Abstract

There have been numerous reports of retinal photic injury from operation microscopes used during cataract surgery. The risk of injury has been associated with the intensity of the light directed into the eye, short-wavelength emission, user technique, exposure time, and direct axial lighting. We evaluated use of light transmission filters to modify a tungsten-halogen light source spectrum to reduce the risk of retinal photic injury. A two-light source filter combination was found with a color profile acceptable for intraocular surgery that reduces the risk of retinal photic injury by a factor of approximately 2.5.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. K. Berler, R. Peyser, “Light intensity and visual acuity following cataract surgery,” Ophthalmology 90, 933–936 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. R. McDonald, A. R. Irvine, “Light induced maculopathy from the operating microscope in extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 90, 945–951 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. E. Boldrey, B. T. Ho, R. D. Griffith, “Retinal burns occurring at cataract extraction,” Ophthalmology 91, 1297–1302 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. J. Delaey, A. de Wachter, R. Van Oye, H. Verbraeken, “Retinal phototrauma during intraocular lens-implantation,” Int. Ophthalmol. 7, 109–116 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. L. Hupp, “Delayed, incomplete recovery of macular function after photic retinal damage associated with extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior lens insertion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 1022–1023 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. N. Johnson, H. Schatz, H. R. McDonald, “Photic maculopathy. Early angiographic and ophthalmoscopic findings and late development of choroidal folds,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 1633–1634 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. G. Khwarg, M. Geoghegan, T. A. Hanscom, “Light-induced maculopathy from the operating microscope,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 628–630 (1984).
    [PubMed]
  8. S. G. Khwarg, F. A. Linstone, S. A. Daniels, S. J. Isenberg, T. A. Hanscom, M. Geoghegan, B. R. Straatsma, “Incidence, risk factors and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 255–263 (1987).
    [PubMed]
  9. T. D. Lindquist, R. D. Grutzmacher, J. D. Gofman, “Light-induced maculopathy. Potential for recovery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 104, 1641–1647 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. H. Ross, “Light-induced maculopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 488–493 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. A. Byrnes, A. N. Antosyzk, D. O. Mazur, T.-C. Kao, S. A. Miller, “Photic maculopathy after extracapsular cataract surgery. A prospective study,” Ophthalmology 99, 731–737 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. D. Brod, B. A. Barron, J. A. Suelflow, R. M. Franklin, A. J. Packer, “Phototoxic retinal damage during refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 121–123 (1986).
    [PubMed]
  13. J. M. Cech, E. A. Choromokos, J. A. Sanitato, “Light-induced maculopathy following penetrating keratoplasty and lens implantation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 751–754 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. F. Stamler, C. F. Blodi, D. Verdier, J. H. Krachmer, “Microscope light-induced maculopathy in combined penetrating keratoplasty, extracapsular cataract extraction, and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 95, 1142–1146 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. R. McDonald, M. J. Harris, “Operating microscope-induced retinal phototoxicity during pars plana vitrectomy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 106, 521–525 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. A. Byrnes, B. Chang, I. Loose, S. A. Miller, W. E. Benson, “Prospective incidence of photic maculopathy after cataract surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 231–232 (1995).
    [PubMed]
  17. J. E. Gomolin, R. K. Koenekoop, “Presumed photic retinopathy after cataract surgery: an angiographic study,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 221, 221–224 (1993).
  18. Daler-Rowney, Cryla, series C, artist’s heavy body acrylic Perinone Orange, color 522, Daler-Rowney, 2 Corporate Dr., Cranbury, N.J. 08512-9584.
  19. S. A. Miller, R. H. James, D. H. Sliney, “Indirect ophthalmoscopes: evaluation for potential hazards,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1631–1637 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1999 threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices (ACGIH, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1999).

1995 (1)

G. A. Byrnes, B. Chang, I. Loose, S. A. Miller, W. E. Benson, “Prospective incidence of photic maculopathy after cataract surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 231–232 (1995).
[PubMed]

1993 (1)

J. E. Gomolin, R. K. Koenekoop, “Presumed photic retinopathy after cataract surgery: an angiographic study,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 221, 221–224 (1993).

