is unaffected by the repetition rate, at least for frequencies up to 10 Hz, because of diffusion of the carbon black particles. This diffusion allows fresh material to replace the irradiated volume within the time between pulses.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, S. Ross, D. Hagan, “Passive optical limiter: where are we?,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 29–38 (1999).
  2. R. C. Hollins, “Overview of research on nonlinear optical limiters at DERA,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices II, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE3282, 2–8 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, R. C. Honey, “Temporal and spatial characterization of optical breakdown in a suspension of small absorbing particles,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 78–90 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Mansour, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical limiting in media with absorbing microparticles,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 91–102 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, R. R. Michael, “Nanosecond laser-induced cavitation in carbon microparticle suspensions: applications in nonlinear interface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195–2197 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Mansour, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear optical properties of carbon-black suspensions (ink),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1100–1109 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. M. Nashold, D. P. Walter, “Investigations of optical limiting mechanisms in carbon particle suspensions and fullerene solutions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1228–1237 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Goedert, R. Becker, A. Clements, T. Whittaker, “Time-resolved shadowgraphic imaging of nonlinear liquids and suspensions,” in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE2853, 54–72 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Fougeanet, J. C. Fabre, “Nonlinear mechanisms in carbon-black suspension in a limiting geometry,” in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Sutherland, ed., Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.479, 293–298 (1997).
  10. O. Durand, V. Grolier-Mazza, R. Frey, “Temporal and angular analysis of nonlinear scattering in carbon-black suspensions in water and ethanol,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1431–1438 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. J. McEwan, P. K. Milson, D. B. James, “Nonlinear optical effects in carbon suspensions,” in Nonlinear Optical Liquids for Power Limiting and Imaging, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE3472, 42–52 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Zhao, P. Palffy-Huhoray, “Z-scan technique using top-hat beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1613–1615 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Popescu, A. Dogariu, “Dynamic light scattering in localized coherence volumes,” Opt. Lett. 26, 551–553 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. R. Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 76th ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996).
  16. G. K. Batchelor, Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, 1st ed. (Cambridge University, New York, 1967).
  17. P. W. Atkins, Physical Chemistry, 2nd ed. (Oxford University, London, 1995).

2001 (1)

1999 (2)

O. Durand, V. Grolier-Mazza, R. Frey, “Temporal and angular analysis of nonlinear scattering in carbon-black suspensions in water and ethanol,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1431–1438 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, S. Ross, D. Hagan, “Passive optical limiter: where are we?,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 29–38 (1999).

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

W. Zhao, P. Palffy-Huhoray, “Z-scan technique using top-hat beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1613–1615 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, R. R. Michael, “Nanosecond laser-induced cavitation in carbon microparticle suspensions: applications in nonlinear interface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195–2197 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, P. W.

P. W. Atkins, Physical Chemistry, 2nd ed. (Oxford University, London, 1995).

Batchelor, G. K.

G. K. Batchelor, Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, 1st ed. (Cambridge University, New York, 1967).

Becker, R.

R. Goedert, R. Becker, A. Clements, T. Whittaker, “Time-resolved shadowgraphic imaging of nonlinear liquids and suspensions,” in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE2853, 54–72 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. A.

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, R. C. Honey, “Temporal and spatial characterization of optical breakdown in a suspension of small absorbing particles,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 78–90 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Clements, A.

R. Goedert, R. Becker, A. Clements, T. Whittaker, “Time-resolved shadowgraphic imaging of nonlinear liquids and suspensions,” in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE2853, 54–72 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

Durand, O.

Euliss, G. W.

C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, R. R. Michael, “Nanosecond laser-induced cavitation in carbon microparticle suspensions: applications in nonlinear interface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195–2197 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, J. C.

F. Fougeanet, J. C. Fabre, “Nonlinear mechanisms in carbon-black suspension in a limiting geometry,” in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Sutherland, ed., Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.479, 293–298 (1997).

Fougeanet, F.

F. Fougeanet, J. C. Fabre, “Nonlinear mechanisms in carbon-black suspension in a limiting geometry,” in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Sutherland, ed., Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.479, 293–298 (1997).

Frey, R.

Goedert, R.

R. Goedert, R. Becker, A. Clements, T. Whittaker, “Time-resolved shadowgraphic imaging of nonlinear liquids and suspensions,” in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE2853, 54–72 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grolier-Mazza, V.

Hagan, D.

E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, S. Ross, D. Hagan, “Passive optical limiter: where are we?,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 29–38 (1999).

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hollins, R. C.

R. C. Hollins, “Overview of research on nonlinear optical limiters at DERA,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices II, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE3282, 2–8 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Honey, R. C.

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, R. C. Honey, “Temporal and spatial characterization of optical breakdown in a suspension of small absorbing particles,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 78–90 (1989).
[CrossRef]

James, D. B.

K. J. McEwan, P. K. Milson, D. B. James, “Nonlinear optical effects in carbon suspensions,” in Nonlinear Optical Liquids for Power Limiting and Imaging, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE3472, 42–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, C. M.

