Abstract

Optical limiting performance, third-order nonlinearity χ(3), and nonlinear absorption properties have been investigated in a new class of azoarene phosphorus (V) porphyrins with charge transfer (CT) states. The introduction of axial azoarene groups into the phosphorus porphyrin structure is found to reduce the limiting threshold by a factor of 2 and lead to a rise in the second hyperpolarizability by 1 order of magnitude in the picosecond time regime and by 2 orders of magnitude in the nanosecond regime. The experimental data show reverse saturation of absorption in the nanosecond time regime and a saturation of the nonlinear absorption above a fluence of 0.5 J/cm2 in the picosecond regime. The presence of the CT state reduces saturation of excited-state absorption (ESA) in the S 1S n transition through the S 1 →CT transition. Faster CT → T 1 transition increases the ESA from T 1T n states in the nanosecond regime. A self-consistent theoretical analysis based on rate equations is used to estimate the high-lying excited-state lifetimes and absorption cross sections from the experimental results.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. Y.-P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, “Organic and inorganic optical limiting materials. From fullerenes to nanoparticles,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 18, 43–90 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. W. Tutt, T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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  5. M. P. Joshi, J. Swiatkiewicz, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, R. Kannan, “Energy transfer coupling of two-photon absorption and reverse saturable absorption for enhanced optical power limiting,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1742–1744 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. E. Hernandez, S. Yang, E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, “High-dynamic-range cascaded-focus optical limiter,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1180–1182 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Blau, H. Byrne, W. M. Dennis, J. M. Kelly, “Reverse saturable absorption in tetraphenyl porphyrins,” Opt. Commun. 56, 25–29 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, “Nonlinear excited state absorption in cadmium texaphyrin solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3083–3085 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Z. Henari, W. J. Blau, L. R. Milgram, G. Yahioglu, D. Phillips, J. A. Lacey, “Third-order nonlinearity in Zn (II) complexes of 5,10,15,20-tetra aryl ethynyl-substituted porphyrins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 267, 229–233 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Krivokapic, H. L. Anderson, G. Bourhill, R. Ives, S. Clark, K. J. McEwan, “Meso-tetrra-alkynyl porphyrins for optical limiting: a survey of group III and group IV metal complexes,” Adv. Mater. 13, 652–656 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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  13. I. E. Borissevitch, N. Rakov, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araujo, “Changes in porphyrin nonlinear absorption owing to interaction with bovine serum albumin,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4431–4435 (2000).
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  14. A. Sevian, M. Ravikanth, G. Ravindra Kumar, “Optical limiting in short chain baskethandle porphyrins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 241–246 (1996).
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  15. M. P. O’Neil, M. P. Niermczyk, W. A. Svec, D. Gosztola, G. L. Gaines, M. R. Wasielewski, “Picosecond optical switching based on biphotonic excitation of an electron donor-acceptor–donor molecule,” Science 257, 63–65 (1992).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. A. G. Bezerra, I. E. Borissevitch, R. E. de Araujo, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, “Investigation of picosecond optical nonlinearity in porphyrin metal complexes derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 511–516 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Venugopal Rao, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. Narayana Rao, L. Giribabu, B. G. Maiya, R. Philip, G. R. Kumar, “Studies of third-order optical nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption in tetra tolyl porphyrins using degenerate four wave mixing and Z-scan,” Opt. Commun. 182, 255–264 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. Prem Kiran, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. Raghunath Reddy, B. G. Maiya, A. Dharmadhikari, A. S. Sandhu, G. Ravindra Kumar, D. Narayana Rao, “Heavy atom effect on nonlinear absorption and optical limiting characteristics of 5,10,15,20-(tetratolyl) porphyrinato phosphorus (V) dichloride,” Opt. Commun. 202, 347–352 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. Raghunath Reddy, B. G. Maiya, “A molecular photoswitch based on an ‘axial-bonding’ type phosphorus (V) porphyrin,” Chem. Commun. Issue 1, 117–118 (2001).
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  27. T. J. McKay, J. Staromlynska, J. R. Davy, J. A. Bolger, “Cross sections for excited-state absorption in a Pt:ethynyl complex,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 358–362 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Ichida, T. Sohda, A. Nakamura, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of C60 CT complexes with aromatic amines,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7082–7084 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850–3852 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. N. R. Swatton, K. R. Welford, S. J. Till, J. R. Sambles, “Nonlinear absorption of a carbocyanine dye 1,1′,3,3,3′,3′-hexamethylindotricarbocyanine iodide using a z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1868–1870 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  32. T.-H. Wei, T.-H. Huang, H.-D. Lin, S.-H. Lin, “Lifetime determination for high-lying excited states using Z scan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2266–2268 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  33. S. Venugopal Rao, D. Narayana Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297, 491–498 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  34. P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, M. Makashima, J. F. Roach, D. M. Alabran, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond kinetics and reverse saturable absorption of meso-substituted tetrabenzoporphyrins,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17507–17512 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  35. F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144–148 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2002

P. Prem Kiran, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. Raghunath Reddy, B. G. Maiya, A. Dharmadhikari, A. S. Sandhu, G. Ravindra Kumar, D. Narayana Rao, “Heavy atom effect on nonlinear absorption and optical limiting characteristics of 5,10,15,20-(tetratolyl) porphyrinato phosphorus (V) dichloride,” Opt. Commun. 202, 347–352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

D. Raghunath Reddy, B. G. Maiya, “A molecular photoswitch based on an ‘axial-bonding’ type phosphorus (V) porphyrin,” Chem. Commun. Issue 1, 117–118 (2001).

