Abstract

We applied a Mo/B4C multilayer coating to a laminar holographic grating with 2400 grooves/mm and a 1-m radius of curvature. By use of synchrotron soft x rays the multilayer-coated grating was evaluated to have diffraction efficiencies of 3.1% and 0.017% for s- and p-polarized radiation, respectively, at a 6.7-nm wavelength at a 45.35° grazing angle of incidence in the +1 (inside) grating order. Thus the polarizance was estimated to be 98.9% at least. The zero-order peak was suppressed by the destructive interference caused by the groove profile.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See, for example, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer gratings,” in Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy I, J. A. Samson, D. L. Ederer, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1998), pp. 379–399.
  2. P. Dhez, “Polarizers and polarimeters in the XUV range,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 261, 66–71 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Maehara, H. Kimura, H. Nomura, M. Yanagihara, T. Namioka, “Performance of a wideband soft-x-ray polarizer,” Appl. Opt. 30, 5018–5020 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, R. Eby, K. G. Stolt, “Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135–250-Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya-Namioka mounts,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7347–7354 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer-coated laminar grating with 16% normal-incidence efficiency in the 150-Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8206–8213 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Toyoda, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, M. Watanabe, “Zero-order-free, multilayer-coated laminar grating in the 31-nm region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2066–2067 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Yanagihara, N. Miyata, T. Ejima, M. Watanabe, Y. Kayanuma, “Effects of the core hole potential on the B 1s emission in hexagonal BN,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 66, 1626–1629 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Noba, Y. Kayanuma, M. Yanagihara, “Effect of Coulomb interaction in the resonant x-ray emission spectra of hexagonal BN,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 67, 664–669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photo-absorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993). The optical constant data are also available on the homepage of the Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants/ .
  10. S. Mitani, T. Namioka, M. Yanagihara, K. Yamashita, J. Fujita, S. Morita, T. Harada, T. Sasaki, S. Sato, T. Miyahara, T. Koide, A. Mikuni, W. Okamoto, H. Maezawa, “Apparatus for characterizing the VUV and soft-x-ray optical elements at the Photon Factory,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2216–2218 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Hatano, K. Sakano, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, “Beamline polarization measured using a Sc/Cr multilayer analyzer,” Abstracts of the 12th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Synchrotron Radiation Research (Japanese Society for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Tokyo, 1999), p. 205 (in Japanese).

1998

M. Toyoda, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, M. Watanabe, “Zero-order-free, multilayer-coated laminar grating in the 31-nm region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2066–2067 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Noba, Y. Kayanuma, M. Yanagihara, “Effect of Coulomb interaction in the resonant x-ray emission spectra of hexagonal BN,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 67, 664–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

1993

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photo-absorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993). The optical constant data are also available on the homepage of the Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants/ .

1991

1989

S. Mitani, T. Namioka, M. Yanagihara, K. Yamashita, J. Fujita, S. Morita, T. Harada, T. Sasaki, S. Sato, T. Miyahara, T. Koide, A. Mikuni, W. Okamoto, H. Maezawa, “Apparatus for characterizing the VUV and soft-x-ray optical elements at the Photon Factory,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2216–2218 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

P. Dhez, “Polarizers and polarimeters in the XUV range,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 261, 66–71 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

Cruddace, R. G.

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photo-absorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993). The optical constant data are also available on the homepage of the Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants/ .

Dhez, P.

P. Dhez, “Polarizers and polarimeters in the XUV range,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 261, 66–71 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Eby, R.

Ejima, T.

M. Yanagihara, N. Miyata, T. Ejima, M. Watanabe, Y. Kayanuma, “Effects of the core hole potential on the B 1s emission in hexagonal BN,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 66, 1626–1629 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, J.

S. Mitani, T. Namioka, M. Yanagihara, K. Yamashita, J. Fujita, S. Morita, T. Harada, T. Sasaki, S. Sato, T. Miyahara, T. Koide, A. Mikuni, W. Okamoto, H. Maezawa, “Apparatus for characterizing the VUV and soft-x-ray optical elements at the Photon Factory,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2216–2218 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photo-absorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993). The optical constant data are also available on the homepage of the Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants/ .

Harada, T.

S. Mitani, T. Namioka, M. Yanagihara, K. Yamashita, J. Fujita, S. Morita, T. Harada, T. Sasaki, S. Sato, T. Miyahara, T. Koide, A. Mikuni, W. Okamoto, H. Maezawa, “Apparatus for characterizing the VUV and soft-x-ray optical elements at the Photon Factory,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2216–2218 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hatano, T.

T. Hatano, K. Sakano, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, “Beamline polarization measured using a Sc/Cr multilayer analyzer,” Abstracts of the 12th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Synchrotron Radiation Research (Japanese Society for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Tokyo, 1999), p. 205 (in Japanese).

Heidemann, K. F.

Heinzmann, U.

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photo-absorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993). The optical constant data are also available on the homepage of the Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants/ .

Hunter, W. R.

Kayanuma, Y.

