Abstract

Many animal species display exceptionally bright iridescent coloration caused by interference or diffraction from a periodic surface microstructure. Although many mollusks are colored, only few utilize such a form of structural coloration. We are not referring to the well-known pearly appearance that is due to the nacreous layer found on the inner surfaces of most shells, but to small brightly colored spots on the outer surface. The Helcion pruinosus is one such example. We show by optical measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that coloration in this shell is indeed of a structural nature based on thin-film interference from a layered quarter-wave stack tilted by approximately 24° with respect to the outer surface. The microstructure is embedded in the transparent top layer of the shell approximately 50 µm below the surface. By comparing the SEM and optical measurements, we were able to establish that the layered structure is made from a birefringent material (crystalline aragonite) giving slightly different spectral peaks for S- and P-type reflections.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

S. Weiner, L. Addadi, “Design strategies in mineralized biological materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 7, 689–702 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

1979 (1)

D. Mossakowski, “Reflection measurements used in the analysis of structural colors of beetles,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 116, 351–364 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

M. F. Land, “The physics and biology of animal reflectors,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 24, 75–106 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, “Polarization characteristics of scattered radiation from a diffraction grating by ellipsometry with application to surface roughness,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 4721–4729 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

1942 (1)

T. F. Anderson, A. G. Richards, “An electron microscope study of some structural colors of insects,” J. Appl. Phys. 13, 748–758 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Addadi, L.

S. Weiner, L. Addadi, “Design strategies in mineralized biological materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 7, 689–702 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T. F.

T. F. Anderson, A. G. Richards, “An electron microscope study of some structural colors of insects,” J. Appl. Phys. 13, 748–758 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, “Polarization characteristics of scattered radiation from a diffraction grating by ellipsometry with application to surface roughness,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 4721–4729 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Beckley, L. E.

G. M. Branch, C. L. Griffiths, M. L. Branch, L. E. Beckley, Two Oceans—A Guide to the Marine Life of Southern Africa (David Philip, Cape Town, Johannesburg, 1994), pp. 136, 138.

Branch, G. M.

G. M. Branch, C. L. Griffiths, M. L. Branch, L. E. Beckley, Two Oceans—A Guide to the Marine Life of Southern Africa (David Philip, Cape Town, Johannesburg, 1994), pp. 136, 138.

Branch, M. L.

G. M. Branch, C. L. Griffiths, M. L. Branch, L. E. Beckley, Two Oceans—A Guide to the Marine Life of Southern Africa (David Philip, Cape Town, Johannesburg, 1994), pp. 136, 138.

Brandt, W.

Brink, D. J.

Dance, S. P.

S. P. Dance, Shells (Dorling Kindersley, London, 1992), p. 34.

Friel, D. D.

Ghiradella, H.

Greenwalt, C. H.

Griffiths, C. L.

G. M. Branch, C. L. Griffiths, M. L. Branch, L. E. Beckley, Two Oceans—A Guide to the Marine Life of Southern Africa (David Philip, Cape Town, Johannesburg, 1994), pp. 136, 138.

Guenter, R.

R. Guenter, Modern Optics, 1st ed. (Wiley, New York, 1990), pp. 98–100.

Land, M. F.

M. F. Land, “The physics and biology of animal reflectors,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 24, 75–106 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M. E.

M. Bashara, N.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, “Polarization characteristics of scattered radiation from a diffraction grating by ellipsometry with application to surface roughness,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 4721–4729 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Möller, A.

Mossakowski, D.

D. Mossakowski, “Reflection measurements used in the analysis of structural colors of beetles,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 116, 351–364 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Richards, A. G.

T. F. Anderson, A. G. Richards, “An electron microscope study of some structural colors of insects,” J. Appl. Phys. 13, 748–758 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Smit, J. E.

Weiner, S.

S. Weiner, L. Addadi, “Design strategies in mineralized biological materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 7, 689–702 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Winchell, A. N.

A. N. Winchell, W. Winchell, Elements of Optical Mineralogy (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 117–118.

Winchell, W.

A. N. Winchell, W. Winchell, Elements of Optical Mineralogy (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 117–118.

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. F. Anderson, A. G. Richards, “An electron microscope study of some structural colors of insects,” J. Appl. Phys. 13, 748–758 (1942).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

S. Weiner, L. Addadi, “Design strategies in mineralized biological materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 7, 689–702 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (Oxford) (1)

D. Mossakowski, “Reflection measurements used in the analysis of structural colors of beetles,” J. Microsc. (Oxford) 116, 351–364 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, “Polarization characteristics of scattered radiation from a diffraction grating by ellipsometry with application to surface roughness,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 4721–4729 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. (1)

M. F. Land, “The physics and biology of animal reflectors,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 24, 75–106 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

G. M. Branch, C. L. Griffiths, M. L. Branch, L. E. Beckley, Two Oceans—A Guide to the Marine Life of Southern Africa (David Philip, Cape Town, Johannesburg, 1994), pp. 136, 138.

S. P. Dance, Shells (Dorling Kindersley, London, 1992), p. 34.

R. Guenter, Modern Optics, 1st ed. (Wiley, New York, 1990), pp. 98–100.

D. R. Linde, ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 2000).

A. N. Winchell, W. Winchell, Elements of Optical Mineralogy (Wiley, New York, 1967), p. 117–118.

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