Abstract

Blooms of the phytoplankton coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi can cause significant changes to both the inherent and the apparent optical properties within an oceanic column. Measurements made within such a bloom off the southwestern coast of England during July 1999 are reported. The multiple scattering properties of the bloom prevented accurate retrieval of absorption (a) and attenuation (c) coefficients with a WETLabs ac-9. Upwelling radiance measurements were similarly affected by the bloom, which caused the sensors to saturate. An optical model has been developed that gives close agreement with the in situ optics when it is used as input to the Hydrolight radiative-transfer model.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  3. H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Solar Physics 90, 205–258 (1984).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  6. R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8722 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. H. Kou, D. Labrie, P. Chylek, “Refractive-indexes of water and ice in the 0.65-µm to 2.5-µm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3531–3540 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Buiteveld, J. H. M. Hakvoort, M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 174–183 (1994).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  14. K. J. Voss, W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, “Scattering and attenuation properties of Emiliania huxleyi cells and their detached coccoliths,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 870–876 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. G. Barlow, D. G. Cummings, S. W. Gibb, “Improved resolution of mono- and divinyl chlorophylls a and b and zeaxanthin and lutein in phytoplankton extracts using reverse phase C-8 HPLC,” Marine Ecol. Prog. Ser. 161, 303–307 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. R. Gordon, T. Du, “Light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detached from Emiliania huxleyi,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1438–1454 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Gordon, Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla. 33124 (personal communication, 2001).
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    [CrossRef]
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  25. G. Taran, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, Plymouth, PL13DH, U.K. (personal communication, 2001).
  26. D. Harbour, Sir Alistair Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, Plymouth, U.K. (personal communication, 2001).
  27. G. Garcia-Soto, E. Fernandez, R. D. Pingree, D. S. Harbour, “Evolution and structure of a shelf coccolithophore bloom in the Western English Channel,” J. Plankton Res. 17, 2011–2036 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. Holligan, M. Voiller, D. S. Harbour, P. Camus, M. Champagne-Phillippe, “Satellite and ship studies of coccolithophore production along a continental shelf edge,” Nature 304, 339–342 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. M. Holligan, E. Fernandez, J. Aiken, W. M. Balch, P. Boyd, P. H. Burkill, M. Finch, S. B. Groom, G. Malin, K. Muller, D. A. Purdie, C. Robinson, C. C. Trees, S. M. Turner, P. Vanderwal, “A biogeochemical study of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in the North Atlantic,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 879–900 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. R. V. Zaneveld, R. Bartz, “Beam attenuation and absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics VII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE489, 318–342 (1984).
  31. W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, C. C. Trees, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 1. Optical properties and factors affecting their distribution,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1669–1683 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (3)

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, G. C. Boynton, W. M. Balch, S. B. Groom, D. S. Harbour, T. J. Smyth, “Retrieval of coccolithophore calcite concentration from SeaWiFS imagery,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1587–1590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, “Light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detached from Emiliania huxleyi,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1438–1454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. J. W. Veldhuis, G. Kraay, “Application of flow cytometry in marine phytoplankton research: current applications and future perspectives,” Scientia Marina 64, 121–134 (2000).

1999 (1)

T. Tyrrell, P. M. Holligan, C. D. Mobley, “Optical impacts of oceanic coccolithophore blooms,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 3223–3241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss, W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, “Scattering and attenuation properties of Emiliania huxleyi cells and their detached coccoliths,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 870–876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

R. G. Barlow, D. G. Cummings, S. W. Gibb, “Improved resolution of mono- and divinyl chlorophylls a and b and zeaxanthin and lutein in phytoplankton extracts using reverse phase C-8 HPLC,” Marine Ecol. Prog. Ser. 161, 303–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8722 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, P. M. Holligan, D. S. Harbour, E. Fernandez, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 2. Relating optics to coccolith concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1684–1696 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, C. C. Trees, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 1. Optical properties and factors affecting their distribution,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1669–1683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Garcia-Soto, E. Fernandez, R. D. Pingree, D. S. Harbour, “Evolution and structure of a shelf coccolithophore bloom in the Western English Channel,” J. Plankton Res. 17, 2011–2036 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