T. J. McKay, J. Staromlynska, J. R. Davy, J. A. Bolger, “Cross sections for excited-state absorption in a Pt:ethynyl complex,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 358–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Krivokapic, H. L. Anderson, G. Bourhill, R. Ives, S. Clark, K. J. McEwan, “Meso-tetrra-alkynyl porphyrins for optical limiting: a survey of group III and group IV metal complexes,” Adv. Mater. 13, 652–656 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. K. M. Naga Srinivas, S. Venugopal Rao, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, B. K. Kimball, M. Nakashima, B. S. Decristofano, D. Narayana Rao, “Wavelength dependent studies of nonlinear absorption in zinc meso-tetra(p-methoxyphenyl)tetrabenzoporphyrin (Znmp TBP) using Z-scan technique,” J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 5, 549–554 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

I. E. Borissevitch, N. Rakov, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araujo, “Changes in porphyrin nonlinear absorption owing to interaction with bovine serum albumin,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4431–4435 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hernandez, S. Yang, E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, “High-dynamic-range cascaded-focus optical limiter,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1180–1182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Bezerra, I. E. Borissevitch, R. E. de Araujo, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, “Investigation of picosecond optical nonlinearity in porphyrin metal complexes derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 511–516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Ichida, T. Sohda, A. Nakamura, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of C60 CT complexes with aromatic amines,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7082–7084 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Venugopal Rao, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. Narayana Rao, L. Giribabu, B. G. Maiya, R. Philip, G. R. Kumar, “Studies of third-order optical nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption in tetra tolyl porphyrins using degenerate four wave mixing and Z-scan,” Opt. Commun. 182, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. Tsuchiya, “Intramolecular electron transfer of diporphyrins comprised of electron-deficient porphyrin and electron-rich porphyrin with photocontrolled isomerization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 48–53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Hirakawa, H. Segawa, “Excitation energy transfer and photo-induced electron transfer in axial bispyrenyl phosphorus porphyrin derivatives: factors governing the competition between energy and electron transfer processes under the existence of intramolecular π–π interaction,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 123, 67–76 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. LeGourrierec, M. Andersson, J. Davidson, E. Mukhtar, L. Sun, L. Hammarstrom, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a higher excited state of a porphyrin in a zinc porphyrin-ruthenium(II) tris-bipyridine dyad,” J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 557–559 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. B. James, K. J. McEwan, “Bubble and refractive processes in carbon suspensions,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 377–390 (1999).

R. C. Hollins, “Materials for optical limiters,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 4, 189–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y.-P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, “Organic and inorganic optical limiting materials. From fullerenes to nanoparticles,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 18, 43–90 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. P. Joshi, J. Swiatkiewicz, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, R. Kannan, “Energy transfer coupling of two-photon absorption and reverse saturable absorption for enhanced optical power limiting,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1742–1744 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Venugopal Rao, D. Narayana Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297, 491–498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

F. Z. Henari, W. J. Blau, L. R. Milgram, G. Yahioglu, D. Phillips, J. A. Lacey, “Third-order nonlinearity in Zn (II) complexes of 5,10,15,20-tetra aryl ethynyl-substituted porphyrins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 267, 229–233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Narayana Rao, S. Venugopal Rao, F. J. Aranda, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, M. Nakashima, J. A. Akkara, “Ultrafast relaxation times of metalloporphyrins by time-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing with incoherent light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2710–2715 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. Sevian, M. Ravikanth, G. Ravindra Kumar, “Optical limiting in short chain baskethandle porphyrins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 241–246 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, M. Makashima, J. F. Roach, D. M. Alabran, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond kinetics and reverse saturable absorption of meso-substituted tetrabenzoporphyrins,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17507–17512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850–3852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. N. R. Swatton, K. R. Welford, S. J. Till, J. R. Sambles, “Nonlinear absorption of a carbocyanine dye 1,1′,3,3,3′,3′-hexamethylindotricarbocyanine iodide using a z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Wei, T.-H. Huang, H.-D. Lin, S.-H. Lin, “Lifetime determination for high-lying excited states using Z scan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2266–2268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, “Nonlinear excited state absorption in cadmium texaphyrin solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3083–3085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

L. W. Tutt, T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. P. O’Neil, M. P. Niermczyk, W. A. Svec, D. Gosztola, G. L. Gaines, M. R. Wasielewski, “Picosecond optical switching based on biphotonic excitation of an electron donor-acceptor–donor molecule,” Science 257, 63–65 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Boggess, “Two-photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 613–623 (1985).

W. Blau, H. Byrne, W. M. Dennis, J. M. Kelly, “Reverse saturable absorption in tetraphenyl porphyrins,” Opt. Commun. 56, 25–29 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Akkara, J. A.

S. Venugopal Rao, D. Narayana Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297, 491–498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Narayana Rao, S. Venugopal Rao, F. J. Aranda, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, M. Nakashima, J. A. Akkara, “Ultrafast relaxation times of metalloporphyrins by time-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing with incoherent light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2710–2715 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Alabran, D. M.

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, M. Makashima, J. F. Roach, D. M. Alabran, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond kinetics and reverse saturable absorption of meso-substituted tetrabenzoporphyrins,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17507–17512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, H. L.

A. Krivokapic, H. L. Anderson, G. Bourhill, R. Ives, S. Clark, K. J. McEwan, “Meso-tetrra-alkynyl porphyrins for optical limiting: a survey of group III and group IV metal complexes,” Adv. Mater. 13, 652–656 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, M.

D. LeGourrierec, M. Andersson, J. Davidson, E. Mukhtar, L. Sun, L. Hammarstrom, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a higher excited state of a porphyrin in a zinc porphyrin-ruthenium(II) tris-bipyridine dyad,” J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 557–559 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aranda, F. J.

Bezerra, A. G.

