Abstract

An efficient all-optical code-division-multiplexing (AOCDM) technique is proposed to support multirate data communications and local-area-network (LAN) interconnections with multiple protocols. To achieve this goal, we use a strict optical orthogonal code (OOC) in multirate AOCDM systems to guarantee that both cross- and autocorrelation constraints are minimum (i.e., 1) for incoherent optical processing. In contrast, the use of a conventional OOC may result in correlation constraints of 2, which in turn can degrade system performance. Moreover, implementation issues on AOCDM systems are discussed. These include the design of low-cost optical transmitters and the trade-off among coherence time, spectral width, and pulse width for AOCDM systems. It is shown that multirate AOCDM systems have a high operation flexibility to support data communications and LAN interconnections of both equal and multiple bit rates. For multirate data transmissions, the proposed system can have a better bandwidth efficiency and a lower bit error rate than a system that uses a conventional OOC.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro, T. R. Fan, “Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 547–554 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, V. K. Wei, “Optical orthogonal codes: Design, analysis, and applications,”IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 35, 595–604 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. A. Salehi, “Code division multiple access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part I: Fundamental principles,”IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824–833 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. A. Salehi, C. A. Brackett, “Code division multiple access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part II: Systems performance analysis,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 834–842 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. M. Gagliardi, A. J. Mendez, M. R. Dale, E. Park, “Fiber-optic digital video multiplexing using optical CDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 20–26 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Azizoglu, J. A. Salehi, Y. Li, “Optical CDMA via temporal codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1162–1170 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. S. Holmes, R. R. A. Syms, “All-optical CDMA using ‘quasi-prime’ codes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 279–286 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J.-G. Zhang, “Address codes for use in all-optical CDMA systems,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1154–1156 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J.-G. Zhang, “Design of a special family of optical CDMA address codes for fully asynchronous data communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 967–973 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J.-G. Zhang, L.-K. Chen, W. C. Kwong, K.-W. Cheung, A. B. Sharma, “Very-high-speed all-optical code-division multiplexing systems using a 2n prime code,” Eng. Lab. Notes in Opt. Phot. News 10 (2), 1–3 (1999).
  11. C. DeCusatis, Special Issue on Fiber Optic Data Communications, Opt. Eng. 37 (1998) (see, for example, pp. 3082–3099 and pp. 3143–3155).
  12. Y.-Q. Zhang, W. W. Wu, K. S. Kim, R. L. Pickholtz, J. Ramasastry, “Variable bit-rate video transmission in the broadband ISDN environment,” Proc. IEEE 79, 214–222 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441–450 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Jinno, “Correlated and uncorrelated timing jitter in gain-switched laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1140–1143 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. P. Barry, J. Debeau, R. Boittin, “40 nm tunable source of picosecond pulses at 10 GHz by external injection into a gain-switched FP laser,” in Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Optical Communication (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), pp. 369–372.
  16. Y.-C. Lu, P. Zhou, J. Cheng, “A directly modulated pulse-compressed and time-multiplexed optical source for high-speed multiple-access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 905–907 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Gunning, J. K. Lucek, D. G. Moodie, K. Smith, R. P. Davey, S. V. Chernikov, M. J. Guy, J. R. Taylor, A. S. Siddiqui, “Gain switched DFB laser diode pulse source using continuous wave light injection for jitter suppression and an electroabsorption modulator for pedestal suppression,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1010–1011 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 10, pp. 348–353.
  19. F. Zamkotsian, K. Sato, H. Okamoto, K. Kishi, I. Kotaka, M. Yamamoto, Y. Kondo, H. Yasaka, Y. Yoshikuni, K. Oe, “Monolithic integration of MQW modulators on an optical multiplexer on InP for 100 Gb/s transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2344–2352 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1999

J.-G. Zhang, “Design of a special family of optical CDMA address codes for fully asynchronous data communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 967–973 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-G. Zhang, L.-K. Chen, W. C. Kwong, K.-W. Cheung, A. B. Sharma, “Very-high-speed all-optical code-division multiplexing systems using a 2n prime code,” Eng. Lab. Notes in Opt. Phot. News 10 (2), 1–3 (1999).

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441–450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. DeCusatis, Special Issue on Fiber Optic Data Communications, Opt. Eng. 37 (1998) (see, for example, pp. 3082–3099 and pp. 3143–3155).