C. Moore, “In situ, biochemical, oceanic, optical meters,” Sea Technol. 35, 10–16 (1994).

S. G. Ackleson, W. M. Balch, P. M. Holligan, “Response of water-leaving radiance to particulate calcite and chlorophyll a concentrations: a model for Gulf of Maine coccolithophore blooms,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7483–7499 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

P. M. Holligan, E. Fernandez, J. Aiken, W. M. Balch, P. Boyd, P. H. Burkill, M. Finch, S. B. Groom, G. Malin, K. Muller, D. A. Purdie, C. Robinson, C. C. Trees, S. M. Turner, P. Vanderwal, “A biogeochemical study of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in the North Atlantic,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 879–900 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Kou, D. Labrie, P. Chylek, “Refractive-indexes of water and ice in the 0.65-µm to 2.5-µm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3531–3540 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. W. Gregg, K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Solar Physics 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

P. Holligan, M. Voiller, D. S. Harbour, P. Camus, M. Champagne-Phillippe, “Satellite and ship studies of coccolithophore production along a continental shelf edge,” Nature 304, 339–342 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

Ackleson, S. G.

S. G. Ackleson, W. M. Balch, P. M. Holligan, “Response of water-leaving radiance to particulate calcite and chlorophyll a concentrations: a model for Gulf of Maine coccolithophore blooms,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7483–7499 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aiken, J.

P. M. Holligan, E. Fernandez, J. Aiken, W. M. Balch, P. Boyd, P. H. Burkill, M. Finch, S. B. Groom, G. Malin, K. Muller, D. A. Purdie, C. Robinson, C. C. Trees, S. M. Turner, P. Vanderwal, “A biogeochemical study of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in the North Atlantic,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 879–900 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. W.

J. L. Mueller, R. W. Austin, Ocean Optics Protocols for SeaWiFS Validation, rev. 1, Vol. 25 of SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Series, S. B. Hooker, E. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo104566 (1995).

Baker, K. S.

Balch, W. M.

H. R. Gordon, G. C. Boynton, W. M. Balch, S. B. Groom, D. S. Harbour, T. J. Smyth, “Retrieval of coccolithophore calcite concentration from SeaWiFS imagery,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1587–1590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss, W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, “Scattering and attenuation properties of Emiliania huxleyi cells and their detached coccoliths,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 870–876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, P. M. Holligan, D. S. Harbour, E. Fernandez, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 2. Relating optics to coccolith concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1684–1696 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, C. C. Trees, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 1. Optical properties and factors affecting their distribution,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1669–1683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Ackleson, W. M. Balch, P. M. Holligan, “Response of water-leaving radiance to particulate calcite and chlorophyll a concentrations: a model for Gulf of Maine coccolithophore blooms,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7483–7499 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Holligan, E. Fernandez, J. Aiken, W. M. Balch, P. Boyd, P. H. Burkill, M. Finch, S. B. Groom, G. Malin, K. Muller, D. A. Purdie, C. Robinson, C. C. Trees, S. M. Turner, P. Vanderwal, “A biogeochemical study of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in the North Atlantic,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 879–900 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, R. G.

R. G. Barlow, D. G. Cummings, S. W. Gibb, “Improved resolution of mono- and divinyl chlorophylls a and b and zeaxanthin and lutein in phytoplankton extracts using reverse phase C-8 HPLC,” Marine Ecol. Prog. Ser. 161, 303–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bartz, R.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, R. Bartz, “Beam attenuation and absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics VII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE489, 318–342 (1984).

Boyd, P.