A. G. Bezerra, I. E. Borissevitch, R. E. de Araujo, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, “Investigation of picosecond optical nonlinearity in porphyrin metal complexes derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 511–516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blau, W.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. Blau, H. Byrne, W. M. Dennis, J. M. Kelly, “Reverse saturable absorption in tetraphenyl porphyrins,” Opt. Commun. 56, 25–29 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Blau, W. J.

F. Z. Henari, W. J. Blau, L. R. Milgram, G. Yahioglu, D. Phillips, J. A. Lacey, “Third-order nonlinearity in Zn (II) complexes of 5,10,15,20-tetra aryl ethynyl-substituted porphyrins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 267, 229–233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boggess, T. F.

L. W. Tutt, T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Boggess, “Two-photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 613–623 (1985).

Bolger, J. A.

Borissevitch, I. E.

A. G. Bezerra, I. E. Borissevitch, R. E. de Araujo, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, “Investigation of picosecond optical nonlinearity in porphyrin metal complexes derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 511–516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. E. Borissevitch, N. Rakov, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araujo, “Changes in porphyrin nonlinear absorption owing to interaction with bovine serum albumin,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4431–4435 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bourhill, G.

A. Krivokapic, H. L. Anderson, G. Bourhill, R. Ives, S. Clark, K. J. McEwan, “Meso-tetrra-alkynyl porphyrins for optical limiting: a survey of group III and group IV metal complexes,” Adv. Mater. 13, 652–656 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Byeon, C. C.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, H.

W. Blau, H. Byrne, W. M. Dennis, J. M. Kelly, “Reverse saturable absorption in tetraphenyl porphyrins,” Opt. Commun. 56, 25–29 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Callaghan, J.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cardin, D. J.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cha, M.

M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850–3852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, M. Makashima, J. F. Roach, D. M. Alabran, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond kinetics and reverse saturable absorption of meso-substituted tetrabenzoporphyrins,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17507–17512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chou, J.-H.

J.-H. Chou, M. E. Kosal, H. S. Nalwa, N. A. Rakow, K. S. Suslick, “Applications of porphyrins and metalloporphyrins to materials chemistry,” in The Porphyrin Handbook, K. M. Kadish, K. M. Smith, R. Guilard, eds. (Academic, New York, 2000), Vol. 6, pp. 43–131.

Clark, S.

A. Krivokapic, H. L. Anderson, G. Bourhill, R. Ives, S. Clark, K. J. McEwan, “Meso-tetrra-alkynyl porphyrins for optical limiting: a survey of group III and group IV metal complexes,” Adv. Mater. 13, 652–656 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, J.

D. LeGourrierec, M. Andersson, J. Davidson, E. Mukhtar, L. Sun, L. Hammarstrom, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a higher excited state of a porphyrin in a zinc porphyrin-ruthenium(II) tris-bipyridine dyad,” J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 557–559 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davy, J. R.

de Araujo, C. B.

A. G. Bezerra, I. E. Borissevitch, R. E. de Araujo, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, “Investigation of picosecond optical nonlinearity in porphyrin metal complexes derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 511–516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. E. Borissevitch, N. Rakov, G. S. Maciel, C. B. de Araujo, “Changes in porphyrin nonlinear absorption owing to interaction with bovine serum albumin,” Appl. Opt. 39, 4431–4435 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Araujo, R. E.

A. G. Bezerra, I. E. Borissevitch, R. E. de Araujo, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, “Investigation of picosecond optical nonlinearity in porphyrin metal complexes derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 511–516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Decristofano, B. S.

N. K. M. Naga Srinivas, S. Venugopal Rao, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, B. K. Kimball, M. Nakashima, B. S. Decristofano, D. Narayana Rao, “Wavelength dependent studies of nonlinear absorption in zinc meso-tetra(p-methoxyphenyl)tetrabenzoporphyrin (Znmp TBP) using Z-scan technique,” J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 5, 549–554 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Venugopal Rao, D. Narayana Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297, 491–498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, W. M.

W. Blau, H. Byrne, W. M. Dennis, J. M. Kelly, “Reverse saturable absorption in tetraphenyl porphyrins,” Opt. Commun. 56, 25–29 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dharmadhikari, A.

P. Prem Kiran, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. Raghunath Reddy, B. G. Maiya, A. Dharmadhikari, A. S. Sandhu, G. Ravindra Kumar, D. Narayana Rao, “Heavy atom effect on nonlinear absorption and optical limiting characteristics of 5,10,15,20-(tetratolyl) porphyrinato phosphorus (V) dichloride,” Opt. Commun. 202, 347–352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dong, S.

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, “Nonlinear excited state absorption in cadmium texaphyrin solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3083–3085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dvornikov, A. S.

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, M. Makashima, J. F. Roach, D. M. Alabran, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond kinetics and reverse saturable absorption of meso-substituted tetrabenzoporphyrins,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17507–17512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gaines, G. L.

M. P. O’Neil, M. P. Niermczyk, W. A. Svec, D. Gosztola, G. L. Gaines, M. R. Wasielewski, “Picosecond optical switching based on biphotonic excitation of an electron donor-acceptor–donor molecule,” Science 257, 63–65 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giribabu, L.

S. Venugopal Rao, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. Narayana Rao, L. Giribabu, B. G. Maiya, R. Philip, G. R. Kumar, “Studies of third-order optical nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption in tetra tolyl porphyrins using degenerate four wave mixing and Z-scan,” Opt. Commun. 182, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

A. G. Bezerra, I. E. Borissevitch, R. E. de Araujo, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, “Investigation of picosecond optical nonlinearity in porphyrin metal complexes derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 511–516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gosztola, D.

M. P. O’Neil, M. P. Niermczyk, W. A. Svec, D. Gosztola, G. L. Gaines, M. R. Wasielewski, “Picosecond optical switching based on biphotonic excitation of an electron donor-acceptor–donor molecule,” Science 257, 63–65 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gray, G. M.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guha, S.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Boggess, “Two-photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 613–623 (1985).