K. Noba, Y. Kayanuma, M. Yanagihara, “Effect of Coulomb interaction in the resonant x-ray emission spectra of hexagonal BN,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 67, 664–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yanagihara, N. Miyata, T. Ejima, M. Watanabe, Y. Kayanuma, “Effects of the core hole potential on the B 1s emission in hexagonal BN,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 66, 1626–1629 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, H.

Kleineberg, U.

Koide, T.

S. Mitani, T. Namioka, M. Yanagihara, K. Yamashita, J. Fujita, S. Morita, T. Harada, T. Sasaki, S. Sato, T. Miyahara, T. Koide, A. Mikuni, W. Okamoto, H. Maezawa, “Apparatus for characterizing the VUV and soft-x-ray optical elements at the Photon Factory,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2216–2218 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, M. P.

Maehara, T.

Maezawa, H.

S. Mitani, T. Namioka, M. Yanagihara, K. Yamashita, J. Fujita, S. Morita, T. Harada, T. Sasaki, S. Sato, T. Miyahara, T. Koide, A. Mikuni, W. Okamoto, H. Maezawa, “Apparatus for characterizing the VUV and soft-x-ray optical elements at the Photon Factory,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2216–2218 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Menke, D.

Mikuni, A.

S. Mitani, T. Namioka, M. Yanagihara, K. Yamashita, J. Fujita, S. Morita, T. Harada, T. Sasaki, S. Sato, T. Miyahara, T. Koide, A. Mikuni, W. Okamoto, H. Maezawa, “Apparatus for characterizing the VUV and soft-x-ray optical elements at the Photon Factory,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2216–2218 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mitani, S.

S. Mitani, T. Namioka, M. Yanagihara, K. Yamashita, J. Fujita, S. Morita, T. Harada, T. Sasaki, S. Sato, T. Miyahara, T. Koide, A. Mikuni, W. Okamoto, H. Maezawa, “Apparatus for characterizing the VUV and soft-x-ray optical elements at the Photon Factory,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2216–2218 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Miyahara, T.

S. Mitani, T. Namioka, M. Yanagihara, K. Yamashita, J. Fujita, S. Morita, T. Harada, T. Sasaki, S. Sato, T. Miyahara, T. Koide, A. Mikuni, W. Okamoto, H. Maezawa, “Apparatus for characterizing the VUV and soft-x-ray optical elements at the Photon Factory,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2216–2218 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Miyata, N.

M. Toyoda, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, M. Watanabe, “Zero-order-free, multilayer-coated laminar grating in the 31-nm region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2066–2067 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yanagihara, N. Miyata, T. Ejima, M. Watanabe, Y. Kayanuma, “Effects of the core hole potential on the B 1s emission in hexagonal BN,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 66, 1626–1629 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morita, S.

S. Mitani, T. Namioka, M. Yanagihara, K. Yamashita, J. Fujita, S. Morita, T. Harada, T. Sasaki, S. Sato, T. Miyahara, T. Koide, A. Mikuni, W. Okamoto, H. Maezawa, “Apparatus for characterizing the VUV and soft-x-ray optical elements at the Photon Factory,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2216–2218 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Namioka, T.

T. Maehara, H. Kimura, H. Nomura, M. Yanagihara, T. Namioka, “Performance of a wideband soft-x-ray polarizer,” Appl. Opt. 30, 5018–5020 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mitani, T. Namioka, M. Yanagihara, K. Yamashita, J. Fujita, S. Morita, T. Harada, T. Sasaki, S. Sato, T. Miyahara, T. Koide, A. Mikuni, W. Okamoto, H. Maezawa, “Apparatus for characterizing the VUV and soft-x-ray optical elements at the Photon Factory,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2216–2218 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Noba, K.

K. Noba, Y. Kayanuma, M. Yanagihara, “Effect of Coulomb interaction in the resonant x-ray emission spectra of hexagonal BN,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 67, 664–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, H.

Okamoto, W.

S. Mitani, T. Namioka, M. Yanagihara, K. Yamashita, J. Fujita, S. Morita, T. Harada, T. Sasaki, S. Sato, T. Miyahara, T. Koide, A. Mikuni, W. Okamoto, H. Maezawa, “Apparatus for characterizing the VUV and soft-x-ray optical elements at the Photon Factory,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2216–2218 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Osterried, K.

Rife, J. C.

Sakano, K.

T. Hatano, K. Sakano, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, “Beamline polarization measured using a Sc/Cr multilayer analyzer,” Abstracts of the 12th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Synchrotron Radiation Research (Japanese Society for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Tokyo, 1999), p. 205 (in Japanese).

Sasaki, T.

S. Mitani, T. Namioka, M. Yanagihara, K. Yamashita, J. Fujita, S. Morita, T. Harada, T. Sasaki, S. Sato, T. Miyahara, T. Koide, A. Mikuni, W. Okamoto, H. Maezawa, “Apparatus for characterizing the VUV and soft-x-ray optical elements at the Photon Factory,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2216–2218 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

S. Mitani, T. Namioka, M. Yanagihara, K. Yamashita, J. Fujita, S. Morita, T. Harada, T. Sasaki, S. Sato, T. Miyahara, T. Koide, A. Mikuni, W. Okamoto, H. Maezawa, “Apparatus for characterizing the VUV and soft-x-ray optical elements at the Photon Factory,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2216–2218 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J. F.

