Abstract

Improvements to the tropospheric ozone lidar at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Table Mountain Facility for measurements of ozone profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere, between approximately 5- and 20-km altitude, are described. The changes were primarily related to the receiver optical subsystems and the data-acquisition system. The original 40-cm Cassegrain telescope was replaced with a faster (f/3) 91-cm Newtonian mirror. In the focal plane of this mirror, the lidar signal is divided into two parts by use of two separate optical fibers as field stops corresponding to different but neighboring 0.6-mrad fields of view. We then separate the two received wavelengths by aligning each transmitted beam to one of the fibers. In addition, two 50-mm telescopes are used for the collection of near-range returns. The four optical signals are brought to a chopper wheel for independent signal selection in the time and range domain. For each channel, an interference filter is used for skylight rejection and additional cross-talk prevention. The signals are detected with miniature photomultiplier tubes and input to a fast photon-counting system. The goals of these modifications were to increase the spatial and temporal resolution of the lidar, to extend the altitude range covered, to improve the quality of the raw data, and to enable regular and routine operation of the system for long-term measurements.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems at JPL-TMF for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. A. Haner, I. S. McDermid, “Stimulated Raman shifting of Nd:YAG fourth harmonic (266 nm) in H2, HD and D2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1292–1298 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Beyerle, I. S. McDermid, R. Neuber, P. von der Gathen, “Comparative study of stratospheric aerosols and ozone at mid and high latitudes during the Pinatubo episode, 1991–1994,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger, eds. (Springer, New York, 1996), pp. 489–492.
  4. G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H.-J. Schäfer, O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 58, 1275–1287 (1998).
  5. M. H. Proffitt, A. O. Langford, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar system for day or night measurements of ozone throughout the free troposphere,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2568–2585 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Steinbach, U. Bräuer, H. Fischer, C. Hüllenkremer, H.-D. Kleinschrodt, W. Mildner, R. Ponzer, H.-J. Schäfer, G. Sesselmann, F. Theopold, “Special features of large lidar telescopes,” in Lidar and Atmospheric Sensing, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. SPIE2505, 66–74 (1995).
  7. Sandia Hexapod Project, http://ppsc.pme.nthu.edu.tw/∼tclee/mirror/Sandia/hexapod.html .
  8. I. S. McDermid, T. Leblanc, “An overview of 10 years of lidar measurements at Table Mountain Facility, California, and Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii,” presented at the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change Symposium 2001, Arcachon, France, 24–27 September 2001.
  9. I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindquist, “Ground-based laser DIAL system for long-term measurements of stratospheric ozone,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3603–3612 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. I. S. McDermid, “Ground-based lidar and atmospheric studies,” Geophys. Surv. 9, 107–122 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, T. D. Walsh, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric ozone and intercomparisons and validation,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4914–4923 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. I. S. McDermid, “NDSC and the JPL stratospheric lidars,” Rev. Laser Eng. 23, 97–103 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Leblanc, I. S. McDermid, “Stratospheric ozone climatology from lidar measurements at Table Mountain (34.4 °N, 117.7 °W) and Mauna Loa (19.5 °N, 155.6 °W),” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14613–14623 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. S. McDermid, G. Beyerle, D. A. Haner, T. Leblanc, “Redesign and improved performance of the tropospheric ozone lidar at Table Mountain,” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Sapporo, Japan, 3–8 July 2000.
  15. A. Hauchecorne, S. Godin, M. Marchand, B. Heese, C. Souprayen, “Quantification of the transport of chemical constituents from the polar vortex to middle latitudes in the lower stratosphere using the high-resolution advection model MIMOSA and effective diffusivity,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

2000 (1)

T. Leblanc, I. S. McDermid, “Stratospheric ozone climatology from lidar measurements at Table Mountain (34.4 °N, 117.7 °W) and Mauna Loa (19.5 °N, 155.6 °W),” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14613–14623 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H.-J. Schäfer, O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 58, 1275–1287 (1998).

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

I. S. McDermid, “NDSC and the JPL stratospheric lidars,” Rev. Laser Eng. 23, 97–103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems at JPL-TMF for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

1987 (1)

I. S. McDermid, “Ground-based lidar and atmospheric studies,” Geophys. Surv. 9, 107–122 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Beyerle, G.