Hagan, D. J.

F. E. Hernandez, S. Yang, E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, “High-dynamic-range cascaded-focus optical limiter,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1180–1182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hammarstrom, L.

D. LeGourrierec, M. Andersson, J. Davidson, E. Mukhtar, L. Sun, L. Hammarstrom, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a higher excited state of a porphyrin in a zinc porphyrin-ruthenium(II) tris-bipyridine dyad,” J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 557–559 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850–3852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Henari, F.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Henari, F. Z.

F. Z. Henari, W. J. Blau, L. R. Milgram, G. Yahioglu, D. Phillips, J. A. Lacey, “Third-order nonlinearity in Zn (II) complexes of 5,10,15,20-tetra aryl ethynyl-substituted porphyrins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 267, 229–233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, F. E.

Hirakawa, K.

K. Hirakawa, H. Segawa, “Excitation energy transfer and photo-induced electron transfer in axial bispyrenyl phosphorus porphyrin derivatives: factors governing the competition between energy and electron transfer processes under the existence of intramolecular π–π interaction,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 123, 67–76 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hollins, R. C.

R. C. Hollins, “Materials for optical limiters,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 4, 189–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T.-H.

T.-H. Wei, T.-H. Huang, H.-D. Lin, S.-H. Lin, “Lifetime determination for high-lying excited states using Z scan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2266–2268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hummelen, J. C.

M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850–3852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ichida, M.

M. Ichida, T. Sohda, A. Nakamura, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of C60 CT complexes with aromatic amines,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7082–7084 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ives, R.

A. Krivokapic, H. L. Anderson, G. Bourhill, R. Ives, S. Clark, K. J. McEwan, “Meso-tetrra-alkynyl porphyrins for optical limiting: a survey of group III and group IV metal complexes,” Adv. Mater. 13, 652–656 (2001).
[CrossRef]

James, D. B.

D. B. James, K. J. McEwan, “Bubble and refractive processes in carbon suspensions,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 377–390 (1999).

Joshi, M. P.

Kannan, R.

Kelly, J. M.

W. Blau, H. Byrne, W. M. Dennis, J. M. Kelly, “Reverse saturable absorption in tetraphenyl porphyrins,” Opt. Commun. 56, 25–29 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kimball, B. K.

N. K. M. Naga Srinivas, S. Venugopal Rao, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, B. K. Kimball, M. Nakashima, B. S. Decristofano, D. Narayana Rao, “Wavelength dependent studies of nonlinear absorption in zinc meso-tetra(p-methoxyphenyl)tetrabenzoporphyrin (Znmp TBP) using Z-scan technique,” J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 5, 549–554 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kosal, M. E.

J.-H. Chou, M. E. Kosal, H. S. Nalwa, N. A. Rakow, K. S. Suslick, “Applications of porphyrins and metalloporphyrins to materials chemistry,” in The Porphyrin Handbook, K. M. Kadish, K. M. Smith, R. Guilard, eds. (Academic, New York, 2000), Vol. 6, pp. 43–131.

Krivokapic, A.

A. Krivokapic, H. L. Anderson, G. Bourhill, R. Ives, S. Clark, K. J. McEwan, “Meso-tetrra-alkynyl porphyrins for optical limiting: a survey of group III and group IV metal complexes,” Adv. Mater. 13, 652–656 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, G. R.

S. Venugopal Rao, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. Narayana Rao, L. Giribabu, B. G. Maiya, R. Philip, G. R. Kumar, “Studies of third-order optical nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption in tetra tolyl porphyrins using degenerate four wave mixing and Z-scan,” Opt. Commun. 182, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lacey, J. A.

F. Z. Henari, W. J. Blau, L. R. Milgram, G. Yahioglu, D. Phillips, J. A. Lacey, “Third-order nonlinearity in Zn (II) complexes of 5,10,15,20-tetra aryl ethynyl-substituted porphyrins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 267, 229–233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, C. M.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

LeGourrierec, D.

D. LeGourrierec, M. Andersson, J. Davidson, E. Mukhtar, L. Sun, L. Hammarstrom, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a higher excited state of a porphyrin in a zinc porphyrin-ruthenium(II) tris-bipyridine dyad,” J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 557–559 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, “Nonlinear excited state absorption in cadmium texaphyrin solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3083–3085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.-D.

T.-H. Wei, T.-H. Huang, H.-D. Lin, S.-H. Lin, “Lifetime determination for high-lying excited states using Z scan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2266–2268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.-H.

T.-H. Wei, T.-H. Huang, H.-D. Lin, S.-H. Lin, “Lifetime determination for high-lying excited states using Z scan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2266–2268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maciel, G. S.

Maiya, B. G.

P. Prem Kiran, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. Raghunath Reddy, B. G. Maiya, A. Dharmadhikari, A. S. Sandhu, G. Ravindra Kumar, D. Narayana Rao, “Heavy atom effect on nonlinear absorption and optical limiting characteristics of 5,10,15,20-(tetratolyl) porphyrinato phosphorus (V) dichloride,” Opt. Commun. 202, 347–352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Raghunath Reddy, B. G. Maiya, “A molecular photoswitch based on an ‘axial-bonding’ type phosphorus (V) porphyrin,” Chem. Commun. Issue 1, 117–118 (2001).

S. Venugopal Rao, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. Narayana Rao, L. Giribabu, B. G. Maiya, R. Philip, G. R. Kumar, “Studies of third-order optical nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption in tetra tolyl porphyrins using degenerate four wave mixing and Z-scan,” Opt. Commun. 182, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Makashima, M.

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, M. Makashima, J. F. Roach, D. M. Alabran, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond kinetics and reverse saturable absorption of meso-substituted tetrabenzoporphyrins,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17507–17512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McEwan, K. J.