P. M. Holligan, E. Fernandez, J. Aiken, W. M. Balch, P. Boyd, P. H. Burkill, M. Finch, S. B. Groom, G. Malin, K. Muller, D. A. Purdie, C. Robinson, C. C. Trees, S. M. Turner, P. Vanderwal, “A biogeochemical study of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in the North Atlantic,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 879–900 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boynton, G. C.

H. R. Gordon, G. C. Boynton, W. M. Balch, S. B. Groom, D. S. Harbour, T. J. Smyth, “Retrieval of coccolithophore calcite concentration from SeaWiFS imagery,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1587–1590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Buiteveld, H.

H. Buiteveld, J. H. M. Hakvoort, M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 174–183 (1994).

Burkill, P. H.

P. M. Holligan, E. Fernandez, J. Aiken, W. M. Balch, P. Boyd, P. H. Burkill, M. Finch, S. B. Groom, G. Malin, K. Muller, D. A. Purdie, C. Robinson, C. C. Trees, S. M. Turner, P. Vanderwal, “A biogeochemical study of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in the North Atlantic,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 879–900 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Camus, P.

P. Holligan, M. Voiller, D. S. Harbour, P. Camus, M. Champagne-Phillippe, “Satellite and ship studies of coccolithophore production along a continental shelf edge,” Nature 304, 339–342 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Champagne-Phillippe, M.

P. Holligan, M. Voiller, D. S. Harbour, P. Camus, M. Champagne-Phillippe, “Satellite and ship studies of coccolithophore production along a continental shelf edge,” Nature 304, 339–342 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chylek, P.

Clark, D. K.

Cota, G.

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cummings, D. G.

R. G. Barlow, D. G. Cummings, S. W. Gibb, “Improved resolution of mono- and divinyl chlorophylls a and b and zeaxanthin and lutein in phytoplankton extracts using reverse phase C-8 HPLC,” Marine Ecol. Prog. Ser. 161, 303–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Donze, M.

H. Buiteveld, J. H. M. Hakvoort, M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 174–183 (1994).

Du, T.

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, “Light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detached from Emiliania huxleyi,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1438–1454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, E.

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, P. M. Holligan, D. S. Harbour, E. Fernandez, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 2. Relating optics to coccolith concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1684–1696 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Garcia-Soto, E. Fernandez, R. D. Pingree, D. S. Harbour, “Evolution and structure of a shelf coccolithophore bloom in the Western English Channel,” J. Plankton Res. 17, 2011–2036 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Holligan, E. Fernandez, J. Aiken, W. M. Balch, P. Boyd, P. H. Burkill, M. Finch, S. B. Groom, G. Malin, K. Muller, D. A. Purdie, C. Robinson, C. C. Trees, S. M. Turner, P. Vanderwal, “A biogeochemical study of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in the North Atlantic,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 879–900 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Finch, M.

P. M. Holligan, E. Fernandez, J. Aiken, W. M. Balch, P. Boyd, P. H. Burkill, M. Finch, S. B. Groom, G. Malin, K. Muller, D. A. Purdie, C. Robinson, C. C. Trees, S. M. Turner, P. Vanderwal, “A biogeochemical study of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in the North Atlantic,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 879–900 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

Garcia-Soto, G.

G. Garcia-Soto, E. Fernandez, R. D. Pingree, D. S. Harbour, “Evolution and structure of a shelf coccolithophore bloom in the Western English Channel,” J. Plankton Res. 17, 2011–2036 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gibb, S. W.

R. G. Barlow, D. G. Cummings, S. W. Gibb, “Improved resolution of mono- and divinyl chlorophylls a and b and zeaxanthin and lutein in phytoplankton extracts using reverse phase C-8 HPLC,” Marine Ecol. Prog. Ser. 161, 303–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H.