1996

J.-G. Zhang, “Address codes for use in all-optical CDMA systems,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1154–1156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Gunning, J. K. Lucek, D. G. Moodie, K. Smith, R. P. Davey, S. V. Chernikov, M. J. Guy, J. R. Taylor, A. S. Siddiqui, “Gain switched DFB laser diode pulse source using continuous wave light injection for jitter suppression and an electroabsorption modulator for pedestal suppression,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1010–1011 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Zamkotsian, K. Sato, H. Okamoto, K. Kishi, I. Kotaka, M. Yamamoto, Y. Kondo, H. Yasaka, Y. Yoshikuni, K. Oe, “Monolithic integration of MQW modulators on an optical multiplexer on InP for 100 Gb/s transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2344–2352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. Jinno, “Correlated and uncorrelated timing jitter in gain-switched laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1140–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Lu, P. Zhou, J. Cheng, “A directly modulated pulse-compressed and time-multiplexed optical source for high-speed multiple-access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 905–907 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Gagliardi, A. J. Mendez, M. R. Dale, E. Park, “Fiber-optic digital video multiplexing using optical CDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 20–26 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. Azizoglu, J. A. Salehi, Y. Li, “Optical CDMA via temporal codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1162–1170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Holmes, R. R. A. Syms, “All-optical CDMA using ‘quasi-prime’ codes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 279–286 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

Y.-Q. Zhang, W. W. Wu, K. S. Kim, R. L. Pickholtz, J. Ramasastry, “Variable bit-rate video transmission in the broadband ISDN environment,” Proc. IEEE 79, 214–222 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, V. K. Wei, “Optical orthogonal codes: Design, analysis, and applications,”IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 35, 595–604 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Salehi, “Code division multiple access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part I: Fundamental principles,”IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824–833 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Salehi, C. A. Brackett, “Code division multiple access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part II: Systems performance analysis,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 834–842 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro, T. R. Fan, “Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 547–554 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Azizoglu, M.

M. Azizoglu, J. A. Salehi, Y. Li, “Optical CDMA via temporal codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1162–1170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Barry, L. P.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441–450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, J. Debeau, R. Boittin, “40 nm tunable source of picosecond pulses at 10 GHz by external injection into a gain-switched FP laser,” in Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Optical Communication (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), pp. 369–372.

Boittin, R.

L. P. Barry, J. Debeau, R. Boittin, “40 nm tunable source of picosecond pulses at 10 GHz by external injection into a gain-switched FP laser,” in Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Optical Communication (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), pp. 369–372.

Bollond, P. G.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441–450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brackett, C. A.

J. A. Salehi, C. A. Brackett, “Code division multiple access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part II: Systems performance analysis,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 834–842 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.-K.

J.-G. Zhang, L.-K. Chen, W. C. Kwong, K.-W. Cheung, A. B. Sharma, “Very-high-speed all-optical code-division multiplexing systems using a 2n prime code,” Eng. Lab. Notes in Opt. Phot. News 10 (2), 1–3 (1999).

Cheng, J.

Y.-C. Lu, P. Zhou, J. Cheng, “A directly modulated pulse-compressed and time-multiplexed optical source for high-speed multiple-access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 905–907 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chernikov, S. V.

P. Gunning, J. K. Lucek, D. G. Moodie, K. Smith, R. P. Davey, S. V. Chernikov, M. J. Guy, J. R. Taylor, A. S. Siddiqui, “Gain switched DFB laser diode pulse source using continuous wave light injection for jitter suppression and an electroabsorption modulator for pedestal suppression,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1010–1011 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, K.-W.

J.-G. Zhang, L.-K. Chen, W. C. Kwong, K.-W. Cheung, A. B. Sharma, “Very-high-speed all-optical code-division multiplexing systems using a 2n prime code,” Eng. Lab. Notes in Opt. Phot. News 10 (2), 1–3 (1999).

Chung, F. R. K.

F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, V. K. Wei, “Optical orthogonal codes: Design, analysis, and applications,”IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 35, 595–604 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dale, M. R.

R. M. Gagliardi, A. J. Mendez, M. R. Dale, E. Park, “Fiber-optic digital video multiplexing using optical CDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 20–26 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Davey, R. P.

P. Gunning, J. K. Lucek, D. G. Moodie, K. Smith, R. P. Davey, S. V. Chernikov, M. J. Guy, J. R. Taylor, A. S. Siddiqui, “Gain switched DFB laser diode pulse source using continuous wave light injection for jitter suppression and an electroabsorption modulator for pedestal suppression,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1010–1011 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Debeau, J.