A. Krivokapic, H. L. Anderson, G. Bourhill, R. Ives, S. Clark, K. J. McEwan, “Meso-tetrra-alkynyl porphyrins for optical limiting: a survey of group III and group IV metal complexes,” Adv. Mater. 13, 652–656 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. B. James, K. J. McEwan, “Bubble and refractive processes in carbon suspensions,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 377–390 (1999).

McKay, T. J.

McKerns, M. M.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Milgram, L. R.

F. Z. Henari, W. J. Blau, L. R. Milgram, G. Yahioglu, D. Phillips, J. A. Lacey, “Third-order nonlinearity in Zn (II) complexes of 5,10,15,20-tetra aryl ethynyl-substituted porphyrins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 267, 229–233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mukhtar, E.

D. LeGourrierec, M. Andersson, J. Davidson, E. Mukhtar, L. Sun, L. Hammarstrom, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a higher excited state of a porphyrin in a zinc porphyrin-ruthenium(II) tris-bipyridine dyad,” J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 557–559 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Naga Srinivas, N. K. M.

N. K. M. Naga Srinivas, S. Venugopal Rao, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, B. K. Kimball, M. Nakashima, B. S. Decristofano, D. Narayana Rao, “Wavelength dependent studies of nonlinear absorption in zinc meso-tetra(p-methoxyphenyl)tetrabenzoporphyrin (Znmp TBP) using Z-scan technique,” J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 5, 549–554 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, A.

M. Ichida, T. Sohda, A. Nakamura, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of C60 CT complexes with aromatic amines,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7082–7084 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakashima, M.

N. K. M. Naga Srinivas, S. Venugopal Rao, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, B. K. Kimball, M. Nakashima, B. S. Decristofano, D. Narayana Rao, “Wavelength dependent studies of nonlinear absorption in zinc meso-tetra(p-methoxyphenyl)tetrabenzoporphyrin (Znmp TBP) using Z-scan technique,” J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 5, 549–554 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Narayana Rao, S. Venugopal Rao, F. J. Aranda, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, M. Nakashima, J. A. Akkara, “Ultrafast relaxation times of metalloporphyrins by time-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing with incoherent light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2710–2715 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nalwa, H. S.

J.-H. Chou, M. E. Kosal, H. S. Nalwa, N. A. Rakow, K. S. Suslick, “Applications of porphyrins and metalloporphyrins to materials chemistry,” in The Porphyrin Handbook, K. M. Kadish, K. M. Smith, R. Guilard, eds. (Academic, New York, 2000), Vol. 6, pp. 43–131.

Narayana Rao, D.

P. Prem Kiran, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. Raghunath Reddy, B. G. Maiya, A. Dharmadhikari, A. S. Sandhu, G. Ravindra Kumar, D. Narayana Rao, “Heavy atom effect on nonlinear absorption and optical limiting characteristics of 5,10,15,20-(tetratolyl) porphyrinato phosphorus (V) dichloride,” Opt. Commun. 202, 347–352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. K. M. Naga Srinivas, S. Venugopal Rao, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, B. K. Kimball, M. Nakashima, B. S. Decristofano, D. Narayana Rao, “Wavelength dependent studies of nonlinear absorption in zinc meso-tetra(p-methoxyphenyl)tetrabenzoporphyrin (Znmp TBP) using Z-scan technique,” J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 5, 549–554 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Venugopal Rao, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. Narayana Rao, L. Giribabu, B. G. Maiya, R. Philip, G. R. Kumar, “Studies of third-order optical nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption in tetra tolyl porphyrins using degenerate four wave mixing and Z-scan,” Opt. Commun. 182, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Venugopal Rao, D. Narayana Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297, 491–498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Narayana Rao, S. Venugopal Rao, F. J. Aranda, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, M. Nakashima, J. A. Akkara, “Ultrafast relaxation times of metalloporphyrins by time-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing with incoherent light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2710–2715 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Niermczyk, M. P.

M. P. O’Neil, M. P. Niermczyk, W. A. Svec, D. Gosztola, G. L. Gaines, M. R. Wasielewski, “Picosecond optical switching based on biphotonic excitation of an electron donor-acceptor–donor molecule,” Science 257, 63–65 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Neil, M. P.

M. P. O’Neil, M. P. Niermczyk, W. A. Svec, D. Gosztola, G. L. Gaines, M. R. Wasielewski, “Picosecond optical switching based on biphotonic excitation of an electron donor-acceptor–donor molecule,” Science 257, 63–65 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philip, R.

S. Venugopal Rao, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. Narayana Rao, L. Giribabu, B. G. Maiya, R. Philip, G. R. Kumar, “Studies of third-order optical nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption in tetra tolyl porphyrins using degenerate four wave mixing and Z-scan,” Opt. Commun. 182, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, D.

F. Z. Henari, W. J. Blau, L. R. Milgram, G. Yahioglu, D. Phillips, J. A. Lacey, “Third-order nonlinearity in Zn (II) complexes of 5,10,15,20-tetra aryl ethynyl-substituted porphyrins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 267, 229–233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

Prem Kiran, P.

P. Prem Kiran, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. Raghunath Reddy, B. G. Maiya, A. Dharmadhikari, A. S. Sandhu, G. Ravindra Kumar, D. Narayana Rao, “Heavy atom effect on nonlinear absorption and optical limiting characteristics of 5,10,15,20-(tetratolyl) porphyrinato phosphorus (V) dichloride,” Opt. Commun. 202, 347–352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Raghunath Reddy, D.

