Abstract

Organic microcavity light-emitting diodes typically exhibit a blueshift of the emitting wavelength with increasing viewing angle. We have modeled the shift of the resonance wavelength for several metal mirrors. Eight metals (Al, Ag, Cr, Ti, Au, Ni, Pt, and Cu) have been considered as top or bottom mirrors, depending on their work functions. The model fully takes into account the dependence of the phase change that occurs on reflection on angle and wavelength for both s and p polarization, as well as on dispersion in the organic layers. Different contributions to the emission wavelength shift are discussed. The influence of the thickness of the bottom mirror and of the choice and thickness of the organic materials inside the cavity has been investigated. Based on the results obtained, guidelines for a choice of materials to reduce blueshift are given.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Zhang, Y. Ma, M. Xu, K. Wu, C. Huang, Y. Zhao, D. Zhuo, L. Yin, X. Zhao, “Planar organic microcavity of Eu-chelate film with metal mirrors,” Solid State Commun. 104, 593–596 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. M. Miller, “Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308–2310 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Tokito, K. Noda, Y. Taga, “Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2633–2635 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Y. Liu, L. X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. L. E, J. M. Zhao, D. J. Wu, Y. Q. Ning, S. L. Wu, L. J. Wang, C. J. Liang, D. X. Zhao, Z. R. Hong, D. Zhao, C. Q. Jin, X. B. Jing, F. S. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Spontaneous emission properties of organic film in plane optical microcavity,” Thin Solid Films 363, 204–207 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Grüner, F. Cacialli, R. H. Friend, “Emission enhancement in single-layer conjugated polymer microcavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 207–215 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Dirr, S. Wiese, H.-H. Johanns, D. Ammermann, A. Böhler, W. Grahn, W. Kowalsky, “Luminescence enhancement in microcavity organic multilayer structures,” Synth. Metals 91, 53–56 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954–6964 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, S. Saito, “Control of emission characteristics in organic thin film electroluminescent diodes using an optical microcavity structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2032–2034 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Becker, S. E. Burns, N. Tessler, R. H. Friend, “Role of optical properties of metallic mirrors in microcavity structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2825–2829 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, R. H. Friend, “Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 556–558 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Neyts, P. De Visschere, D. K. Fork, G. B. Anderson, “Semitransparent metal or distributed Bragg reflector for wide-viewing-angle organic light-emitting-diode microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 114–119 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. D. Rakić, A. B. Djurišić, J. M. Elazar, M. L. Majewski, “Optical properties of metallic films for vertical-cavity optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5271–5283 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. B. Michaelson, “The work function of the elements and its periodicity,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4729–4733 (1977).
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  15. F. G. Celii, T. B. Horton, D. F. Philips, “Characterization of organic thin films for OLEDs using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Electron. Mater. 26, 366–371 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction. I. Basic concepts and analytical trends,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612–1631 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C.-C. Chang, W.-C. Chen, “High-refractive-index thin films prepared from aminoalkoxysilane-capped pyromellitic dianhydride-titania hybrid materials,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 39, 3419–3427 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Benaissa, K. E. Gonslaves, S. P. Rangarajan, “AlGaN nanoparticle/polymer composite: synthesis, optical, and structural characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3685–3697 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. Lam, Y. F. Zhang, Y. H. Tang, C. S. Lee, I. Bello, S. T. Lee, “Large-scale synthesis of ultrafine Si nanoparticles by ball milling,” J. Cryst. Growth 220, 466–470 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Gao, D. Cui, B. Huang, M. Jiang, “Study on the factors affecting the particles size of GaP nanocrystalline materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 192, 89–92 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. R. Philipp, D. G. Legrand, H. S. Cole, Y. S. Liu, “The optical properties of bisphenol-A polycarbonate,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 27, 1148–1155 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Borghesi, G. Guizzetti, “Gallium phosphide (GaP),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids I, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), p. 445.
  24. D. E. Aspnes, J. B. Theeten, F. Hottier, “Investigation of effective-medium models of microscopic surface roughness by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 3292–3302 (1979).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. B. Djurišić, C. Y. Kwong, T. W. Lau, W. L. Guo, E. H. Li, Z. T. Liu, H. S. Kwok, L. S. M. Lam, W. K. Chan, “Optical properties of copper phthalocyanine,” Opt. Commun. 205, 155–162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C.-C. Chang, W.-C. Chen, “High-refractive-index thin films prepared from aminoalkoxysilane-capped pyromellitic dianhydride-titania hybrid materials,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 39, 3419–3427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