H. Gordon, Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla. 33124 (personal communication, 2001).

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, G. C. Boynton, W. M. Balch, S. B. Groom, D. S. Harbour, T. J. Smyth, “Retrieval of coccolithophore calcite concentration from SeaWiFS imagery,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1587–1590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, “Light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detached from Emiliania huxleyi,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1438–1454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction for Coastal Zone Color Scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3929–3931 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gregg, W. W.

W. W. Gregg, K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Groom, S. B.

H. R. Gordon, G. C. Boynton, W. M. Balch, S. B. Groom, D. S. Harbour, T. J. Smyth, “Retrieval of coccolithophore calcite concentration from SeaWiFS imagery,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1587–1590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Holligan, E. Fernandez, J. Aiken, W. M. Balch, P. Boyd, P. H. Burkill, M. Finch, S. B. Groom, G. Malin, K. Muller, D. A. Purdie, C. Robinson, C. C. Trees, S. M. Turner, P. Vanderwal, “A biogeochemical study of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in the North Atlantic,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 879–900 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hakvoort, J. H. M.

H. Buiteveld, J. H. M. Hakvoort, M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 174–183 (1994).

Harbour, D.

D. Harbour, Sir Alistair Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, Plymouth, U.K. (personal communication, 2001).

Harbour, D. S.

H. R. Gordon, G. C. Boynton, W. M. Balch, S. B. Groom, D. S. Harbour, T. J. Smyth, “Retrieval of coccolithophore calcite concentration from SeaWiFS imagery,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1587–1590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, P. M. Holligan, D. S. Harbour, E. Fernandez, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 2. Relating optics to coccolith concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1684–1696 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Garcia-Soto, E. Fernandez, R. D. Pingree, D. S. Harbour, “Evolution and structure of a shelf coccolithophore bloom in the Western English Channel,” J. Plankton Res. 17, 2011–2036 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Holligan, M. Voiller, D. S. Harbour, P. Camus, M. Champagne-Phillippe, “Satellite and ship studies of coccolithophore production along a continental shelf edge,” Nature 304, 339–342 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Holligan, P.

P. Holligan, M. Voiller, D. S. Harbour, P. Camus, M. Champagne-Phillippe, “Satellite and ship studies of coccolithophore production along a continental shelf edge,” Nature 304, 339–342 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Holligan, P. M.

T. Tyrrell, P. M. Holligan, C. D. Mobley, “Optical impacts of oceanic coccolithophore blooms,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 3223–3241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, P. M. Holligan, D. S. Harbour, E. Fernandez, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 2. Relating optics to coccolith concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1684–1696 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Ackleson, W. M. Balch, P. M. Holligan, “Response of water-leaving radiance to particulate calcite and chlorophyll a concentrations: a model for Gulf of Maine coccolithophore blooms,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7483–7499 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Holligan, E. Fernandez, J. Aiken, W. M. Balch, P. Boyd, P. H. Burkill, M. Finch, S. B. Groom, G. Malin, K. Muller, D. A. Purdie, C. Robinson, C. C. Trees, S. M. Turner, P. Vanderwal, “A biogeochemical study of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in the North Atlantic,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 879–900 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kilpatrick, K. A.

K. J. Voss, W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, “Scattering and attenuation properties of Emiliania huxleyi cells and their detached coccoliths,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 870–876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, P. M. Holligan, D. S. Harbour, E. Fernandez, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 2. Relating optics to coccolith concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1684–1696 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, C. C. Trees, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 1. Optical properties and factors affecting their distribution,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1669–1683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kou, L. H.

Kraay, G.

M. J. W. Veldhuis, G. Kraay, “Application of flow cytometry in marine phytoplankton research: current applications and future perspectives,” Scientia Marina 64, 121–134 (2000).

Labrie, D.

Labs, D.

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Solar Physics 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Maass, H.

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Malin, G.