P. Prem Kiran, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. Raghunath Reddy, B. G. Maiya, A. Dharmadhikari, A. S. Sandhu, G. Ravindra Kumar, D. Narayana Rao, “Heavy atom effect on nonlinear absorption and optical limiting characteristics of 5,10,15,20-(tetratolyl) porphyrinato phosphorus (V) dichloride,” Opt. Commun. 202, 347–352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Raghunath Reddy, B. G. Maiya, “A molecular photoswitch based on an ‘axial-bonding’ type phosphorus (V) porphyrin,” Chem. Commun. Issue 1, 117–118 (2001).

Rakov, N.

Rakow, N. A.

J.-H. Chou, M. E. Kosal, H. S. Nalwa, N. A. Rakow, K. S. Suslick, “Applications of porphyrins and metalloporphyrins to materials chemistry,” in The Porphyrin Handbook, K. M. Kadish, K. M. Smith, R. Guilard, eds. (Academic, New York, 2000), Vol. 6, pp. 43–131.

Rao, D. V. G. L. N.

N. K. M. Naga Srinivas, S. Venugopal Rao, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, B. K. Kimball, M. Nakashima, B. S. Decristofano, D. Narayana Rao, “Wavelength dependent studies of nonlinear absorption in zinc meso-tetra(p-methoxyphenyl)tetrabenzoporphyrin (Znmp TBP) using Z-scan technique,” J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 5, 549–554 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Venugopal Rao, D. Narayana Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297, 491–498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Narayana Rao, S. Venugopal Rao, F. J. Aranda, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, M. Nakashima, J. A. Akkara, “Ultrafast relaxation times of metalloporphyrins by time-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing with incoherent light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2710–2715 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ravikanth, M.

A. Sevian, M. Ravikanth, G. Ravindra Kumar, “Optical limiting in short chain baskethandle porphyrins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 241–246 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ravindra Kumar, G.

P. Prem Kiran, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. Raghunath Reddy, B. G. Maiya, A. Dharmadhikari, A. S. Sandhu, G. Ravindra Kumar, D. Narayana Rao, “Heavy atom effect on nonlinear absorption and optical limiting characteristics of 5,10,15,20-(tetratolyl) porphyrinato phosphorus (V) dichloride,” Opt. Commun. 202, 347–352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Sevian, M. Ravikanth, G. Ravindra Kumar, “Optical limiting in short chain baskethandle porphyrins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 241–246 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, B. A.

Rentzepis, P. M.

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, M. Makashima, J. F. Roach, D. M. Alabran, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond kinetics and reverse saturable absorption of meso-substituted tetrabenzoporphyrins,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17507–17512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Riggs, J. E.

Y.-P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, “Organic and inorganic optical limiting materials. From fullerenes to nanoparticles,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 18, 43–90 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roach, J. F.

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, M. Makashima, J. F. Roach, D. M. Alabran, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond kinetics and reverse saturable absorption of meso-substituted tetrabenzoporphyrins,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17507–17512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

S. N. R. Swatton, K. R. Welford, S. J. Till, J. R. Sambles, “Nonlinear absorption of a carbocyanine dye 1,1′,3,3,3′,3′-hexamethylindotricarbocyanine iodide using a z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sandhu, A. S.

P. Prem Kiran, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. Raghunath Reddy, B. G. Maiya, A. Dharmadhikari, A. S. Sandhu, G. Ravindra Kumar, D. Narayana Rao, “Heavy atom effect on nonlinear absorption and optical limiting characteristics of 5,10,15,20-(tetratolyl) porphyrinato phosphorus (V) dichloride,” Opt. Commun. 202, 347–352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sariciftci, N. S.

M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850–3852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Segawa, H.

K. Hirakawa, H. Segawa, “Excitation energy transfer and photo-induced electron transfer in axial bispyrenyl phosphorus porphyrin derivatives: factors governing the competition between energy and electron transfer processes under the existence of intramolecular π–π interaction,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 123, 67–76 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sevian, A.

A. Sevian, M. Ravikanth, G. Ravindra Kumar, “Optical limiting in short chain baskethandle porphyrins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 241–246 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Si, J.

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, “Nonlinear excited state absorption in cadmium texaphyrin solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3083–3085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smirl, A. L.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Boggess, “Two-photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 613–623 (1985).

Sohda, T.

M. Ichida, T. Sohda, A. Nakamura, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of C60 CT complexes with aromatic amines,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7082–7084 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M. J.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Boggess, “Two-photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 613–623 (1985).

Srinivas, N. K. M. N.

P. Prem Kiran, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. Raghunath Reddy, B. G. Maiya, A. Dharmadhikari, A. S. Sandhu, G. Ravindra Kumar, D. Narayana Rao, “Heavy atom effect on nonlinear absorption and optical limiting characteristics of 5,10,15,20-(tetratolyl) porphyrinato phosphorus (V) dichloride,” Opt. Commun. 202, 347–352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Venugopal Rao, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. Narayana Rao, L. Giribabu, B. G. Maiya, R. Philip, G. R. Kumar, “Studies of third-order optical nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption in tetra tolyl porphyrins using degenerate four wave mixing and Z-scan,” Opt. Commun. 182, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Staromlynska, J.

Stiel, H.

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

D. LeGourrierec, M. Andersson, J. Davidson, E. Mukhtar, L. Sun, L. Hammarstrom, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a higher excited state of a porphyrin in a zinc porphyrin-ruthenium(II) tris-bipyridine dyad,” J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 557–559 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, “Nonlinear excited state absorption in cadmium texaphyrin solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3083–3085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.-P.

Y.-P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, “Organic and inorganic optical limiting materials. From fullerenes to nanoparticles,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 18, 43–90 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Suslick, K. S.

J.-H. Chou, M. E. Kosal, H. S. Nalwa, N. A. Rakow, K. S. Suslick, “Applications of porphyrins and metalloporphyrins to materials chemistry,” in The Porphyrin Handbook, K. M. Kadish, K. M. Smith, R. Guilard, eds. (Academic, New York, 2000), Vol. 6, pp. 43–131.