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H.-J. Schäfer, O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 58, 1275–1287 (1998).

G. Beyerle, I. S. McDermid, R. Neuber, P. von der Gathen, “Comparative study of stratospheric aerosols and ozone at mid and high latitudes during the Pinatubo episode, 1991–1994,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger, eds. (Springer, New York, 1996), pp. 489–492.

I. S. McDermid, G. Beyerle, D. A. Haner, T. Leblanc, “Redesign and improved performance of the tropospheric ozone lidar at Table Mountain,” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Sapporo, Japan, 3–8 July 2000.

Bräuer, U.

M. Steinbach, U. Bräuer, H. Fischer, C. Hüllenkremer, H.-D. Kleinschrodt, W. Mildner, R. Ponzer, H.-J. Schäfer, G. Sesselmann, F. Theopold, “Special features of large lidar telescopes,” in Lidar and Atmospheric Sensing, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. SPIE2505, 66–74 (1995).

Fischer, H.

M. Steinbach, U. Bräuer, H. Fischer, C. Hüllenkremer, H.-D. Kleinschrodt, W. Mildner, R. Ponzer, H.-J. Schäfer, G. Sesselmann, F. Theopold, “Special features of large lidar telescopes,” in Lidar and Atmospheric Sensing, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. SPIE2505, 66–74 (1995).

Godin, S.

A. Hauchecorne, S. Godin, M. Marchand, B. Heese, C. Souprayen, “Quantification of the transport of chemical constituents from the polar vortex to middle latitudes in the lower stratosphere using the high-resolution advection model MIMOSA and effective diffusivity,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Godin, S. M.

Gross, M. R.

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H.-J. Schäfer, O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 58, 1275–1287 (1998).

Haner, D. A.

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H.-J. Schäfer, O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 58, 1275–1287 (1998).

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems at JPL-TMF for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Haner, I. S. McDermid, “Stimulated Raman shifting of Nd:YAG fourth harmonic (266 nm) in H2, HD and D2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1292–1298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, G. Beyerle, D. A. Haner, T. Leblanc, “Redesign and improved performance of the tropospheric ozone lidar at Table Mountain,” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Sapporo, Japan, 3–8 July 2000.

Hauchecorne, A.

A. Hauchecorne, S. Godin, M. Marchand, B. Heese, C. Souprayen, “Quantification of the transport of chemical constituents from the polar vortex to middle latitudes in the lower stratosphere using the high-resolution advection model MIMOSA and effective diffusivity,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Heese, B.

A. Hauchecorne, S. Godin, M. Marchand, B. Heese, C. Souprayen, “Quantification of the transport of chemical constituents from the polar vortex to middle latitudes in the lower stratosphere using the high-resolution advection model MIMOSA and effective diffusivity,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Hüllenkremer, C.

M. Steinbach, U. Bräuer, H. Fischer, C. Hüllenkremer, H.-D. Kleinschrodt, W. Mildner, R. Ponzer, H.-J. Schäfer, G. Sesselmann, F. Theopold, “Special features of large lidar telescopes,” in Lidar and Atmospheric Sensing, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. SPIE2505, 66–74 (1995).

Kjome, N. T.

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H.-J. Schäfer, O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 58, 1275–1287 (1998).

Kleiman, M. M.

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems at JPL-TMF for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kleinschrodt, H.-D.

M. Steinbach, U. Bräuer, H. Fischer, C. Hüllenkremer, H.-D. Kleinschrodt, W. Mildner, R. Ponzer, H.-J. Schäfer, G. Sesselmann, F. Theopold, “Special features of large lidar telescopes,” in Lidar and Atmospheric Sensing, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. SPIE2505, 66–74 (1995).

Langford, A. O.

Leblanc, T.

T. Leblanc, I. S. McDermid, “Stratospheric ozone climatology from lidar measurements at Table Mountain (34.4 °N, 117.7 °W) and Mauna Loa (19.5 °N, 155.6 °W),” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14613–14623 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, G. Beyerle, D. A. Haner, T. Leblanc, “Redesign and improved performance of the tropospheric ozone lidar at Table Mountain,” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Sapporo, Japan, 3–8 July 2000.

