Abstract

The lidar of the Radio Science Center for Space and Atmosphere (RASC; Kyoto, Japan) makes use of two pure rotational Raman (RR) signals for both the measurement of the atmospheric temperature profile and the derivation of a temperature-independent Raman reference signal. The latter technique is new and leads to significantly smaller measurement uncertainties compared with the commonly used vibrational Raman lidar technique. For the measurement of temperature, particle extinction coefficient, particle backscatter coefficient, and humidity simultaneously, only four lidar signals are needed: the elastic Cabannes backscatter signal, two RR signals, and the vibrational Raman water vapor signal. The RASC lidar provides RR signals of unprecedented intensity. Although only 25% of the RR signal intensities can be used with the present data-acquisition electronics, the 1-s statistical uncertainty of nighttime temperature measurements is lower than for previous systems and is <1K up to 11-km height for, e.g., a resolution of 500 m and 9 min. In addition, RR measurements in daytime also have become feasible.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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