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996).

Svec, W. A.

M. P. O’Neil, M. P. Niermczyk, W. A. Svec, D. Gosztola, G. L. Gaines, M. R. Wasielewski, “Picosecond optical switching based on biphotonic excitation of an electron donor-acceptor–donor molecule,” Science 257, 63–65 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swatton, S. N. R.

S. N. R. Swatton, K. R. Welford, S. J. Till, J. R. Sambles, “Nonlinear absorption of a carbocyanine dye 1,1′,3,3,3′,3′-hexamethylindotricarbocyanine iodide using a z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Swiatkiewicz, J.

Till, S. J.

S. N. R. Swatton, K. R. Welford, S. J. Till, J. R. Sambles, “Nonlinear absorption of a carbocyanine dye 1,1′,3,3,3′,3′-hexamethylindotricarbocyanine iodide using a z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tomov, I. V.

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, M. Makashima, J. F. Roach, D. M. Alabran, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond kinetics and reverse saturable absorption of meso-substituted tetrabenzoporphyrins,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17507–17512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, S.

S. Tsuchiya, “Intramolecular electron transfer of diporphyrins comprised of electron-deficient porphyrin and electron-rich porphyrin with photocontrolled isomerization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 48–53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, L. W.

L. W. Tutt, T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

F. E. Hernandez, S. Yang, E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, “High-dynamic-range cascaded-focus optical limiter,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1180–1182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Boggess, “Two-photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 613–623 (1985).

Vanherzeele, H.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Boggess, “Two-photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 613–623 (1985).

Venugopal Rao, S.

N. K. M. Naga Srinivas, S. Venugopal Rao, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, B. K. Kimball, M. Nakashima, B. S. Decristofano, D. Narayana Rao, “Wavelength dependent studies of nonlinear absorption in zinc meso-tetra(p-methoxyphenyl)tetrabenzoporphyrin (Znmp TBP) using Z-scan technique,” J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 5, 549–554 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Venugopal Rao, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. Narayana Rao, L. Giribabu, B. G. Maiya, R. Philip, G. R. Kumar, “Studies of third-order optical nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption in tetra tolyl porphyrins using degenerate four wave mixing and Z-scan,” Opt. Commun. 182, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Venugopal Rao, D. Narayana Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297, 491–498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Narayana Rao, S. Venugopal Rao, F. J. Aranda, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, M. Nakashima, J. A. Akkara, “Ultrafast relaxation times of metalloporphyrins by time-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing with incoherent light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2710–2715 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, “Nonlinear excited state absorption in cadmium texaphyrin solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3083–3085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, “Nonlinear excited state absorption in cadmium texaphyrin solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3083–3085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wasielewski, M. R.

M. P. O’Neil, M. P. Niermczyk, W. A. Svec, D. Gosztola, G. L. Gaines, M. R. Wasielewski, “Picosecond optical switching based on biphotonic excitation of an electron donor-acceptor–donor molecule,” Science 257, 63–65 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.-H.

T.-H. Wei, T.-H. Huang, H.-D. Lin, S.-H. Lin, “Lifetime determination for high-lying excited states using Z scan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2266–2268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Welford, K. R.

S. N. R. Swatton, K. R. Welford, S. J. Till, J. R. Sambles, “Nonlinear absorption of a carbocyanine dye 1,1′,3,3,3′,3′-hexamethylindotricarbocyanine iodide using a z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Woodall, M. A.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Boggess, “Two-photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 613–623 (1985).

Wudl, F.

M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850–3852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

Yahioglu, G.

F. Z. Henari, W. J. Blau, L. R. Milgram, G. Yahioglu, D. Phillips, J. A. Lacey, “Third-order nonlinearity in Zn (II) complexes of 5,10,15,20-tetra aryl ethynyl-substituted porphyrins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 267, 229–233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, “Nonlinear excited state absorption in cadmium texaphyrin solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3083–3085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

Zhang, L.

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, “Nonlinear excited state absorption in cadmium texaphyrin solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3083–3085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

A. Krivokapic, H. L. Anderson, G. Bourhill, R. Ives, S. Clark, K. J. McEwan, “Meso-tetrra-alkynyl porphyrins for optical limiting: a survey of group III and group IV metal complexes,” Adv. Mater. 13, 652–656 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Si, M. Yang, Y. Wang, L. Zhang, C. Li, D. Wang, S. Dong, W. Sun, “Nonlinear excited state absorption in cadmium texaphyrin solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3083–3085 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Sun, C. C. Byeon, M. M. McKerns, C. M. Lawson, G. M. Gray, D. Wang, “Optical limiting performances of asymmetric pentaazadentate porphyrin-like cadmium complexes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1167–1169 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850–3852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. N. R. Swatton, K. R. Welford, S. J. Till, J. R. Sambles, “Nonlinear absorption of a carbocyanine dye 1,1′,3,3,3′,3′-hexamethylindotricarbocyanine iodide using a z-scan technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1868–1870 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Wei, T.-H. Huang, H.-D. Lin, S.-H. Lin, “Lifetime determination for high-lying excited states using Z scan,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2266–2268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun.

D. Raghunath Reddy, B. G. Maiya, “A molecular photoswitch based on an ‘axial-bonding’ type phosphorus (V) porphyrin,” Chem. Commun. Issue 1, 117–118 (2001).

Chem. Phys. Lett.