P. M. Holligan, E. Fernandez, J. Aiken, W. M. Balch, P. Boyd, P. H. Burkill, M. Finch, S. B. Groom, G. Malin, K. Muller, D. A. Purdie, C. Robinson, C. C. Trees, S. M. Turner, P. Vanderwal, “A biogeochemical study of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in the North Atlantic,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 879–900 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

T. Tyrrell, P. M. Holligan, C. D. Mobley, “Optical impacts of oceanic coccolithophore blooms,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 3223–3241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994), Chap. 3, table 3.10.

C. D. Mobley, “HYDROLIGHT 3.0 User’s Guide” (SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif., 1995).

Moore, C.

C. Moore, “In situ, biochemical, oceanic, optical meters,” Sea Technol. 35, 10–16 (1994).

Morel, A.

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure seawater,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 1–24.

Mueller, J. L.

J. L. Mueller, R. W. Austin, Ocean Optics Protocols for SeaWiFS Validation, rev. 1, Vol. 25 of SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Series, S. B. Hooker, E. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo104566 (1995).

Muller, K.

P. M. Holligan, E. Fernandez, J. Aiken, W. M. Balch, P. Boyd, P. H. Burkill, M. Finch, S. B. Groom, G. Malin, K. Muller, D. A. Purdie, C. Robinson, C. C. Trees, S. M. Turner, P. Vanderwal, “A biogeochemical study of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in the North Atlantic,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 879–900 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Neckel, H.

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Solar Physics 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pingree, R. D.

G. Garcia-Soto, E. Fernandez, R. D. Pingree, D. S. Harbour, “Evolution and structure of a shelf coccolithophore bloom in the Western English Channel,” J. Plankton Res. 17, 2011–2036 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Platt, T.

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pope, R. M.

Purdie, D. A.

P. M. Holligan, E. Fernandez, J. Aiken, W. M. Balch, P. Boyd, P. H. Burkill, M. Finch, S. B. Groom, G. Malin, K. Muller, D. A. Purdie, C. Robinson, C. C. Trees, S. M. Turner, P. Vanderwal, “A biogeochemical study of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in the North Atlantic,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 879–900 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, C.

P. M. Holligan, E. Fernandez, J. Aiken, W. M. Balch, P. Boyd, P. H. Burkill, M. Finch, S. B. Groom, G. Malin, K. Muller, D. A. Purdie, C. Robinson, C. C. Trees, S. M. Turner, P. Vanderwal, “A biogeochemical study of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in the North Atlantic,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 879–900 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

Smyth, T. J.

H. R. Gordon, G. C. Boynton, W. M. Balch, S. B. Groom, D. S. Harbour, T. J. Smyth, “Retrieval of coccolithophore calcite concentration from SeaWiFS imagery,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1587–1590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, V.

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taran, G.

G. Taran, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, Plymouth, PL13DH, U.K. (personal communication, 2001).

Trees, C. C.

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, C. C. Trees, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 1. Optical properties and factors affecting their distribution,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1669–1683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Holligan, E. Fernandez, J. Aiken, W. M. Balch, P. Boyd, P. H. Burkill, M. Finch, S. B. Groom, G. Malin, K. Muller, D. A. Purdie, C. Robinson, C. C. Trees, S. M. Turner, P. Vanderwal, “A biogeochemical study of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in the North Atlantic,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 879–900 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Turner, S. M.

P. M. Holligan, E. Fernandez, J. Aiken, W. M. Balch, P. Boyd, P. H. Burkill, M. Finch, S. B. Groom, G. Malin, K. Muller, D. A. Purdie, C. Robinson, C. C. Trees, S. M. Turner, P. Vanderwal, “A biogeochemical study of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in the North Atlantic,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 879–900 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tyrrell, T.

T. Tyrrell, P. M. Holligan, C. D. Mobley, “Optical impacts of oceanic coccolithophore blooms,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 3223–3241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vanderwal, P.