K. Neyts, P. De Visschere, D. K. Fork, G. B. Anderson, “Semitransparent metal or distributed Bragg reflector for wide-viewing-angle organic light-emitting-diode microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 114–119 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Lam, Y. F. Zhang, Y. H. Tang, C. S. Lee, I. Bello, S. T. Lee, “Large-scale synthesis of ultrafine Si nanoparticles by ball milling,” J. Cryst. Growth 220, 466–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Liu, L. X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. L. E, J. M. Zhao, D. J. Wu, Y. Q. Ning, S. L. Wu, L. J. Wang, C. J. Liang, D. X. Zhao, Z. R. Hong, D. Zhao, C. Q. Jin, X. B. Jing, F. S. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Spontaneous emission properties of organic film in plane optical microcavity,” Thin Solid Films 363, 204–207 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

S. Gao, D. Cui, B. Huang, M. Jiang, “Study on the factors affecting the particles size of GaP nanocrystalline materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 192, 89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction. I. Basic concepts and analytical trends,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612–1631 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Rakić, A. B. Djurišić, J. M. Elazar, M. L. Majewski, “Optical properties of metallic films for vertical-cavity optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5271–5283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (6)

M. Benaissa, K. E. Gonslaves, S. P. Rangarajan, “AlGaN nanoparticle/polymer composite: synthesis, optical, and structural characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3685–3697 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Celii, T. B. Horton, D. F. Philips, “Characterization of organic thin films for OLEDs using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Electron. Mater. 26, 366–371 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhang, Y. Ma, M. Xu, K. Wu, C. Huang, Y. Zhao, D. Zhuo, L. Yin, X. Zhao, “Planar organic microcavity of Eu-chelate film with metal mirrors,” Solid State Commun. 104, 593–596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Dirr, S. Wiese, H.-H. Johanns, D. Ammermann, A. Böhler, W. Grahn, W. Kowalsky, “Luminescence enhancement in microcavity organic multilayer structures,” Synth. Metals 91, 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Becker, S. E. Burns, N. Tessler, R. H. Friend, “Role of optical properties of metallic mirrors in microcavity structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2825–2829 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, R. H. Friend, “Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 556–558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Grüner, F. Cacialli, R. H. Friend, “Emission enhancement in single-layer conjugated polymer microcavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 207–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, “Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997–1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokito, K. Noda, Y. Taga, “Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2633–2635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. M. Miller, “Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308–2310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, S. Saito, “Control of emission characteristics in organic thin film electroluminescent diodes using an optical microcavity structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2032–2034 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

H. R. Philipp, D. G. Legrand, H. S. Cole, Y. S. Liu, “The optical properties of bisphenol-A polycarbonate,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 27, 1148–1155 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, J. B. Theeten, F. Hottier, “Investigation of effective-medium models of microscopic surface roughness by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 3292–3302 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

H. B. Michaelson, “The work function of the elements and its periodicity,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4729–4733 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ammermann, D.

S. Dirr, S. Wiese, H.-H. Johanns, D. Ammermann, A. Böhler, W. Grahn, W. Kowalsky, “Luminescence enhancement in microcavity organic multilayer structures,” Synth. Metals 91, 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. B.

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, J. B. Theeten, F. Hottier, “Investigation of effective-medium models of microscopic surface roughness by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 3292–3302 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Becker, H.

H. Becker, S. E. Burns, N. Tessler, R. H. Friend, “Role of optical properties of metallic mirrors in microcavity structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2825–2829 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, R. H. Friend, “Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 556–558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bello, I.

C. Lam, Y. F. Zhang, Y. H. Tang, C. S. Lee, I. Bello, S. T. Lee, “Large-scale synthesis of ultrafine Si nanoparticles by ball milling,” J. Cryst. Growth 220, 466–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Benaissa, M.

M. Benaissa, K. E. Gonslaves, S. P. Rangarajan, “AlGaN nanoparticle/polymer composite: synthesis, optical, and structural characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3685–3697 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction. I. Basic concepts and analytical trends,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612–1631 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Böhler, A.

S. Dirr, S. Wiese, H.-H. Johanns, D. Ammermann, A. Böhler, W. Grahn, W. Kowalsky, “Luminescence enhancement in microcavity organic multilayer structures,” Synth. Metals 91, 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Borghesi, A.

A. Borghesi, G. Guizzetti, “Gallium phosphide (GaP),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids I, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), p. 445.

Burns, S.

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, R. H. Friend, “Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 556–558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. E.

H. Becker, S. E. Burns, N. Tessler, R. H. Friend, “Role of optical properties of metallic mirrors in microcavity structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2825–2829 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cacialli, F.

J. Grüner, F. Cacialli, R. H. Friend, “Emission enhancement in single-layer conjugated polymer microcavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 207–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Celii, F. G.

F. G. Celii, T. B. Horton, D. F. Philips, “Characterization of organic thin films for OLEDs using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Electron. Mater. 26, 366–371 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. K.

A. B. Djurišić, C. Y. Kwong, T. W. Lau, W. L. Guo, E. H. Li, Z. T. Liu, H. S. Kwok, L. S. M. Lam, W. K. Chan, “Optical properties of copper phthalocyanine,” Opt. Commun. 205, 155–162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-C.

C.-C. Chang, W.-C. Chen, “High-refractive-index thin films prepared from aminoalkoxysilane-capped pyromellitic dianhydride-titania hybrid materials,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 39, 3419–3427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-C.

C.-C. Chang, W.-C. Chen, “High-refractive-index thin films prepared from aminoalkoxysilane-capped pyromellitic dianhydride-titania hybrid materials,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 39, 3419–3427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cole, H. S.

H. R. Philipp, D. G. Legrand, H. S. Cole, Y. S. Liu, “The optical properties of bisphenol-A polycarbonate,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 27, 1148–1155 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cui, D.

S. Gao, D. Cui, B. Huang, M. Jiang, “Study on the factors affecting the particles size of GaP nanocrystalline materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 192, 89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

De Neve, H.

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction. I. Basic concepts and analytical trends,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612–1631 (1998).
[CrossRef]

De Visschere, P.

Dirr, S.

S. Dirr, S. Wiese, H.-H. Johanns, D. Ammermann, A. Böhler, W. Grahn, W. Kowalsky, “Luminescence enhancement in microcavity organic multilayer structures,” Synth. Metals 91, 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Djurišic, A. B.

A. B. Djurišić, C. Y. Kwong, T. W. Lau, W. L. Guo, E. H. Li, Z. T. Liu, H. S. Kwok, L. S. M. Lam, W. K. Chan, “Optical properties of copper phthalocyanine,” Opt. Commun. 205, 155–162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Rakić, A. B. Djurišić, J. M. Elazar, M. L. Majewski, “Optical properties of metallic films for vertical-cavity optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5271–5283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, “Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997–1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. M. Miller, “Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308–2310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E, S. L.

X. Y. Liu, L. X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. L. E, J. M. Zhao, D. J. Wu, Y. Q. Ning, S. L. Wu, L. J. Wang, C. J. Liang, D. X. Zhao, Z. R. Hong, D. Zhao, C. Q. Jin, X. B. Jing, F. S. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Spontaneous emission properties of organic film in plane optical microcavity,” Thin Solid Films 363, 204–207 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Elazar, J. M.

Fork, D. K.

Friend, R. H.

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, R. H. Friend, “Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 556–558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Becker, S. E. Burns, N. Tessler, R. H. Friend, “Role of optical properties of metallic mirrors in microcavity structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2825–2829 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Grüner, F. Cacialli, R. H. Friend, “Emission enhancement in single-layer conjugated polymer microcavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 207–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gao, S.

S. Gao, D. Cui, B. Huang, M. Jiang, “Study on the factors affecting the particles size of GaP nanocrystalline materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 192, 89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gonslaves, K. E.

M. Benaissa, K. E. Gonslaves, S. P. Rangarajan, “AlGaN nanoparticle/polymer composite: synthesis, optical, and structural characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3685–3697 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grahn, W.

S. Dirr, S. Wiese, H.-H. Johanns, D. Ammermann, A. Böhler, W. Grahn, W. Kowalsky, “Luminescence enhancement in microcavity organic multilayer structures,” Synth. Metals 91, 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grüner, J.

J. Grüner, F. Cacialli, R. H. Friend, “Emission enhancement in single-layer conjugated polymer microcavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 207–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guizzetti, G.

A. Borghesi, G. Guizzetti, “Gallium phosphide (GaP),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids I, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), p. 445.

Guo, W. L.

A. B. Djurišić, C. Y. Kwong, T. W. Lau, W. L. Guo, E. H. Li, Z. T. Liu, H. S. Kwok, L. S. M. Lam, W. K. Chan, “Optical properties of copper phthalocyanine,” Opt. Commun. 205, 155–162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Z. R.

X. Y. Liu, L. X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. L. E, J. M. Zhao, D. J. Wu, Y. Q. Ning, S. L. Wu, L. J. Wang, C. J. Liang, D. X. Zhao, Z. R. Hong, D. Zhao, C. Q. Jin, X. B. Jing, F. S. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Spontaneous emission properties of organic film in plane optical microcavity,” Thin Solid Films 363, 204–207 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Horton, T. B.

F. G. Celii, T. B. Horton, D. F. Philips, “Characterization of organic thin films for OLEDs using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Electron. Mater. 26, 366–371 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hottier, F.

D. E. Aspnes, J. B. Theeten, F. Hottier, “Investigation of effective-medium models of microscopic surface roughness by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 3292–3302 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Huang, B.

S. Gao, D. Cui, B. Huang, M. Jiang, “Study on the factors affecting the particles size of GaP nanocrystalline materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 192, 89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

B. Zhang, Y. Ma, M. Xu, K. Wu, C. Huang, Y. Zhao, D. Zhuo, L. Yin, X. Zhao, “Planar organic microcavity of Eu-chelate film with metal mirrors,” Solid State Commun. 104, 593–596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M.

S. Gao, D. Cui, B. Huang, M. Jiang, “Study on the factors affecting the particles size of GaP nanocrystalline materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 192, 89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jin, C. Q.

X. Y. Liu, L. X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. L. E, J. M. Zhao, D. J. Wu, Y. Q. Ning, S. L. Wu, L. J. Wang, C. J. Liang, D. X. Zhao, Z. R. Hong, D. Zhao, C. Q. Jin, X. B. Jing, F. S. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Spontaneous emission properties of organic film in plane optical microcavity,” Thin Solid Films 363, 204–207 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jing, X. B.

X. Y. Liu, L. X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. L. E, J. M. Zhao, D. J. Wu, Y. Q. Ning, S. L. Wu, L. J. Wang, C. J. Liang, D. X. Zhao, Z. R. Hong, D. Zhao, C. Q. Jin, X. B. Jing, F. S. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Spontaneous emission properties of organic film in plane optical microcavity,” Thin Solid Films 363, 204–207 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johanns, H.-H.

S. Dirr, S. Wiese, H.-H. Johanns, D. Ammermann, A. Böhler, W. Grahn, W. Kowalsky, “Luminescence enhancement in microcavity organic multilayer structures,” Synth. Metals 91, 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, R. H.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, “Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997–1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kowalsky, W.

S. Dirr, S. Wiese, H.-H. Johanns, D. Ammermann, A. Böhler, W. Grahn, W. Kowalsky, “Luminescence enhancement in microcavity organic multilayer structures,” Synth. Metals 91, 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

A. B. Djurišić, C. Y. Kwong, T. W. Lau, W. L. Guo, E. H. Li, Z. T. Liu, H. S. Kwok, L. S. M. Lam, W. K. Chan, “Optical properties of copper phthalocyanine,” Opt. Commun. 205, 155–162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, C. Y.

A. B. Djurišić, C. Y. Kwong, T. W. Lau, W. L. Guo, E. H. Li, Z. T. Liu, H. S. Kwok, L. S. M. Lam, W. K. Chan, “Optical properties of copper phthalocyanine,” Opt. Commun. 205, 155–162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lam, C.

C. Lam, Y. F. Zhang, Y. H. Tang, C. S. Lee, I. Bello, S. T. Lee, “Large-scale synthesis of ultrafine Si nanoparticles by ball milling,” J. Cryst. Growth 220, 466–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lam, L. S. M.

A. B. Djurišić, C. Y. Kwong, T. W. Lau, W. L. Guo, E. H. Li, Z. T. Liu, H. S. Kwok, L. S. M. Lam, W. K. Chan, “Optical properties of copper phthalocyanine,” Opt. Commun. 205, 155–162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lau, T. W.

A. B. Djurišić, C. Y. Kwong, T. W. Lau, W. L. Guo, E. H. Li, Z. T. Liu, H. S. Kwok, L. S. M. Lam, W. K. Chan, “Optical properties of copper phthalocyanine,” Opt. Commun. 205, 155–162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. S.

C. Lam, Y. F. Zhang, Y. H. Tang, C. S. Lee, I. Bello, S. T. Lee, “Large-scale synthesis of ultrafine Si nanoparticles by ball milling,” J. Cryst. Growth 220, 466–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. T.

C. Lam, Y. F. Zhang, Y. H. Tang, C. S. Lee, I. Bello, S. T. Lee, “Large-scale synthesis of ultrafine Si nanoparticles by ball milling,” J. Cryst. Growth 220, 466–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Liu, L. X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. L. E, J. M. Zhao, D. J. Wu, Y. Q. Ning, S. L. Wu, L. J. Wang, C. J. Liang, D. X. Zhao, Z. R. Hong, D. Zhao, C. Q. Jin, X. B. Jing, F. S. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Spontaneous emission properties of organic film in plane optical microcavity,” Thin Solid Films 363, 204–207 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Legrand, D. G.

H. R. Philipp, D. G. Legrand, H. S. Cole, Y. S. Liu, “The optical properties of bisphenol-A polycarbonate,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 27, 1148–1155 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Li, E. H.

A. B. Djurišić, C. Y. Kwong, T. W. Lau, W. L. Guo, E. H. Li, Z. T. Liu, H. S. Kwok, L. S. M. Lam, W. K. Chan, “Optical properties of copper phthalocyanine,” Opt. Commun. 205, 155–162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. L.

X. Y. Liu, L. X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. L. E, J. M. Zhao, D. J. Wu, Y. Q. Ning, S. L. Wu, L. J. Wang, C. J. Liang, D. X. Zhao, Z. R. Hong, D. Zhao, C. Q. Jin, X. B. Jing, F. S. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Spontaneous emission properties of organic film in plane optical microcavity,” Thin Solid Films 363, 204–207 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liang, C. J.

X. Y. Liu, L. X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. L. E, J. M. Zhao, D. J. Wu, Y. Q. Ning, S. L. Wu, L. J. Wang, C. J. Liang, D. X. Zhao, Z. R. Hong, D. Zhao, C. Q. Jin, X. B. Jing, F. S. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Spontaneous emission properties of organic film in plane optical microcavity,” Thin Solid Films 363, 204–207 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. Y.

X. Y. Liu, L. X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. L. E, J. M. Zhao, D. J. Wu, Y. Q. Ning, S. L. Wu, L. J. Wang, C. J. Liang, D. X. Zhao, Z. R. Hong, D. Zhao, C. Q. Jin, X. B. Jing, F. S. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Spontaneous emission properties of organic film in plane optical microcavity,” Thin Solid Films 363, 204–207 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

X. Y. Liu, L. X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. L. E, J. M. Zhao, D. J. Wu, Y. Q. Ning, S. L. Wu, L. J. Wang, C. J. Liang, D. X. Zhao, Z. R. Hong, D. Zhao, C. Q. Jin, X. B. Jing, F. S. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Spontaneous emission properties of organic film in plane optical microcavity,” Thin Solid Films 363, 204–207 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. S.

H. R. Philipp, D. G. Legrand, H. S. Cole, Y. S. Liu, “The optical properties of bisphenol-A polycarbonate,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 27, 1148–1155 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. T.

A. B. Djurišić, C. Y. Kwong, T. W. Lau, W. L. Guo, E. H. Li, Z. T. Liu, H. S. Kwok, L. S. M. Lam, W. K. Chan, “Optical properties of copper phthalocyanine,” Opt. Commun. 205, 155–162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

B. Zhang, Y. Ma, M. Xu, K. Wu, C. Huang, Y. Zhao, D. Zhuo, L. Yin, X. Zhao, “Planar organic microcavity of Eu-chelate film with metal mirrors,” Solid State Commun. 104, 593–596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Majewski, M. L.

Michaelson, H. B.

H. B. Michaelson, “The work function of the elements and its periodicity,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4729–4733 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Miller, T. M.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. M. Miller, “Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308–2310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Neyts, K.

Ning, Y. Q.

X. Y. Liu, L. X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. L. E, J. M. Zhao, D. J. Wu, Y. Q. Ning, S. L. Wu, L. J. Wang, C. J. Liang, D. X. Zhao, Z. R. Hong, D. Zhao, C. Q. Jin, X. B. Jing, F. S. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Spontaneous emission properties of organic film in plane optical microcavity,” Thin Solid Films 363, 204–207 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Noda, K.

S. Tokito, K. Noda, Y. Taga, “Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2633–2635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Philipp, H. R.

H. R. Philipp, D. G. Legrand, H. S. Cole, Y. S. Liu, “The optical properties of bisphenol-A polycarbonate,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 27, 1148–1155 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Philips, D. F.

F. G. Celii, T. B. Horton, D. F. Philips, “Characterization of organic thin films for OLEDs using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Electron. Mater. 26, 366–371 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, J. M.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rakic, A. D.

Rangarajan, S. P.

M. Benaissa, K. E. Gonslaves, S. P. Rangarajan, “AlGaN nanoparticle/polymer composite: synthesis, optical, and structural characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3685–3697 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rothberg, L. J.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, “Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997–1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. M. Miller, “Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308–2310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, S. Saito, “Control of emission characteristics in organic thin film electroluminescent diodes using an optical microcavity structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2032–2034 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, “Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997–1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taga, Y.

S. Tokito, K. Noda, Y. Taga, “Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2633–2635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takada, N.

N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, S. Saito, “Control of emission characteristics in organic thin film electroluminescent diodes using an optical microcavity structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2032–2034 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y. H.

C. Lam, Y. F. Zhang, Y. H. Tang, C. S. Lee, I. Bello, S. T. Lee, “Large-scale synthesis of ultrafine Si nanoparticles by ball milling,” J. Cryst. Growth 220, 466–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tessler, N.

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, R. H. Friend, “Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 556–558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Becker, S. E. Burns, N. Tessler, R. H. Friend, “Role of optical properties of metallic mirrors in microcavity structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2825–2829 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Theeten, J. B.

D. E. Aspnes, J. B. Theeten, F. Hottier, “Investigation of effective-medium models of microscopic surface roughness by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 3292–3302 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tokito, S.

S. Tokito, K. Noda, Y. Taga, “Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2633–2635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, T.

N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, S. Saito, “Control of emission characteristics in organic thin film electroluminescent diodes using an optical microcavity structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2032–2034 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F. S.

X. Y. Liu, L. X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. L. E, J. M. Zhao, D. J. Wu, Y. Q. Ning, S. L. Wu, L. J. Wang, C. J. Liang, D. X. Zhao, Z. R. Hong, D. Zhao, C. Q. Jin, X. B. Jing, F. S. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Spontaneous emission properties of organic film in plane optical microcavity,” Thin Solid Films 363, 204–207 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. J.

X. Y. Liu, L. X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. L. E, J. M. Zhao, D. J. Wu, Y. Q. Ning, S. L. Wu, L. J. Wang, C. J. Liang, D. X. Zhao, Z. R. Hong, D. Zhao, C. Q. Jin, X. B. Jing, F. S. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Spontaneous emission properties of organic film in plane optical microcavity,” Thin Solid Films 363, 204–207 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. X.

X. Y. Liu, L. X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. L. E, J. M. Zhao, D. J. Wu, Y. Q. Ning, S. L. Wu, L. J. Wang, C. J. Liang, D. X. Zhao, Z. R. Hong, D. Zhao, C. Q. Jin, X. B. Jing, F. S. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Spontaneous emission properties of organic film in plane optical microcavity,” Thin Solid Films 363, 204–207 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction. I. Basic concepts and analytical trends,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612–1631 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wiese, S.

S. Dirr, S. Wiese, H.-H. Johanns, D. Ammermann, A. Böhler, W. Grahn, W. Kowalsky, “Luminescence enhancement in microcavity organic multilayer structures,” Synth. Metals 91, 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D. J.

X. Y. Liu, L. X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. L. E, J. M. Zhao, D. J. Wu, Y. Q. Ning, S. L. Wu, L. J. Wang, C. J. Liang, D. X. Zhao, Z. R. Hong, D. Zhao, C. Q. Jin, X. B. Jing, F. S. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Spontaneous emission properties of organic film in plane optical microcavity,” Thin Solid Films 363, 204–207 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K.

B. Zhang, Y. Ma, M. Xu, K. Wu, C. Huang, Y. Zhao, D. Zhuo, L. Yin, X. Zhao, “Planar organic microcavity of Eu-chelate film with metal mirrors,” Solid State Commun. 104, 593–596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. L.

X. Y. Liu, L. X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. L. E, J. M. Zhao, D. J. Wu, Y. Q. Ning, S. L. Wu, L. J. Wang, C. J. Liang, D. X. Zhao, Z. R. Hong, D. Zhao, C. Q. Jin, X. B. Jing, F. S. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Spontaneous emission properties of organic film in plane optical microcavity,” Thin Solid Films 363, 204–207 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M.

B. Zhang, Y. Ma, M. Xu, K. Wu, C. Huang, Y. Zhao, D. Zhuo, L. Yin, X. Zhao, “Planar organic microcavity of Eu-chelate film with metal mirrors,” Solid State Commun. 104, 593–596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yin, L.

B. Zhang, Y. Ma, M. Xu, K. Wu, C. Huang, Y. Zhao, D. Zhuo, L. Yin, X. Zhao, “Planar organic microcavity of Eu-chelate film with metal mirrors,” Solid State Commun. 104, 593–596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

B. Zhang, Y. Ma, M. Xu, K. Wu, C. Huang, Y. Zhao, D. Zhuo, L. Yin, X. Zhao, “Planar organic microcavity of Eu-chelate film with metal mirrors,” Solid State Commun. 104, 593–596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. F.

C. Lam, Y. F. Zhang, Y. H. Tang, C. S. Lee, I. Bello, S. T. Lee, “Large-scale synthesis of ultrafine Si nanoparticles by ball milling,” J. Cryst. Growth 220, 466–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D.

X. Y. Liu, L. X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. L. E, J. M. Zhao, D. J. Wu, Y. Q. Ning, S. L. Wu, L. J. Wang, C. J. Liang, D. X. Zhao, Z. R. Hong, D. Zhao, C. Q. Jin, X. B. Jing, F. S. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Spontaneous emission properties of organic film in plane optical microcavity,” Thin Solid Films 363, 204–207 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D. X.

X. Y. Liu, L. X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. L. E, J. M. Zhao, D. J. Wu, Y. Q. Ning, S. L. Wu, L. J. Wang, C. J. Liang, D. X. Zhao, Z. R. Hong, D. Zhao, C. Q. Jin, X. B. Jing, F. S. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Spontaneous emission properties of organic film in plane optical microcavity,” Thin Solid Films 363, 204–207 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J. M.

X. Y. Liu, L. X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. L. E, J. M. Zhao, D. J. Wu, Y. Q. Ning, S. L. Wu, L. J. Wang, C. J. Liang, D. X. Zhao, Z. R. Hong, D. Zhao, C. Q. Jin, X. B. Jing, F. S. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Spontaneous emission properties of organic film in plane optical microcavity,” Thin Solid Films 363, 204–207 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

B. Zhang, Y. Ma, M. Xu, K. Wu, C. Huang, Y. Zhao, D. Zhuo, L. Yin, X. Zhao, “Planar organic microcavity of Eu-chelate film with metal mirrors,” Solid State Commun. 104, 593–596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

B. Zhang, Y. Ma, M. Xu, K. Wu, C. Huang, Y. Zhao, D. Zhuo, L. Yin, X. Zhao, “Planar organic microcavity of Eu-chelate film with metal mirrors,” Solid State Commun. 104, 593–596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhuo, D.

B. Zhang, Y. Ma, M. Xu, K. Wu, C. Huang, Y. Zhao, D. Zhuo, L. Yin, X. Zhao, “Planar organic microcavity of Eu-chelate film with metal mirrors,” Solid State Commun. 104, 593–596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, T. M. Miller, “Color variation with electroluminescent organic semiconductors in multimode resonant cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2308–2310 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Tokito, K. Noda, Y. Taga, “Strongly directed single mode emission from organic electroluminescent diode with a microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2633–2635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan, L. J. Rothberg, A. Dodabalapur, R. E. Slusher, “Efficiency enhancement of microcavity organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1997–1999 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, S. Saito, “Control of emission characteristics in organic thin film electroluminescent diodes using an optical microcavity structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2032–2034 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Tessler, S. Burns, H. Becker, R. H. Friend, “Suppressed angular color dispersion in planar microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 556–558 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Benaissa, K. E. Gonslaves, S. P. Rangarajan, “AlGaN nanoparticle/polymer composite: synthesis, optical, and structural characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3685–3697 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Benisty, H. De Neve, C. Weisbuch, “Impact of planar microcavity effects on light extraction. I. Basic concepts and analytical trends,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1612–1631 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, J. M. Phillips, “Physics and applications of organic microcavity light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954–6964 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Michaelson, “The work function of the elements and its periodicity,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4729–4733 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. Becker, S. E. Burns, N. Tessler, R. H. Friend, “Role of optical properties of metallic mirrors in microcavity structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2825–2829 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Grüner, F. Cacialli, R. H. Friend, “Emission enhancement in single-layer conjugated polymer microcavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 207–215 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (2)

C. Lam, Y. F. Zhang, Y. H. Tang, C. S. Lee, I. Bello, S. T. Lee, “Large-scale synthesis of ultrafine Si nanoparticles by ball milling,” J. Cryst. Growth 220, 466–470 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Gao, D. Cui, B. Huang, M. Jiang, “Study on the factors affecting the particles size of GaP nanocrystalline materials,” J. Cryst. Growth 192, 89–92 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

F. G. Celii, T. B. Horton, D. F. Philips, “Characterization of organic thin films for OLEDs using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Electron. Mater. 26, 366–371 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. (1)

C.-C. Chang, W.-C. Chen, “High-refractive-index thin films prepared from aminoalkoxysilane-capped pyromellitic dianhydride-titania hybrid materials,” J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 39, 3419–3427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. B. Djurišić, C. Y. Kwong, T. W. Lau, W. L. Guo, E. H. Li, Z. T. Liu, H. S. Kwok, L. S. M. Lam, W. K. Chan, “Optical properties of copper phthalocyanine,” Opt. Commun. 205, 155–162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. E. Aspnes, J. B. Theeten, F. Hottier, “Investigation of effective-medium models of microscopic surface roughness by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 20, 3292–3302 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Eng. Sci. (1)

H. R. Philipp, D. G. Legrand, H. S. Cole, Y. S. Liu, “The optical properties of bisphenol-A polycarbonate,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 27, 1148–1155 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

B. Zhang, Y. Ma, M. Xu, K. Wu, C. Huang, Y. Zhao, D. Zhuo, L. Yin, X. Zhao, “Planar organic microcavity of Eu-chelate film with metal mirrors,” Solid State Commun. 104, 593–596 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Metals (1)

S. Dirr, S. Wiese, H.-H. Johanns, D. Ammermann, A. Böhler, W. Grahn, W. Kowalsky, “Luminescence enhancement in microcavity organic multilayer structures,” Synth. Metals 91, 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

X. Y. Liu, L. X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. L. E, J. M. Zhao, D. J. Wu, Y. Q. Ning, S. L. Wu, L. J. Wang, C. J. Liang, D. X. Zhao, Z. R. Hong, D. Zhao, C. Q. Jin, X. B. Jing, F. S. Wang, W. L. Li, S. T. Lee, “Spontaneous emission properties of organic film in plane optical microcavity,” Thin Solid Films 363, 204–207 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Borghesi, G. Guizzetti, “Gallium phosphide (GaP),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids I, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), p. 445.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Device structure of a MOLED with two metal mirrors. HTL, hole-transport layer; ETL, electron-transport layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase change on reflection from the top mirror for s and p polarization with light incident from Alq 3 as a function of viewing angle outside the cavity. The phase change on reflection from a Ag mirror in air is shown for comparison.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the phase change on reflection from a Ag mirror for s and p polarization as a function of viewing angle outside the cavity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Phase change on reflection from the bottom mirror for s and p polarization with light incident from TPD as a function of viewing angle outside the cavity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Comparison of the wavelength shifts for cavities with Au–Ag and Pt–Al mirrors. (b) Emission wavelength shift versus viewing angle for different starting wavelengths (i.e., different thicknesses of organic materials inside the cavity) in a cavity with a Au bottom and a Ag top mirror.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Refractive indices of hole-transport materials over the spectral region of interest. The refractive index of Alq 3 is also shown. (b) Shift in emission wavelength relative to viewing angle for several hole-transport materials. Thick curves and closed symbols denote s polarization; thin curves and open symbols denote p polarization.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

i4πdiniλλ-φtop0, λ-φbot0, λ=2mπ,
i4πdiniλ+Δλcos θiλ+Δλ-φtopθtop, λ+Δλ-φbotθbot, λ+Δλ=2mπ,
Δλ=1ΔΦi4πdiniλ+Δλcos θi-niλ-λΔφtop+Δφbot,
ΔΦ=2mπ+φtopθtop, λ+Δλ+φbotθbot, λ+Δλ,
Δφtop=φtopθtop, λ+Δλ-φtop0, λ,
Δφbot=φbotθbot, λ+Δλ-φbot0, λ.
φs=tan-12niλcos θinmλy-kmλxnmλx+kmλy2-ni2λcos θi2+nmλy-kmλx2,
φp=tan-12niλcos θinmλy+kmλxni2λx2+y2-nm2λ+km2λ2 cos θi2,
Nm sin θm=ni sin θi=sin θ0.
R1=minR1crit, R1sp,crit, R1loss,
R1crit=1-mn2,
R1sp,crit=1-2mS,
λ=2πmLeffn cosθ,
εa-εεa+2εfa+εb-εεb+2ε1-fa=0,

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