Abstract

A method for recording digital holograms on an image intensifier coupled with a CCD sensor is presented. The advantage of the image intensifier is that it can be gated (electronic shutter action produced by controlling of the image intensifier’s photocathode voltage). This allows us to record holograms with a short exposure time. Two holograms of an object submitted to dynamical displacements (e.g., vibrations) are recorded by two short exposures. The phase of the wave front recorded at different times is calculated from the recorded intensity by use of a digital Fourier-transform method. By comparison of the phases recorded it is possible to get the displacement of the object during a short interval. Experimental results are presented, and the problems related to the noise and to the spatial resolution are discussed.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. T. Cathey, Optical Information Processing and Holography (Wiley, New York, 1974), Chap. 9.
  2. R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhard, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 5.
  3. C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979).
  4. R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1989), Chap. 3.
    [CrossRef]
  5. U. Schnars, “Direct phase determination in hologram interferometry with use of digitally recorded holograms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2011–2015 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, H. J. Tiziani, “Digital double pulse-holographic interferometry for vibration analysis,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367–374 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, Y. Zou, “Digital double pulse-TV-holography,” Opt. Laser Eng. 26, 199–219 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, “Digital holographic interferometry,” in Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry and Related Techniques, P. K. Rastogi, ed. (Wiley, Chichester, N.Y., 2001), Chap. 6, pp. 337–362.
  9. G. Pedrini, Ph. Froening, H. J. Tiziani, M. E. Gusev, “Pulsed digital holography for high-speed contouring that uses a two-wavelength method,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3460–3467 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Schedin, G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, A. K. Aggarwal, M. E. Gusev, “Highly sensitive pulsed digital holography for built-in defect analysis with a laser excitation,” Appl. Opt. 40, 100–103 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. J. Moore, J. D. C. Jones, J. D. R. Valera, “Dynamic measurements,” in Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry and Related Techniques, P. K. Rastogi, ed. (Wiley, Chichester, N.Y., 2001), Chap. 4, pp. 225–288.
  12. C. B. Johnson, L. D. Owen, “Image tube intensified electronic imaging,” in Handbook of Optics: Fundamental, Techniques, and Design, 2nd ed., M. Bass, ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Vol. 1, Chap. 21, pp. 21.1–21.32.

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, Y. Zou, “Digital double pulse-TV-holography,” Opt. Laser Eng. 26, 199–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, H. J. Tiziani, “Digital double pulse-holographic interferometry for vibration analysis,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367–374 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Aggarwal, A. K.

Burckhard, C. B.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhard, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 5.

Cathey, W. T.

W. T. Cathey, Optical Information Processing and Holography (Wiley, New York, 1974), Chap. 9.

Collier, R. J.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhard, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 5.

Froening, Ph.

Gusev, M. E.

Johnson, C. B.

C. B. Johnson, L. D. Owen, “Image tube intensified electronic imaging,” in Handbook of Optics: Fundamental, Techniques, and Design, 2nd ed., M. Bass, ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Vol. 1, Chap. 21, pp. 21.1–21.32.

Jones, J. D. C.

A. J. Moore, J. D. C. Jones, J. D. R. Valera, “Dynamic measurements,” in Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry and Related Techniques, P. K. Rastogi, ed. (Wiley, Chichester, N.Y., 2001), Chap. 4, pp. 225–288.

Jones, R.

R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1989), Chap. 3.
[CrossRef]

Lin, L. H.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhard, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 5.

Moore, A. J.

A. J. Moore, J. D. C. Jones, J. D. R. Valera, “Dynamic measurements,” in Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry and Related Techniques, P. K. Rastogi, ed. (Wiley, Chichester, N.Y., 2001), Chap. 4, pp. 225–288.

Owen, L. D.

C. B. Johnson, L. D. Owen, “Image tube intensified electronic imaging,” in Handbook of Optics: Fundamental, Techniques, and Design, 2nd ed., M. Bass, ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Vol. 1, Chap. 21, pp. 21.1–21.32.

Pedrini, G.