P. M. Holligan, E. Fernandez, J. Aiken, W. M. Balch, P. Boyd, P. H. Burkill, M. Finch, S. B. Groom, G. Malin, K. Muller, D. A. Purdie, C. Robinson, C. C. Trees, S. M. Turner, P. Vanderwal, “A biogeochemical study of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in the North Atlantic,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 879–900 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Veldhuis, M. J. W.

M. J. W. Veldhuis, G. Kraay, “Application of flow cytometry in marine phytoplankton research: current applications and future perspectives,” Scientia Marina 64, 121–134 (2000).

Voiller, M.

P. Holligan, M. Voiller, D. S. Harbour, P. Camus, M. Champagne-Phillippe, “Satellite and ship studies of coccolithophore production along a continental shelf edge,” Nature 304, 339–342 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K.

K. Voss, Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla. 33124 (personal communication, 2001).

Voss, K. J.

K. J. Voss, W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, “Scattering and attenuation properties of Emiliania huxleyi cells and their detached coccoliths,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 870–876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, R. Bartz, “Beam attenuation and absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics VII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE489, 318–342 (1984).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

H. R. Gordon, G. C. Boynton, W. M. Balch, S. B. Groom, D. S. Harbour, T. J. Smyth, “Retrieval of coccolithophore calcite concentration from SeaWiFS imagery,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1587–1590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Global Biogeochem. Cycles (1)

P. M. Holligan, E. Fernandez, J. Aiken, W. M. Balch, P. Boyd, P. H. Burkill, M. Finch, S. B. Groom, G. Malin, K. Muller, D. A. Purdie, C. Robinson, C. C. Trees, S. M. Turner, P. Vanderwal, “A biogeochemical study of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in the North Atlantic,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 7, 879–900 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

T. Tyrrell, P. M. Holligan, C. D. Mobley, “Optical impacts of oceanic coccolithophore blooms,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 3223–3241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Ackleson, W. M. Balch, P. M. Holligan, “Response of water-leaving radiance to particulate calcite and chlorophyll a concentrations: a model for Gulf of Maine coccolithophore blooms,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7483–7499 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Plankton Res. (1)

G. Garcia-Soto, E. Fernandez, R. D. Pingree, D. S. Harbour, “Evolution and structure of a shelf coccolithophore bloom in the Western English Channel,” J. Plankton Res. 17, 2011–2036 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (5)

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, C. C. Trees, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 1. Optical properties and factors affecting their distribution,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1669–1683 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss, W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, “Scattering and attenuation properties of Emiliania huxleyi cells and their detached coccoliths,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 870–876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Balch, K. A. Kilpatrick, P. M. Holligan, D. S. Harbour, E. Fernandez, “The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central North Atlantic. 2. Relating optics to coccolith concentration,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 1684–1696 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, “Light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detached from Emiliania huxleyi,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 46, 1438–1454 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Gregg, K. L. Carder, “A simple spectral solar irradiance model for cloudless maritime atmospheres,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 1657–1675 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marine Ecol. Prog. Ser. (1)

R. G. Barlow, D. G. Cummings, S. W. Gibb, “Improved resolution of mono- and divinyl chlorophylls a and b and zeaxanthin and lutein in phytoplankton extracts using reverse phase C-8 HPLC,” Marine Ecol. Prog. Ser. 161, 303–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. Holligan, M. Voiller, D. S. Harbour, P. Camus, M. Champagne-Phillippe, “Satellite and ship studies of coccolithophore production along a continental shelf edge,” Nature 304, 339–342 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Scientia Marina (1)

M. J. W. Veldhuis, G. Kraay, “Application of flow cytometry in marine phytoplankton research: current applications and future perspectives,” Scientia Marina 64, 121–134 (2000).

Sea Technol. (1)

C. Moore, “In situ, biochemical, oceanic, optical meters,” Sea Technol. 35, 10–16 (1994).

Solar Physics (1)

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 Å,” Solar Physics 90, 205–258 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

J. L. Mueller, R. W. Austin, Ocean Optics Protocols for SeaWiFS Validation, rev. 1, Vol. 25 of SeaWiFS Tech. Rep. Series, S. B. Hooker, E. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo104566 (1995).