L. P. Barry, J. Debeau, R. Boittin, “40 nm tunable source of picosecond pulses at 10 GHz by external injection into a gain-switched FP laser,” in Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Optical Communication (Istituto Internazionale delle Comunicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), pp. 369–372.

DeCusatis, C.

C. DeCusatis, Special Issue on Fiber Optic Data Communications, Opt. Eng. 37 (1998) (see, for example, pp. 3082–3099 and pp. 3143–3155).

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441–450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. R.

P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro, T. R. Fan, “Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 547–554 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gagliardi, R. M.

R. M. Gagliardi, A. J. Mendez, M. R. Dale, E. Park, “Fiber-optic digital video multiplexing using optical CDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 20–26 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gunning, P.

P. Gunning, J. K. Lucek, D. G. Moodie, K. Smith, R. P. Davey, S. V. Chernikov, M. J. Guy, J. R. Taylor, A. S. Siddiqui, “Gain switched DFB laser diode pulse source using continuous wave light injection for jitter suppression and an electroabsorption modulator for pedestal suppression,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1010–1011 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guy, M. J.

P. Gunning, J. K. Lucek, D. G. Moodie, K. Smith, R. P. Davey, S. V. Chernikov, M. J. Guy, J. R. Taylor, A. S. Siddiqui, “Gain switched DFB laser diode pulse source using continuous wave light injection for jitter suppression and an electroabsorption modulator for pedestal suppression,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1010–1011 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. D.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441–450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. S.

A. S. Holmes, R. R. A. Syms, “All-optical CDMA using ‘quasi-prime’ codes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 279–286 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jinno, M.

M. Jinno, “Correlated and uncorrelated timing jitter in gain-switched laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1140–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. S.

Y.-Q. Zhang, W. W. Wu, K. S. Kim, R. L. Pickholtz, J. Ramasastry, “Variable bit-rate video transmission in the broadband ISDN environment,” Proc. IEEE 79, 214–222 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kishi, K.

F. Zamkotsian, K. Sato, H. Okamoto, K. Kishi, I. Kotaka, M. Yamamoto, Y. Kondo, H. Yasaka, Y. Yoshikuni, K. Oe, “Monolithic integration of MQW modulators on an optical multiplexer on InP for 100 Gb/s transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2344–2352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

F. Zamkotsian, K. Sato, H. Okamoto, K. Kishi, I. Kotaka, M. Yamamoto, Y. Kondo, H. Yasaka, Y. Yoshikuni, K. Oe, “Monolithic integration of MQW modulators on an optical multiplexer on InP for 100 Gb/s transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2344–2352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kotaka, I.

F. Zamkotsian, K. Sato, H. Okamoto, K. Kishi, I. Kotaka, M. Yamamoto, Y. Kondo, H. Yasaka, Y. Yoshikuni, K. Oe, “Monolithic integration of MQW modulators on an optical multiplexer on InP for 100 Gb/s transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2344–2352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, W. C.

J.-G. Zhang, L.-K. Chen, W. C. Kwong, K.-W. Cheung, A. B. Sharma, “Very-high-speed all-optical code-division multiplexing systems using a 2n prime code,” Eng. Lab. Notes in Opt. Phot. News 10 (2), 1–3 (1999).

Leonhardt, R.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441–450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

M. Azizoglu, J. A. Salehi, Y. Li, “Optical CDMA via temporal codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1162–1170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Lu, P. Zhou, J. Cheng, “A directly modulated pulse-compressed and time-multiplexed optical source for high-speed multiple-access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 905–907 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lucek, J. K.

P. Gunning, J. K. Lucek, D. G. Moodie, K. Smith, R. P. Davey, S. V. Chernikov, M. J. Guy, J. R. Taylor, A. S. Siddiqui, “Gain switched DFB laser diode pulse source using continuous wave light injection for jitter suppression and an electroabsorption modulator for pedestal suppression,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1010–1011 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mendez, A. J.

R. M. Gagliardi, A. J. Mendez, M. R. Dale, E. Park, “Fiber-optic digital video multiplexing using optical CDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 20–26 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moodie, D. G.

P. Gunning, J. K. Lucek, D. G. Moodie, K. Smith, R. P. Davey, S. V. Chernikov, M. J. Guy, J. R. Taylor, A. S. Siddiqui, “Gain switched DFB laser diode pulse source using continuous wave light injection for jitter suppression and an electroabsorption modulator for pedestal suppression,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1010–1011 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oe, K.