C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, R. R. Michael, “Nanosecond laser-induced cavitation in carbon microparticle suspensions: applications in nonlinear interface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195–2197 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mansour, K.

K. Mansour, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear optical properties of carbon-black suspensions (ink),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1100–1109 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Mansour, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical limiting in media with absorbing microparticles,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 91–102 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McEwan, K. J.

K. J. McEwan, P. K. Milson, D. B. James, “Nonlinear optical effects in carbon suspensions,” in Nonlinear Optical Liquids for Power Limiting and Imaging, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE3472, 42–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Michael, R. R.

C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, R. R. Michael, “Nanosecond laser-induced cavitation in carbon microparticle suspensions: applications in nonlinear interface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195–2197 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Milson, P. K.

K. J. McEwan, P. K. Milson, D. B. James, “Nonlinear optical effects in carbon suspensions,” in Nonlinear Optical Liquids for Power Limiting and Imaging, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE3472, 42–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nashold, K. M.

K. M. Nashold, D. P. Walter, “Investigations of optical limiting mechanisms in carbon particle suspensions and fullerene solutions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1228–1237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, R. C. Honey, “Temporal and spatial characterization of optical breakdown in a suspension of small absorbing particles,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 78–90 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Palffy-Huhoray, P.

W. Zhao, P. Palffy-Huhoray, “Z-scan technique using top-hat beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1613–1615 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Popescu, G.

Ross, S.

E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, S. Ross, D. Hagan, “Passive optical limiter: where are we?,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 29–38 (1999).

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M. J.

E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, S. Ross, D. Hagan, “Passive optical limiter: where are we?,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 29–38 (1999).

K. Mansour, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear optical properties of carbon-black suspensions (ink),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1100–1109 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Mansour, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical limiting in media with absorbing microparticles,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 91–102 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, S. Ross, D. Hagan, “Passive optical limiter: where are we?,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 29–38 (1999).

K. Mansour, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, “Nonlinear optical properties of carbon-black suspensions (ink),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1100–1109 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Mansour, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical limiting in media with absorbing microparticles,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 91–102 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Walter, D. P.

K. M. Nashold, D. P. Walter, “Investigations of optical limiting mechanisms in carbon particle suspensions and fullerene solutions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1228–1237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, R. C. Honey, “Temporal and spatial characterization of optical breakdown in a suspension of small absorbing particles,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 78–90 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, T.

R. Goedert, R. Becker, A. Clements, T. Whittaker, “Time-resolved shadowgraphic imaging of nonlinear liquids and suspensions,” in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE2853, 54–72 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

W. Zhao, P. Palffy-Huhoray, “Z-scan technique using top-hat beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1613–1615 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, R. R. Michael, “Nanosecond laser-induced cavitation in carbon microparticle suspensions: applications in nonlinear interface switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195–2197 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhao, P. Palffy-Huhoray, “Z-scan technique using top-hat beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1613–1615 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurements of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Nonlinear Opt. (1)

E. W. Van Stryland, M. J. Soileau, S. Ross, D. Hagan, “Passive optical limiter: where are we?,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 29–38 (1999).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (9)

D. R. Lide, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 76th ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996).

G. K. Batchelor, Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, 1st ed. (Cambridge University, New York, 1967).

P. W. Atkins, Physical Chemistry, 2nd ed. (Oxford University, London, 1995).

K. J. McEwan, P. K. Milson, D. B. James, “Nonlinear optical effects in carbon suspensions,” in Nonlinear Optical Liquids for Power Limiting and Imaging, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE3472, 42–52 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Hollins, “Overview of research on nonlinear optical limiters at DERA,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices II, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE3282, 2–8 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, R. C. Honey, “Temporal and spatial characterization of optical breakdown in a suspension of small absorbing particles,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 78–90 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Mansour, M. J. Soileau, E. W. Van Stryland, “Optical limiting in media with absorbing microparticles,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 91–102 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Goedert, R. Becker, A. Clements, T. Whittaker, “Time-resolved shadowgraphic imaging of nonlinear liquids and suspensions,” in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE2853, 54–72 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Fougeanet, J. C. Fabre, “Nonlinear mechanisms in carbon-black suspension in a limiting geometry,” in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Sutherland, ed., Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.479, 293–298 (1997).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical limiting setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Encircled energy transmittance versus input energy for CBS for three solvents by use of (a) single shot and (b) 10-Hz repetition rate for CS2 (▲), ethanol (□), and water (●). The linear transmittance of the samples was approximately 60%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Limiting curves of CBS for five mixtures of undecane/CS2 with the laser operating at 10 Hz: 1/0 (■), 3/1 (△), 1/1 (●), 1/3 (□), and 0/1 (▲). The linear transmittance of the samples was approximately 70%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Encircled energy transmittance versus input energy for CBS/CS2 (▼) and CBS/pentane (△). The linear transmittance for both samples was approximately 35%.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Solvent Viscosities and Thermodynamic Parameters Reported at 25 °Ca

Tables Icon

Table 2 Undecane/CS2 Mixture Viscosities at 25 °C

Equations (1)

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DsT=k6πηra,

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