S. Schedin, G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, A. K. Aggarwal, M. E. Gusev, “Highly sensitive pulsed digital holography for built-in defect analysis with a laser excitation,” Appl. Opt. 40, 100–103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Ph. Froening, H. J. Tiziani, M. E. Gusev, “Pulsed digital holography for high-speed contouring that uses a two-wavelength method,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3460–3467 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, Y. Zou, “Digital double pulse-TV-holography,” Opt. Laser Eng. 26, 199–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, H. J. Tiziani, “Digital double pulse-holographic interferometry for vibration analysis,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367–374 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, “Digital holographic interferometry,” in Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry and Related Techniques, P. K. Rastogi, ed. (Wiley, Chichester, N.Y., 2001), Chap. 6, pp. 337–362.

Schedin, S.

Schnars, U.

Tiziani, H.

G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, Y. Zou, “Digital double pulse-TV-holography,” Opt. Laser Eng. 26, 199–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H. J.

S. Schedin, G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, A. K. Aggarwal, M. E. Gusev, “Highly sensitive pulsed digital holography for built-in defect analysis with a laser excitation,” Appl. Opt. 40, 100–103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Ph. Froening, H. J. Tiziani, M. E. Gusev, “Pulsed digital holography for high-speed contouring that uses a two-wavelength method,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3460–3467 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, H. J. Tiziani, “Digital double pulse-holographic interferometry for vibration analysis,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367–374 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, “Digital holographic interferometry,” in Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry and Related Techniques, P. K. Rastogi, ed. (Wiley, Chichester, N.Y., 2001), Chap. 6, pp. 337–362.

Valera, J. D. R.

A. J. Moore, J. D. C. Jones, J. D. R. Valera, “Dynamic measurements,” in Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry and Related Techniques, P. K. Rastogi, ed. (Wiley, Chichester, N.Y., 2001), Chap. 4, pp. 225–288.

Vest, C. M.

C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979).

Wykes, C.

R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1989), Chap. 3.
[CrossRef]

Zou, Y.

G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, Y. Zou, “Digital double pulse-TV-holography,” Opt. Laser Eng. 26, 199–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zou, Y. L.

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, H. J. Tiziani, “Digital double pulse-holographic interferometry for vibration analysis,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367–374 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, H. J. Tiziani, “Digital double pulse-holographic interferometry for vibration analysis,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367–374 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Laser Eng. (1)

G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, Y. Zou, “Digital double pulse-TV-holography,” Opt. Laser Eng. 26, 199–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, “Digital holographic interferometry,” in Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry and Related Techniques, P. K. Rastogi, ed. (Wiley, Chichester, N.Y., 2001), Chap. 6, pp. 337–362.

A. J. Moore, J. D. C. Jones, J. D. R. Valera, “Dynamic measurements,” in Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry and Related Techniques, P. K. Rastogi, ed. (Wiley, Chichester, N.Y., 2001), Chap. 4, pp. 225–288.

C. B. Johnson, L. D. Owen, “Image tube intensified electronic imaging,” in Handbook of Optics: Fundamental, Techniques, and Design, 2nd ed., M. Bass, ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), Vol. 1, Chap. 21, pp. 21.1–21.32.

W. T. Cathey, Optical Information Processing and Holography (Wiley, New York, 1974), Chap. 9.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhard, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 5.

C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979).

R. Jones, C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, 1989), Chap. 3.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical arrangement for digital holography with an image intensifier. L, positive lens; AP, aperture; Im-Int, image intensifier; OF, optical fiber; PC, personal computer; M, mirror; NL, negative lens; WBS, wavelength beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Metallic plate vibrating with a frequency of 661 Hz: (a) location of the exposures and vibration signal; (b) phase map, 100 µs for each exposure, photoelectron amplification 50 el/el; (c) pseudo three-dimensional representation of the vibration; (d) phase map, 20 µs for each exposure, photoelectron amplification 200 el/el.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Shock on a plate: (a) location of the exposures and accelerometer signal; (b) phase map, 100 µs for each exposure.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1fNsys2=1fNCCD2+1fNint2.
IxH, yH=|RxH, yH|2+|UxH, yH|2+RxH, yHU*xH, yH+R*xH, yHUxH, yH,
N=IτηAhν+NdAτ,

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