J. R. V. Zaneveld, R. Bartz, “Beam attenuation and absorption meters,” in Ocean Optics VII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE489, 318–342 (1984).

G. Taran, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, Plymouth, PL13DH, U.K. (personal communication, 2001).

D. Harbour, Sir Alistair Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, Plymouth, U.K. (personal communication, 2001).

H. Gordon, Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla. 33124 (personal communication, 2001).

K. Voss, Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla. 33124 (personal communication, 2001).

C. D. Mobley, “HYDROLIGHT 3.0 User’s Guide” (SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif., 1995).

H. Buiteveld, J. H. M. Hakvoort, M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 174–183 (1994).

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994), Chap. 3, table 3.10.

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure seawater,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 1–24.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured normalized water-leaving radiance at 555 nm [L wn (555)] for the SeaWiFS overpass at 1251 GMT on 30 July 1999, showing the location and extent of the coccolithophore bloom. The locations of the various sampling stations are marked.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of the number of liths within the coccolithophore bloom at station 1 (filled circles), station 2 (crosses), station 3 (pluses), and station 4 (open triangles) measured by flow cytometry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of Petzold (open squares) and Voss (solid curves) particle phase function with (a) a linear and (b) a logarithmic abscissa to highlight changes at large and small angles, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of (a) temperature and (b) density (σ t ) within the coccolithophore bloom at station 1 (filled circles), station 2 (crosses), station 3 (pluses), and station 4 (open triangles). Data taken by temperature and salinity sensors mounted on the optics rig were used.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of ac-9 and MSM values of (a), (b) absorption; (c), (d) attenuation; (e), (f) scattering as a function of wavelength at each station (St). Values are means over the water column; the attendant standard deviations are shown as error bars.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Difference between the ac-9 measured and MSM values of (a) absorption and (b) attenuation at all stations (St). Data were derived from those in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of data modeled with the Hydrolight code with MSM and with ac-9 IOPs and of in situ measurements (open squares) of L u (555) and E d (555) at all four stations sampled on 30 July 1999.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of K d measured with the in situ optics and that modeled with the MSM and ac-9 data. Stn, station.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of L wn measured with in situ optics and SeaWiFS, and of L wn modeled with MSM and ac-9 data. Stn, station.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of a m a and am* b for a Curve Fitted to a Plot of Phytoplankton Absorption versus Chlorophyll-a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Results of the Regressions of MSM, ac-9, and SeaWiFS against in situ Optics for K d and L wn a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of Ratios of Apparent Optical Properties Calculated with the MSM and the THM Models and in situ Optics at 555 nm

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Lwnλ=Lu0-, λ1-ρλ, θnw2λ×E0¯λEsλmW cm-2 sr-1 μm-1,
Kdz, λ=-dln Edz, λdz  m-1
bbλ=bbwλ+bbpλ+bbcoccolithλ+bbcellλ  m-1,
bbwλ=0.5×0.00288λ/500-4.32  m-1.
bp660=0.407C0.795  m-1,
bpλ=bp660660/λlog10 C  m-1,
bbpλ=0.010.78-0.42 log10 Cbpλ  m-1,
bbcoccolithλ=106 Ncoccobbcoccolith*546λ/546-1.35  m-1,
bλ=2bbwλ+bpλ+58bbcoccolithλ  m-1,
aλ=awλ+ayλ+apλ  m-1,
ayλ=0.8ap440exp-0.014λ-440  m-1.
apλ=amλam*λCamλ+am*λC,
atλ-awλ=amλ-amtsλrefcmtsλref-amtsλref×cmλ-amλ,
=amtsλrefcmtsλref-amtsλref.
be=0αβ˜ψsin ψdψ0πβ˜ψsin ψdψ×100%.

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