S. Venugopal Rao, D. Narayana Rao, J. A. Akkara, B. S. DeCristofano, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, “Dispersion studies of non-linear absorption in C60 using Z-scan,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 297, 491–498 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Henari, J. Callaghan, H. Stiel, W. Blau, D. J. Cardin, “Intensity-dependent absorption and resonant optical nonlinearity of C60 and C70 solutions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 199, 144–148 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Z. Henari, W. J. Blau, L. R. Milgram, G. Yahioglu, D. Phillips, J. A. Lacey, “Third-order nonlinearity in Zn (II) complexes of 5,10,15,20-tetra aryl ethynyl-substituted porphyrins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 267, 229–233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Sevian, M. Ravikanth, G. Ravindra Kumar, “Optical limiting in short chain baskethandle porphyrins,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 241–246 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Bezerra, I. E. Borissevitch, R. E. de Araujo, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, “Investigation of picosecond optical nonlinearity in porphyrin metal complexes derivatives,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 511–516 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.

R. C. Hollins, “Materials for optical limiters,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 4, 189–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem.

Y.-P. Sun, J. E. Riggs, “Organic and inorganic optical limiting materials. From fullerenes to nanoparticles,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 18, 43–90 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

S. Tsuchiya, “Intramolecular electron transfer of diporphyrins comprised of electron-deficient porphyrin and electron-rich porphyrin with photocontrolled isomerization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 48–53 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Photochem. Photobiol. A

K. Hirakawa, H. Segawa, “Excitation energy transfer and photo-induced electron transfer in axial bispyrenyl phosphorus porphyrin derivatives: factors governing the competition between energy and electron transfer processes under the existence of intramolecular π–π interaction,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 123, 67–76 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem.

P. Chen, I. V. Tomov, A. S. Dvornikov, M. Makashima, J. F. Roach, D. M. Alabran, P. M. Rentzepis, “Picosecond kinetics and reverse saturable absorption of meso-substituted tetrabenzoporphyrins,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 17507–17512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A

D. LeGourrierec, M. Andersson, J. Davidson, E. Mukhtar, L. Sun, L. Hammarstrom, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a higher excited state of a porphyrin in a zinc porphyrin-ruthenium(II) tris-bipyridine dyad,” J. Phys. Chem. A 103, 557–559 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

M. Ichida, T. Sohda, A. Nakamura, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of C60 CT complexes with aromatic amines,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 7082–7084 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines

N. K. M. Naga Srinivas, S. Venugopal Rao, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, B. K. Kimball, M. Nakashima, B. S. Decristofano, D. Narayana Rao, “Wavelength dependent studies of nonlinear absorption in zinc meso-tetra(p-methoxyphenyl)tetrabenzoporphyrin (Znmp TBP) using Z-scan technique,” J. Porphyrins Phthalocyanines 5, 549–554 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinear Opt.

D. B. James, K. J. McEwan, “Bubble and refractive processes in carbon suspensions,” Nonlinear Opt. 21, 377–390 (1999).

Opt. Commun.

S. Venugopal Rao, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. Narayana Rao, L. Giribabu, B. G. Maiya, R. Philip, G. R. Kumar, “Studies of third-order optical nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption in tetra tolyl porphyrins using degenerate four wave mixing and Z-scan,” Opt. Commun. 182, 255–264 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Prem Kiran, N. K. M. N. Srinivas, D. Raghunath Reddy, B. G. Maiya, A. Dharmadhikari, A. S. Sandhu, G. Ravindra Kumar, D. Narayana Rao, “Heavy atom effect on nonlinear absorption and optical limiting characteristics of 5,10,15,20-(tetratolyl) porphyrinato phosphorus (V) dichloride,” Opt. Commun. 202, 347–352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Blau, H. Byrne, W. M. Dennis, J. M. Kelly, “Reverse saturable absorption in tetraphenyl porphyrins,” Opt. Commun. 56, 25–29 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Boggess, “Two-photon absorption, nonlinear refraction, and optical limiting in semiconductors,” Opt. Eng. 24, 613–623 (1985).

Opt. Lett.

Prog. Quantum Electron.

L. W. Tutt, T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science

M. P. O’Neil, M. P. Niermczyk, W. A. Svec, D. Gosztola, G. L. Gaines, M. R. Wasielewski, “Picosecond optical switching based on biphotonic excitation of an electron donor-acceptor–donor molecule,” Science 257, 63–65 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J.-H. Chou, M. E. Kosal, H. S. Nalwa, N. A. Rakow, K. S. Suslick, “Applications of porphyrins and metalloporphyrins to materials chemistry,” in The Porphyrin Handbook, K. M. Kadish, K. M. Smith, R. Guilard, eds. (Academic, New York, 2000), Vol. 6, pp. 43–131.

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra and molecular structure of phosphorus (V) azoarene porphyrins.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity dependence of the PC signal for azoarene porphyrins with 25-ps pulses. Solid curves represent the cubic fit of the input intensity to the PC signal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical limiting curves of azoarene porphyrins at 75% linear transmittance (solid curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical limiting curves of [(TTP)PV(AZT)2]+ at different linear transmittances.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Open-aperture Z-scan curves of (a) [(TTP)PV(AZN)2]+ and (b) [(TTP)PV(AZB)2]+ with 25-ps pulses at different peak fluences (F 00). Solid curves represent the theoretical fit by use of an energy-level diagram.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Open-aperture Z-scan curve of [(TTP)PV(AZN)2]+ with 6-ns pulses. Solid curve represents the theoretical fit by use of an energy-level diagram. The peak fluence (F 00) is also shown.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Energy-level diagram of phosphorus (V) azoarene porphyrins.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Second Hyperpolarization of Phosphorus (V) Azoarene Porphyrins with 25-ps and 6-ns Pulsesa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Lifetimes of Higher Excited State, ISC Times, and Saturation Threshold of the Phosphorus (V) Azoarene Porphyrins

Tables Icon

Table 3 Figures of Merit for Optical Limiting for the Phosphorus (V) Azoarene Porphyrinsa

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