Stolt, K. G.

Toyoda, M.

M. Toyoda, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, M. Watanabe, “Zero-order-free, multilayer-coated laminar grating in the 31-nm region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2066–2067 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

M. Toyoda, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, M. Watanabe, “Zero-order-free, multilayer-coated laminar grating in the 31-nm region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2066–2067 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yanagihara, N. Miyata, T. Ejima, M. Watanabe, Y. Kayanuma, “Effects of the core hole potential on the B 1s emission in hexagonal BN,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 66, 1626–1629 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

T. Hatano, K. Sakano, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, “Beamline polarization measured using a Sc/Cr multilayer analyzer,” Abstracts of the 12th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Synchrotron Radiation Research (Japanese Society for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Tokyo, 1999), p. 205 (in Japanese).

Yamashita, K.

S. Mitani, T. Namioka, M. Yanagihara, K. Yamashita, J. Fujita, S. Morita, T. Harada, T. Sasaki, S. Sato, T. Miyahara, T. Koide, A. Mikuni, W. Okamoto, H. Maezawa, “Apparatus for characterizing the VUV and soft-x-ray optical elements at the Photon Factory,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2216–2218 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yanagihara, M.

M. Toyoda, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, M. Watanabe, “Zero-order-free, multilayer-coated laminar grating in the 31-nm region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2066–2067 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Noba, Y. Kayanuma, M. Yanagihara, “Effect of Coulomb interaction in the resonant x-ray emission spectra of hexagonal BN,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 67, 664–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yanagihara, N. Miyata, T. Ejima, M. Watanabe, Y. Kayanuma, “Effects of the core hole potential on the B 1s emission in hexagonal BN,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 66, 1626–1629 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Maehara, H. Kimura, H. Nomura, M. Yanagihara, T. Namioka, “Performance of a wideband soft-x-ray polarizer,” Appl. Opt. 30, 5018–5020 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mitani, T. Namioka, M. Yanagihara, K. Yamashita, J. Fujita, S. Morita, T. Harada, T. Sasaki, S. Sato, T. Miyahara, T. Koide, A. Mikuni, W. Okamoto, H. Maezawa, “Apparatus for characterizing the VUV and soft-x-ray optical elements at the Photon Factory,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2216–2218 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Hatano, K. Sakano, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, “Beamline polarization measured using a Sc/Cr multilayer analyzer,” Abstracts of the 12th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Synchrotron Radiation Research (Japanese Society for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Tokyo, 1999), p. 205 (in Japanese).

Appl. Opt.

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photo-absorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993). The optical constant data are also available on the homepage of the Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/optical_constants/ .

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.

M. Yanagihara, N. Miyata, T. Ejima, M. Watanabe, Y. Kayanuma, “Effects of the core hole potential on the B 1s emission in hexagonal BN,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 66, 1626–1629 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Noba, Y. Kayanuma, M. Yanagihara, “Effect of Coulomb interaction in the resonant x-ray emission spectra of hexagonal BN,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 67, 664–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Toyoda, N. Miyata, M. Yanagihara, M. Watanabe, “Zero-order-free, multilayer-coated laminar grating in the 31-nm region,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2066–2067 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A

P. Dhez, “Polarizers and polarimeters in the XUV range,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 261, 66–71 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

S. Mitani, T. Namioka, M. Yanagihara, K. Yamashita, J. Fujita, S. Morita, T. Harada, T. Sasaki, S. Sato, T. Miyahara, T. Koide, A. Mikuni, W. Okamoto, H. Maezawa, “Apparatus for characterizing the VUV and soft-x-ray optical elements at the Photon Factory,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2216–2218 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. Hatano, K. Sakano, M. Yanagihara, M. Yamamoto, “Beamline polarization measured using a Sc/Cr multilayer analyzer,” Abstracts of the 12th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Synchrotron Radiation Research (Japanese Society for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Tokyo, 1999), p. 205 (in Japanese).

See, for example, W. R. Hunter, “Multilayer gratings,” in Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy I, J. A. Samson, D. L. Ederer, eds. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1998), pp. 379–399.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relative grating efficiency versus diffraction angle measured for s-polarized radiation of 184 eV at θ = 44.9°, 45.8°, and 46.4°. The peaks of the grating order from -1 through +3 are presented.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative grating efficiency in grating orders from -1 through +3 plotted as a function of the grazing angle of incidence at 184 eV.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Grating efficiency versus diffraction angle measured for s-polarized radiation of incident photon energies, as indicated in the inset at θ = 45.35°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Grating efficiency in the +1, 0, and -1 grating orders plotted as a function of the incident photon energy at θ = 45.35°. The spectral reflectance for the multilayer coating deposited on a witness flat is also shown on the right-hand ordinate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Grating efficiency versus diffraction angle measured for p-polarized radiation of incident photon energies indicated in the inset at θ = 45.35°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Grating efficiency in the +1 order versus incident photon energy measured at θ = 45.35° for the center of the grooved area and positions 20 mm from the center on both sides along the line perpendicular to the grooves.

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