F. Zamkotsian, K. Sato, H. Okamoto, K. Kishi, I. Kotaka, M. Yamamoto, Y. Kondo, H. Yasaka, Y. Yoshikuni, K. Oe, “Monolithic integration of MQW modulators on an optical multiplexer on InP for 100 Gb/s transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2344–2352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, H.

F. Zamkotsian, K. Sato, H. Okamoto, K. Kishi, I. Kotaka, M. Yamamoto, Y. Kondo, H. Yasaka, Y. Yoshikuni, K. Oe, “Monolithic integration of MQW modulators on an optical multiplexer on InP for 100 Gb/s transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2344–2352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Park, E.

R. M. Gagliardi, A. J. Mendez, M. R. Dale, E. Park, “Fiber-optic digital video multiplexing using optical CDMA,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 20–26 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pickholtz, R. L.

Y.-Q. Zhang, W. W. Wu, K. S. Kim, R. L. Pickholtz, J. Ramasastry, “Variable bit-rate video transmission in the broadband ISDN environment,” Proc. IEEE 79, 214–222 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Prucnal, P. R.

P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro, T. R. Fan, “Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 547–554 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ramasastry, J.

Y.-Q. Zhang, W. W. Wu, K. S. Kim, R. L. Pickholtz, J. Ramasastry, “Variable bit-rate video transmission in the broadband ISDN environment,” Proc. IEEE 79, 214–222 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 10, pp. 348–353.

Salehi, J. A.

M. Azizoglu, J. A. Salehi, Y. Li, “Optical CDMA via temporal codes,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1162–1170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Salehi, C. A. Brackett, “Code division multiple access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part II: Systems performance analysis,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 834–842 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, V. K. Wei, “Optical orthogonal codes: Design, analysis, and applications,”IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 35, 595–604 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Salehi, “Code division multiple access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part I: Fundamental principles,”IEEE Trans. Commun. 37, 824–833 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Santoro, M. A.

P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro, T. R. Fan, “Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 547–554 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

F. Zamkotsian, K. Sato, H. Okamoto, K. Kishi, I. Kotaka, M. Yamamoto, Y. Kondo, H. Yasaka, Y. Yoshikuni, K. Oe, “Monolithic integration of MQW modulators on an optical multiplexer on InP for 100 Gb/s transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2344–2352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, A. B.

J.-G. Zhang, L.-K. Chen, W. C. Kwong, K.-W. Cheung, A. B. Sharma, “Very-high-speed all-optical code-division multiplexing systems using a 2n prime code,” Eng. Lab. Notes in Opt. Phot. News 10 (2), 1–3 (1999).

Siddiqui, A. S.

P. Gunning, J. K. Lucek, D. G. Moodie, K. Smith, R. P. Davey, S. V. Chernikov, M. J. Guy, J. R. Taylor, A. S. Siddiqui, “Gain switched DFB laser diode pulse source using continuous wave light injection for jitter suppression and an electroabsorption modulator for pedestal suppression,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1010–1011 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K.

P. Gunning, J. K. Lucek, D. G. Moodie, K. Smith, R. P. Davey, S. V. Chernikov, M. J. Guy, J. R. Taylor, A. S. Siddiqui, “Gain switched DFB laser diode pulse source using continuous wave light injection for jitter suppression and an electroabsorption modulator for pedestal suppression,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1010–1011 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Syms, R. R. A.

A. S. Holmes, R. R. A. Syms, “All-optical CDMA using ‘quasi-prime’ codes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 279–286 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

P. Gunning, J. K. Lucek, D. G. Moodie, K. Smith, R. P. Davey, S. V. Chernikov, M. J. Guy, J. R. Taylor, A. S. Siddiqui, “Gain switched DFB laser diode pulse source using continuous wave light injection for jitter suppression and an electroabsorption modulator for pedestal suppression,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1010–1011 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 10, pp. 348–353.

Thomsen, B. C.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441–450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M. D.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, J. D. Harvey, M. D. Thomson, B. C. Thomsen, P. G. Bollond, R. Leonhardt, “Complete characterization of ultrashort pulse sources at 1550 nm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 441–450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wei, V. K.

F. R. K. Chung, J. A. Salehi, V. K. Wei, “Optical orthogonal codes: Design, analysis, and applications,”IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 35, 595–604 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W. W.

Y.-Q. Zhang, W. W. Wu, K. S. Kim, R. L. Pickholtz, J. Ramasastry, “Variable bit-rate video transmission in the broadband ISDN environment,” Proc. IEEE 79, 214–222 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

F. Zamkotsian, K. Sato, H. Okamoto, K. Kishi, I. Kotaka, M. Yamamoto, Y. Kondo, H. Yasaka, Y. Yoshikuni, K. Oe, “Monolithic integration of MQW modulators on an optical multiplexer on InP for 100 Gb/s transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2344–2352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yasaka, H.

F. Zamkotsian, K. Sato, H. Okamoto, K. Kishi, I. Kotaka, M. Yamamoto, Y. Kondo, H. Yasaka, Y. Yoshikuni, K. Oe, “Monolithic integration of MQW modulators on an optical multiplexer on InP for 100 Gb/s transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2344–2352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikuni, Y.

F. Zamkotsian, K. Sato, H. Okamoto, K. Kishi, I. Kotaka, M. Yamamoto, Y. Kondo, H. Yasaka, Y. Yoshikuni, K. Oe, “Monolithic integration of MQW modulators on an optical multiplexer on InP for 100 Gb/s transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2344–2352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zamkotsian, F.

F. Zamkotsian, K. Sato, H. Okamoto, K. Kishi, I. Kotaka, M. Yamamoto, Y. Kondo, H. Yasaka, Y. Yoshikuni, K. Oe, “Monolithic integration of MQW modulators on an optical multiplexer on InP for 100 Gb/s transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2344–2352 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.-G.

J.-G. Zhang, “Design of a special family of optical CDMA address codes for fully asynchronous data communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 47, 967–973 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-G. Zhang, L.-K. Chen, W. C. Kwong, K.-W. Cheung, A. B. Sharma, “Very-high-speed all-optical code-division multiplexing systems using a 2n prime code,” Eng. Lab. Notes in Opt. Phot. News 10 (2), 1–3 (1999).

J.-G. Zhang, “Address codes for use in all-optical CDMA systems,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1154–1156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.-Q.

Y.-Q. Zhang, W. W. Wu, K. S. Kim, R. L. Pickholtz, J. Ramasastry, “Variable bit-rate video transmission in the broadband ISDN environment,” Proc. IEEE 79, 214–222 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, P.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of an optical delay-line encoder.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Examples of violation of λ c = λ a = 1 when a conventional (32, 4, 1) OOC3 is used for multirate communications. (a) Δt 1 = 2. (b) Δt 1 = 6.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

BER comparison of an OOC of λ c = 1 with an OOC of λ c = 2 in AOCDM systems with hard limiting, where the code length n is approximate to Mw(w - 1) + 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Block diagram of an optical delay-line decoder.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated correlation functions. (a) Autocorrelation of C 1 and (b) cross-correlation of C 1 with C 2 for two successive data bits (with Δt 1 = 0).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Configuration for a proposed multirate AOCDM system. (a) Low-cost AOCDM transmitters. (b) AOCDM receivers.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental setup of a gain-switched DFB laser diode.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured NRZ electrical data bits 10001 with emitter-coupled logic (upper trace), and the resulting optical short pulses 10001 from a gain-switched DFB laser diode (lower trace).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured gain-switched optical pulses (a) without and (b) with external optical-injection locking. (c) The measured optical spectrum of gain-switched pulses with external optical-injection locking.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Block diagram of a proposed waveguide-integrable AOCDM encoder.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Use of a (n i , 4, 1) Unequal-Length Strict OOC for Equal-Rate and Multirate Data Transmissionsa

Tables Icon

Table 2 A (n i , 4, 1) Unequal-Length Strict OOC for Use in Equal-Rate and Multirate Data Transmissionsa

Tables Icon

Table 3 Use of a (ni , 4, 1) Unequal-Length Strict OOC in the AOCDM System with a Given Bandwidth for Equal-Rate and Multirate Transmissions

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

djki=aki-aji-10,
χit+ni+Δti=y1t+ni+Δtii, y2t+ni+Δtii, , ywt+ni+Δtiini
dl,mt,t+ni+ΔtiΔ¯¯ni+ymt+ni+Δtii+Δti-ylti-1, Δti0,
dklidpqi, i=1, 2,, M,
dklidpqj, i, j=1, 2, M,
dklidkli, i, i=1, 2,, M,
niDi+D+3, i=1, 2,, M.
Dww-1M2-1.
nmin=minni|i=1,, Mww-11+M2+1,
nmax=maxni|i=1,, MMww-1+1.
Ri=1τfi, i=1, 2, 3,, M.
τ=1Dmin+D+3fm,
n2D+3Mww-1+1.
τ=1/2D+3fb,
tc=1/Δν.

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