1992 (2)

S. A. Miller, R. H. James, D. H. Sliney, “Indirect ophthalmoscopes: evaluation for potential hazards,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1631–1637 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Byrnes, A. N. Antosyzk, D. O. Mazur, T.-C. Kao, S. A. Miller, “Photic maculopathy after extracapsular cataract surgery. A prospective study,” Ophthalmology 99, 731–737 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

J. F. Stamler, C. F. Blodi, D. Verdier, J. H. Krachmer, “Microscope light-induced maculopathy in combined penetrating keratoplasty, extracapsular cataract extraction, and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 95, 1142–1146 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. McDonald, M. J. Harris, “Operating microscope-induced retinal phototoxicity during pars plana vitrectomy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 106, 521–525 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (4)

J. M. Cech, E. A. Choromokos, J. A. Sanitato, “Light-induced maculopathy following penetrating keratoplasty and lens implantation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 751–754 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Hupp, “Delayed, incomplete recovery of macular function after photic retinal damage associated with extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior lens insertion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 1022–1023 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Johnson, H. Schatz, H. R. McDonald, “Photic maculopathy. Early angiographic and ophthalmoscopic findings and late development of choroidal folds,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 1633–1634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Khwarg, F. A. Linstone, S. A. Daniels, S. J. Isenberg, T. A. Hanscom, M. Geoghegan, B. R. Straatsma, “Incidence, risk factors and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 255–263 (1987).
[PubMed]

1986 (2)

T. D. Lindquist, R. D. Grutzmacher, J. D. Gofman, “Light-induced maculopathy. Potential for recovery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 104, 1641–1647 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Brod, B. A. Barron, J. A. Suelflow, R. M. Franklin, A. J. Packer, “Phototoxic retinal damage during refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 121–123 (1986).
[PubMed]

1984 (4)

W. H. Ross, “Light-induced maculopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 488–493 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Khwarg, M. Geoghegan, T. A. Hanscom, “Light-induced maculopathy from the operating microscope,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 628–630 (1984).
[PubMed]

E. E. Boldrey, B. T. Ho, R. D. Griffith, “Retinal burns occurring at cataract extraction,” Ophthalmology 91, 1297–1302 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Delaey, A. de Wachter, R. Van Oye, H. Verbraeken, “Retinal phototrauma during intraocular lens-implantation,” Int. Ophthalmol. 7, 109–116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

D. K. Berler, R. Peyser, “Light intensity and visual acuity following cataract surgery,” Ophthalmology 90, 933–936 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. McDonald, A. R. Irvine, “Light induced maculopathy from the operating microscope in extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 90, 945–951 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antosyzk, A. N.

G. A. Byrnes, A. N. Antosyzk, D. O. Mazur, T.-C. Kao, S. A. Miller, “Photic maculopathy after extracapsular cataract surgery. A prospective study,” Ophthalmology 99, 731–737 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barron, B. A.

R. D. Brod, B. A. Barron, J. A. Suelflow, R. M. Franklin, A. J. Packer, “Phototoxic retinal damage during refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 121–123 (1986).
[PubMed]

Benson, W. E.

G. A. Byrnes, B. Chang, I. Loose, S. A. Miller, W. E. Benson, “Prospective incidence of photic maculopathy after cataract surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 231–232 (1995).
[PubMed]

Berler, D. K.

D. K. Berler, R. Peyser, “Light intensity and visual acuity following cataract surgery,” Ophthalmology 90, 933–936 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blodi, C. F.

J. F. Stamler, C. F. Blodi, D. Verdier, J. H. Krachmer, “Microscope light-induced maculopathy in combined penetrating keratoplasty, extracapsular cataract extraction, and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 95, 1142–1146 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boldrey, E. E.

E. E. Boldrey, B. T. Ho, R. D. Griffith, “Retinal burns occurring at cataract extraction,” Ophthalmology 91, 1297–1302 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brod, R. D.

R. D. Brod, B. A. Barron, J. A. Suelflow, R. M. Franklin, A. J. Packer, “Phototoxic retinal damage during refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 121–123 (1986).
[PubMed]

Byrnes, G. A.

G. A. Byrnes, B. Chang, I. Loose, S. A. Miller, W. E. Benson, “Prospective incidence of photic maculopathy after cataract surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 231–232 (1995).
[PubMed]

G. A. Byrnes, A. N. Antosyzk, D. O. Mazur, T.-C. Kao, S. A. Miller, “Photic maculopathy after extracapsular cataract surgery. A prospective study,” Ophthalmology 99, 731–737 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cech, J. M.

J. M. Cech, E. A. Choromokos, J. A. Sanitato, “Light-induced maculopathy following penetrating keratoplasty and lens implantation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 751–754 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chang, B.

G. A. Byrnes, B. Chang, I. Loose, S. A. Miller, W. E. Benson, “Prospective incidence of photic maculopathy after cataract surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 231–232 (1995).
[PubMed]

Choromokos, E. A.

J. M. Cech, E. A. Choromokos, J. A. Sanitato, “Light-induced maculopathy following penetrating keratoplasty and lens implantation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 751–754 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Daniels, S. A.

S. G. Khwarg, F. A. Linstone, S. A. Daniels, S. J. Isenberg, T. A. Hanscom, M. Geoghegan, B. R. Straatsma, “Incidence, risk factors and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 255–263 (1987).
[PubMed]

de Wachter, A.

J. J. Delaey, A. de Wachter, R. Van Oye, H. Verbraeken, “Retinal phototrauma during intraocular lens-implantation,” Int. Ophthalmol. 7, 109–116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Delaey, J. J.

J. J. Delaey, A. de Wachter, R. Van Oye, H. Verbraeken, “Retinal phototrauma during intraocular lens-implantation,” Int. Ophthalmol. 7, 109–116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Franklin, R. M.

R. D. Brod, B. A. Barron, J. A. Suelflow, R. M. Franklin, A. J. Packer, “Phototoxic retinal damage during refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 121–123 (1986).
[PubMed]

Geoghegan, M.

S. G. Khwarg, F. A. Linstone, S. A. Daniels, S. J. Isenberg, T. A. Hanscom, M. Geoghegan, B. R. Straatsma, “Incidence, risk factors and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 255–263 (1987).
[PubMed]

S. G. Khwarg, M. Geoghegan, T. A. Hanscom, “Light-induced maculopathy from the operating microscope,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 628–630 (1984).
[PubMed]

Gofman, J. D.

T. D. Lindquist, R. D. Grutzmacher, J. D. Gofman, “Light-induced maculopathy. Potential for recovery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 104, 1641–1647 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gomolin, J. E.

J. E. Gomolin, R. K. Koenekoop, “Presumed photic retinopathy after cataract surgery: an angiographic study,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 221, 221–224 (1993).

Griffith, R. D.

E. E. Boldrey, B. T. Ho, R. D. Griffith, “Retinal burns occurring at cataract extraction,” Ophthalmology 91, 1297–1302 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grutzmacher, R. D.

T. D. Lindquist, R. D. Grutzmacher, J. D. Gofman, “Light-induced maculopathy. Potential for recovery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 104, 1641–1647 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hanscom, T. A.

S. G. Khwarg, F. A. Linstone, S. A. Daniels, S. J. Isenberg, T. A. Hanscom, M. Geoghegan, B. R. Straatsma, “Incidence, risk factors and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 255–263 (1987).
[PubMed]

S. G. Khwarg, M. Geoghegan, T. A. Hanscom, “Light-induced maculopathy from the operating microscope,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 628–630 (1984).
[PubMed]

Harris, M. J.

H. R. McDonald, M. J. Harris, “Operating microscope-induced retinal phototoxicity during pars plana vitrectomy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 106, 521–525 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ho, B. T.

E. E. Boldrey, B. T. Ho, R. D. Griffith, “Retinal burns occurring at cataract extraction,” Ophthalmology 91, 1297–1302 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hupp, S. L.

S. L. Hupp, “Delayed, incomplete recovery of macular function after photic retinal damage associated with extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior lens insertion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 1022–1023 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Irvine, A. R.

H. R. McDonald, A. R. Irvine, “Light induced maculopathy from the operating microscope in extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 90, 945–951 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isenberg, S. J.

S. G. Khwarg, F. A. Linstone, S. A. Daniels, S. J. Isenberg, T. A. Hanscom, M. Geoghegan, B. R. Straatsma, “Incidence, risk factors and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 255–263 (1987).
[PubMed]

James, R. H.

Johnson, R. N.

R. N. Johnson, H. Schatz, H. R. McDonald, “Photic maculopathy. Early angiographic and ophthalmoscopic findings and late development of choroidal folds,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 1633–1634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kao, T.-C.

G. A. Byrnes, A. N. Antosyzk, D. O. Mazur, T.-C. Kao, S. A. Miller, “Photic maculopathy after extracapsular cataract surgery. A prospective study,” Ophthalmology 99, 731–737 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khwarg, S. G.

S. G. Khwarg, F. A. Linstone, S. A. Daniels, S. J. Isenberg, T. A. Hanscom, M. Geoghegan, B. R. Straatsma, “Incidence, risk factors and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 255–263 (1987).
[PubMed]

S. G. Khwarg, M. Geoghegan, T. A. Hanscom, “Light-induced maculopathy from the operating microscope,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 628–630 (1984).
[PubMed]

Koenekoop, R. K.

J. E. Gomolin, R. K. Koenekoop, “Presumed photic retinopathy after cataract surgery: an angiographic study,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 221, 221–224 (1993).

Krachmer, J. H.

J. F. Stamler, C. F. Blodi, D. Verdier, J. H. Krachmer, “Microscope light-induced maculopathy in combined penetrating keratoplasty, extracapsular cataract extraction, and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 95, 1142–1146 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindquist, T. D.

T. D. Lindquist, R. D. Grutzmacher, J. D. Gofman, “Light-induced maculopathy. Potential for recovery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 104, 1641–1647 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Linstone, F. A.

S. G. Khwarg, F. A. Linstone, S. A. Daniels, S. J. Isenberg, T. A. Hanscom, M. Geoghegan, B. R. Straatsma, “Incidence, risk factors and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 255–263 (1987).
[PubMed]

Loose, I.

G. A. Byrnes, B. Chang, I. Loose, S. A. Miller, W. E. Benson, “Prospective incidence of photic maculopathy after cataract surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 231–232 (1995).
[PubMed]

Mazur, D. O.

G. A. Byrnes, A. N. Antosyzk, D. O. Mazur, T.-C. Kao, S. A. Miller, “Photic maculopathy after extracapsular cataract surgery. A prospective study,” Ophthalmology 99, 731–737 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDonald, H. R.

H. R. McDonald, M. J. Harris, “Operating microscope-induced retinal phototoxicity during pars plana vitrectomy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 106, 521–525 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Johnson, H. Schatz, H. R. McDonald, “Photic maculopathy. Early angiographic and ophthalmoscopic findings and late development of choroidal folds,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 1633–1634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. R. McDonald, A. R. Irvine, “Light induced maculopathy from the operating microscope in extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 90, 945–951 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, S. A.

G. A. Byrnes, B. Chang, I. Loose, S. A. Miller, W. E. Benson, “Prospective incidence of photic maculopathy after cataract surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 231–232 (1995).
[PubMed]

S. A. Miller, R. H. James, D. H. Sliney, “Indirect ophthalmoscopes: evaluation for potential hazards,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1631–1637 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Byrnes, A. N. Antosyzk, D. O. Mazur, T.-C. Kao, S. A. Miller, “Photic maculopathy after extracapsular cataract surgery. A prospective study,” Ophthalmology 99, 731–737 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Packer, A. J.

R. D. Brod, B. A. Barron, J. A. Suelflow, R. M. Franklin, A. J. Packer, “Phototoxic retinal damage during refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 121–123 (1986).
[PubMed]

Peyser, R.

D. K. Berler, R. Peyser, “Light intensity and visual acuity following cataract surgery,” Ophthalmology 90, 933–936 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, W. H.

W. H. Ross, “Light-induced maculopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 488–493 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanitato, J. A.

J. M. Cech, E. A. Choromokos, J. A. Sanitato, “Light-induced maculopathy following penetrating keratoplasty and lens implantation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 751–754 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, H.

R. N. Johnson, H. Schatz, H. R. McDonald, “Photic maculopathy. Early angiographic and ophthalmoscopic findings and late development of choroidal folds,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 1633–1634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sliney, D. H.

Stamler, J. F.

J. F. Stamler, C. F. Blodi, D. Verdier, J. H. Krachmer, “Microscope light-induced maculopathy in combined penetrating keratoplasty, extracapsular cataract extraction, and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 95, 1142–1146 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Straatsma, B. R.

S. G. Khwarg, F. A. Linstone, S. A. Daniels, S. J. Isenberg, T. A. Hanscom, M. Geoghegan, B. R. Straatsma, “Incidence, risk factors and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 255–263 (1987).
[PubMed]

Suelflow, J. A.