I. S. McDermid, T. Leblanc, “An overview of 10 years of lidar measurements at Table Mountain Facility, California, and Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii,” presented at the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change Symposium 2001, Arcachon, France, 24–27 September 2001.

Lindquist, L. O.

Marchand, M.

A. Hauchecorne, S. Godin, M. Marchand, B. Heese, C. Souprayen, “Quantification of the transport of chemical constituents from the polar vortex to middle latitudes in the lower stratosphere using the high-resolution advection model MIMOSA and effective diffusivity,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

McDermid, I. S.

T. Leblanc, I. S. McDermid, “Stratospheric ozone climatology from lidar measurements at Table Mountain (34.4 °N, 117.7 °W) and Mauna Loa (19.5 °N, 155.6 °W),” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14613–14623 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H.-J. Schäfer, O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 58, 1275–1287 (1998).

I. S. McDermid, “NDSC and the JPL stratospheric lidars,” Rev. Laser Eng. 23, 97–103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems at JPL-TMF for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Haner, I. S. McDermid, “Stimulated Raman shifting of Nd:YAG fourth harmonic (266 nm) in H2, HD and D2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1292–1298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, L. O. Lindquist, “Ground-based laser DIAL system for long-term measurements of stratospheric ozone,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3603–3612 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, T. D. Walsh, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric ozone and intercomparisons and validation,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4914–4923 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. McDermid, “Ground-based lidar and atmospheric studies,” Geophys. Surv. 9, 107–122 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, T. Leblanc, “An overview of 10 years of lidar measurements at Table Mountain Facility, California, and Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii,” presented at the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change Symposium 2001, Arcachon, France, 24–27 September 2001.

I. S. McDermid, G. Beyerle, D. A. Haner, T. Leblanc, “Redesign and improved performance of the tropospheric ozone lidar at Table Mountain,” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Sapporo, Japan, 3–8 July 2000.

G. Beyerle, I. S. McDermid, R. Neuber, P. von der Gathen, “Comparative study of stratospheric aerosols and ozone at mid and high latitudes during the Pinatubo episode, 1991–1994,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger, eds. (Springer, New York, 1996), pp. 489–492.

McGee, T. J.

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H.-J. Schäfer, O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 58, 1275–1287 (1998).

Mildner, W.

M. Steinbach, U. Bräuer, H. Fischer, C. Hüllenkremer, H.-D. Kleinschrodt, W. Mildner, R. Ponzer, H.-J. Schäfer, G. Sesselmann, F. Theopold, “Special features of large lidar telescopes,” in Lidar and Atmospheric Sensing, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. SPIE2505, 66–74 (1995).

Neuber, R.

G. Beyerle, I. S. McDermid, R. Neuber, P. von der Gathen, “Comparative study of stratospheric aerosols and ozone at mid and high latitudes during the Pinatubo episode, 1991–1994,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger, eds. (Springer, New York, 1996), pp. 489–492.

Ponzer, R.

M. Steinbach, U. Bräuer, H. Fischer, C. Hüllenkremer, H.-D. Kleinschrodt, W. Mildner, R. Ponzer, H.-J. Schäfer, G. Sesselmann, F. Theopold, “Special features of large lidar telescopes,” in Lidar and Atmospheric Sensing, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. SPIE2505, 66–74 (1995).

Proffitt, M. H.

Rosen, J. M.

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H.-J. Schäfer, O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 58, 1275–1287 (1998).

Schäfer, H.-J.

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H.-J. Schäfer, O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 58, 1275–1287 (1998).

M. Steinbach, U. Bräuer, H. Fischer, C. Hüllenkremer, H.-D. Kleinschrodt, W. Mildner, R. Ponzer, H.-J. Schäfer, G. Sesselmann, F. Theopold, “Special features of large lidar telescopes,” in Lidar and Atmospheric Sensing, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. SPIE2505, 66–74 (1995).

Schrems, O.

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H.-J. Schäfer, O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 58, 1275–1287 (1998).

Sesselmann, G.

M. Steinbach, U. Bräuer, H. