Abstract

An optimal design method for a low-loss broadband silica-on-silicon Y branch is considered. A multimode waveguide section, which was used earlier to reduce the excess loss, is designed optimally when the light distribution at the end of the multimode waveguide section is matched to the profile of the symmetric supermode for the structure of the two branching waveguides. An optimization method that combines the genetic algorithm and a gradient-based search method is used to obtain the optimal geometrical parameters for the multimode waveguide section as well as the widths for the input and branching waveguides.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. K. Pant, R. D. Coalson, M. I. Hernandez, J. Campos-Martínez, “Optimal control theory for optical waveguide design: application to Y-branch structures,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3917–3923 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Chaudhari, D. S. Patil, D. K. Gautam, “A new technique for the reduction of the power loss in the Y-branch optical power splitter,” Opt. Commun. 193, 121–125 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. Hsu, C. T. Lee, “Design of microprism-type symmetric Y-junction waveguides with the full phase compensation method,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3234–3238 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Weissman, E. Marom, A. A. Hardy, “Novel passive multibranch power splitters for integrated optics,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4426–4428 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. O. Hanaizumi, M. Miyagi, S. Kawakami, “Low radiation loss Y-junctions in planar dielectric optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 51, 236–238 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Yabu, M. Geshiro, S. Sawa, “New design method for low-loss Y-branch waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1376–1384 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 203–205 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Chung, R. Spickermann, D. B. Young, N. Dagli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1009–1011 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. B. Soldano, M. Bouda, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, “New small-size single-mode optical power splitter based on multi-mode interference,” in Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Optical Communication (Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 1992), pp. 456–468 (1992).
  11. M. A. Fardad, M. Fallahi, “Sol-gel multimode interference power splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 697–699 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. A. Besse, M. Bachhamn, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004–1009 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1989).
  14. R. L. Haupt, “An introduction to genetic algorithms for electromagnetics,” IEEE Antennas Propaga. Mag. 37, 7–15 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. S. Weile, E. Michielssen, “Genetic algorithm optimization applied to electromagnetics: a review,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propaga. 45, 343–353 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. H. Lee, W. Steenaart, “Analysis of N × N passive optical star coupler based on the normal modes of N input waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1800–1806 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, S. Helfert, “Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150–162 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. R. Hadley, “Multistep method for wide-angle beam propagation,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1743–1745 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Vassallo, F. Collino, “Highly efficient absorbing boundary conditions for the beam propagation method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1570–1577 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, Silica-Based Buried Channel Waveguide and Devices (Chapman & Hall, London, 1996).
  21. H. Rao, R. Scarmozzino, R. M. Osgood, “A bidirectional beam propagation method for multiple dielectric interfaces,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 830–832 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

C. Chaudhari, D. S. Patil, D. K. Gautam, “A new technique for the reduction of the power loss in the Y-branch optical power splitter,” Opt. Commun. 193, 121–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabu, M. Geshiro, S. Sawa, “New design method for low-loss Y-branch waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1376–1384 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, S. Helfert, “Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

M. A. Fardad, M. Fallahi, “Sol-gel multimode interference power splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 697–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hsu, C. T. Lee, “Design of microprism-type symmetric Y-junction waveguides with the full phase compensation method,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3234–3238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Pant, R. D. Coalson, M. I. Hernandez, J. Campos-Martínez, “Optimal control theory for optical waveguide design: application to Y-branch structures,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3917–3923 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Rao, R. Scarmozzino, R. M. Osgood, “A bidirectional beam propagation method for multiple dielectric interfaces,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 830–832 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 203–205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Weile, E. Michielssen, “Genetic algorithm optimization applied to electromagnetics: a review,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propaga. 45, 343–353 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Vassallo, F. Collino, “Highly efficient absorbing boundary conditions for the beam propagation method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1570–1577 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

R. L. Haupt, “An introduction to genetic algorithms for electromagnetics,” IEEE Antennas Propaga. Mag. 37, 7–15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

P. A. Besse, M. Bachhamn, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004–1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

Y. Chung, R. Spickermann, D. B. Young, N. Dagli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1009–1011 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Lee, W. Steenaart, “Analysis of N × N passive optical star coupler based on the normal modes of N input waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1800–1806 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Hadley, “Multistep method for wide-angle beam propagation,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1743–1745 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1984 (1)

O. Hanaizumi, M. Miyagi, S. Kawakami, “Low radiation loss Y-junctions in planar dielectric optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 51, 236–238 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bachhamn, M.

P. A. Besse, M. Bachhamn, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004–1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Besse, P. A.

P. A. Besse, M. Bachhamn, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004–1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bouda, M.

L. B. Soldano, M. Bouda, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, “New small-size single-mode optical power splitter based on multi-mode interference,” in Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Optical Communication (Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 1992), pp. 456–468 (1992).

Campos-Martínez, J.

Chaudhari, C.

C. Chaudhari, D. S. Patil, D. K. Gautam, “A new technique for the reduction of the power loss in the Y-branch optical power splitter,” Opt. Commun. 193, 121–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

Y. Chung, R. Spickermann, D. B. Young, N. Dagli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1009–1011 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Coalson, R. D.

Collino, F.

C. Vassallo, F. Collino, “Highly efficient absorbing boundary conditions for the beam propagation method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1570–1577 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dagli, N.

Y. Chung, R. Spickermann, D. B. Young, N. Dagli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1009–1011 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fallahi, M.

M. A. Fardad, M. Fallahi, “Sol-gel multimode interference power splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 697–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fardad, M. A.

M. A. Fardad, M. Fallahi, “Sol-gel multimode interference power splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 697–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gautam, D. K.

C. Chaudhari, D. S. Patil, D. K. Gautam, “A new technique for the reduction of the power loss in the Y-branch optical power splitter,” Opt. Commun. 193, 121–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Geshiro, M.

Goldberg, D. E.

D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1989).

Gopinath, A.

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, S. Helfert, “Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hadley, G. R.

Hanaizumi, O.

O. Hanaizumi, M. Miyagi, S. Kawakami, “Low radiation loss Y-junctions in planar dielectric optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 51, 236–238 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, A. A.

Haupt, R. L.

R. L. Haupt, “An introduction to genetic algorithms for electromagnetics,” IEEE Antennas Propaga. Mag. 37, 7–15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Helfert, S.

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, S. Helfert, “Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, M. I.

Hsu, J. M.

Hu, M. H.

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 203–205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. Z.

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 203–205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

O. Hanaizumi, M. Miyagi, S. Kawakami, “Low radiation loss Y-junctions in planar dielectric optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 51, 236–238 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ladouceur, F.

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, Silica-Based Buried Channel Waveguide and Devices (Chapman & Hall, London, 1996).

Lee, C. T.

Lee, K. H.

K. H. Lee, W. Steenaart, “Analysis of N × N passive optical star coupler based on the normal modes of N input waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1800–1806 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Levy, M.

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 203–205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, Silica-Based Buried Channel Waveguide and Devices (Chapman & Hall, London, 1996).

Marom, E.

Melchior, H.

P. A. Besse, M. Bachhamn, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004–1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Michielssen, E.

D. S. Weile, E. Michielssen, “Genetic algorithm optimization applied to electromagnetics: a review,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propaga. 45, 343–353 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miyagi, M.

O. Hanaizumi, M. Miyagi, S. Kawakami, “Low radiation loss Y-junctions in planar dielectric optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 51, 236–238 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

H. Rao, R. Scarmozzino, R. M. Osgood, “A bidirectional beam propagation method for multiple dielectric interfaces,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 830–832 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 203–205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pant, D. K.

Patil, D. S.

C. Chaudhari, D. S. Patil, D. K. Gautam, “A new technique for the reduction of the power loss in the Y-branch optical power splitter,” Opt. Commun. 193, 121–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pregla, R.

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, S. Helfert, “Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rao, H.

H. Rao, R. Scarmozzino, R. M. Osgood, “A bidirectional beam propagation method for multiple dielectric interfaces,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 830–832 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sawa, S.

Scarmozzino, R.

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, S. Helfert, “Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Rao, R. Scarmozzino, R. M. Osgood, “A bidirectional beam propagation method for multiple dielectric interfaces,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 830–832 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 203–205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

P. A. Besse, M. Bachhamn, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004–1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, M. Bouda, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, “New small-size single-mode optical power splitter based on multi-mode interference,” in Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Optical Communication (Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 1992), pp. 456–468 (1992).

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Besse, M. Bachhamn, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004–1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, M. Bouda, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, “New small-size single-mode optical power splitter based on multi-mode interference,” in Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Optical Communication (Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 1992), pp. 456–468 (1992).

Spickermann, R.

Y. Chung, R. Spickermann, D. B. Young, N. Dagli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1009–1011 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Steenaart, W.

K. H. Lee, W. Steenaart, “Analysis of N × N passive optical star coupler based on the normal modes of N input waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1800–1806 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vassallo, C.

C. Vassallo, F. Collino, “Highly efficient absorbing boundary conditions for the beam propagation method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1570–1577 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Verbeek, B. H.

L. B. Soldano, M. Bouda, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, “New small-size single-mode optical power splitter based on multi-mode interference,” in Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Optical Communication (Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 1992), pp. 456–468 (1992).

Weile, D. S.

D. S. Weile, E. Michielssen, “Genetic algorithm optimization applied to electromagnetics: a review,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propaga. 45, 343–353 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weissman, Z.

Yabu, T.

Young, D. B.

Y. Chung, R. Spickermann, D. B. Young, N. Dagli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1009–1011 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Antennas Propaga. Mag. (1)

R. L. Haupt, “An introduction to genetic algorithms for electromagnetics,” IEEE Antennas Propaga. Mag. 37, 7–15 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Scarmozzino, A. Gopinath, R. Pregla, S. Helfert, “Numerical techniques for modeling guided-wave photonic devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 150–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

H. Rao, R. Scarmozzino, R. M. Osgood, “A bidirectional beam propagation method for multiple dielectric interfaces,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 830–832 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Fardad, M. Fallahi, “Sol-gel multimode interference power splitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 697–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, “A low-loss and compact waveguide Y-branch using refractive-index tapering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 203–205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chung, R. Spickermann, D. B. Young, N. Dagli, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1009–1011 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propaga. (1)

D. S. Weile, E. Michielssen, “Genetic algorithm optimization applied to electromagnetics: a review,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propaga. 45, 343–353 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

K. H. Lee, W. Steenaart, “Analysis of N × N passive optical star coupler based on the normal modes of N input waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1800–1806 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Besse, M. Bachhamn, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004–1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Yabu, M. Geshiro, S. Sawa, “New design method for low-loss Y-branch waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1376–1384 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Vassallo, F. Collino, “Highly efficient absorbing boundary conditions for the beam propagation method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1570–1577 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

C. Chaudhari, D. S. Patil, D. K. Gautam, “A new technique for the reduction of the power loss in the Y-branch optical power splitter,” Opt. Commun. 193, 121–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Hanaizumi, M. Miyagi, S. Kawakami, “Low radiation loss Y-junctions in planar dielectric optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 51, 236–238 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, Silica-Based Buried Channel Waveguide and Devices (Chapman & Hall, London, 1996).

L. B. Soldano, M. Bouda, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, “New small-size single-mode optical power splitter based on multi-mode interference,” in Proceedings of the 18th European Conference on Optical Communication (Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 1992), pp. 456–468 (1992).

D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1989).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic structure for the conventional Y branch (with ideal branching).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

gap (in the right-hand diagram) between the two branching silica-on-silicon waveguides for the convenience of fabrication.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Light intensity distribution for the symmetric supermode of the five-layer waveguide structure (i.e., the structure of the two branching waveguides). (b) Schematic structure of the Y branch with a multimode waveguide section.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Largest) objective function as the iteration increases.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Excess losses at different wavelengths for the designed splitter (W m = 19.96 µm, W t = 11.1 µm, s = 2.0 µm, and W i = 9.62 µm) and a 3-dB MMI coupler with width W m = 60 µm.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Lm=πβ0-β2,
η2=Pz0+Pin,
Pz0+=f*x, z=z0+gx, z=z0-dx2fx, z=z0+2dxgx, z=z0-2dx.
λnco2-ncl21/2Wm<2λnco2-ncl21/2,

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