R. D. Brod, B. A. Barron, J. A. Suelflow, R. M. Franklin, A. J. Packer, “Phototoxic retinal damage during refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 121–123 (1986).
[PubMed]

Van Oye, R.

J. J. Delaey, A. de Wachter, R. Van Oye, H. Verbraeken, “Retinal phototrauma during intraocular lens-implantation,” Int. Ophthalmol. 7, 109–116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Verbraeken, H.

J. J. Delaey, A. de Wachter, R. Van Oye, H. Verbraeken, “Retinal phototrauma during intraocular lens-implantation,” Int. Ophthalmol. 7, 109–116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Verdier, D.

J. F. Stamler, C. F. Blodi, D. Verdier, J. H. Krachmer, “Microscope light-induced maculopathy in combined penetrating keratoplasty, extracapsular cataract extraction, and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 95, 1142–1146 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (5)

S. G. Khwarg, M. Geoghegan, T. A. Hanscom, “Light-induced maculopathy from the operating microscope,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 628–630 (1984).
[PubMed]

S. G. Khwarg, F. A. Linstone, S. A. Daniels, S. J. Isenberg, T. A. Hanscom, M. Geoghegan, B. R. Straatsma, “Incidence, risk factors and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 103, 255–263 (1987).
[PubMed]

W. H. Ross, “Light-induced maculopathy,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 98, 488–493 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Brod, B. A. Barron, J. A. Suelflow, R. M. Franklin, A. J. Packer, “Phototoxic retinal damage during refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102, 121–123 (1986).
[PubMed]

G. A. Byrnes, B. Chang, I. Loose, S. A. Miller, W. E. Benson, “Prospective incidence of photic maculopathy after cataract surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 231–232 (1995).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) (5)

J. M. Cech, E. A. Choromokos, J. A. Sanitato, “Light-induced maculopathy following penetrating keratoplasty and lens implantation,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 751–754 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. R. McDonald, M. J. Harris, “Operating microscope-induced retinal phototoxicity during pars plana vitrectomy,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 106, 521–525 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Lindquist, R. D. Grutzmacher, J. D. Gofman, “Light-induced maculopathy. Potential for recovery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 104, 1641–1647 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Hupp, “Delayed, incomplete recovery of macular function after photic retinal damage associated with extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior lens insertion,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 1022–1023 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Johnson, H. Schatz, H. R. McDonald, “Photic maculopathy. Early angiographic and ophthalmoscopic findings and late development of choroidal folds,” Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago) 105, 1633–1634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. E. Gomolin, R. K. Koenekoop, “Presumed photic retinopathy after cataract surgery: an angiographic study,” Can. J. Ophthalmol. 221, 221–224 (1993).

Int. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. J. Delaey, A. de Wachter, R. Van Oye, H. Verbraeken, “Retinal phototrauma during intraocular lens-implantation,” Int. Ophthalmol. 7, 109–116 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology (5)

J. F. Stamler, C. F. Blodi, D. Verdier, J. H. Krachmer, “Microscope light-induced maculopathy in combined penetrating keratoplasty, extracapsular cataract extraction, and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 95, 1142–1146 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Berler, R. Peyser, “Light intensity and visual acuity following cataract surgery,” Ophthalmology 90, 933–936 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. McDonald, A. R. Irvine, “Light induced maculopathy from the operating microscope in extracapsular cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation,” Ophthalmology 90, 945–951 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Boldrey, B. T. Ho, R. D. Griffith, “Retinal burns occurring at cataract extraction,” Ophthalmology 91, 1297–1302 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Byrnes, A. N. Antosyzk, D. O. Mazur, T.-C. Kao, S. A. Miller, “Photic maculopathy after extracapsular cataract surgery. A prospective study,” Ophthalmology 99, 731–737 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Daler-Rowney, Cryla, series C, artist’s heavy body acrylic Perinone Orange, color 522, Daler-Rowney, 2 Corporate Dr., Cranbury, N.J. 08512-9584.

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1999 threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices (ACGIH, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1999).

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Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectral transmittance of filter combination G-550, V-30, and Y-46 over the wavelength range 350–900 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral irradiance plots for mobile operation microscope (hash marks) and experimental light source (solid curve) over the wavelength range 300–800 nm.

Equations (1)

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LB300700LλBλΔλ,

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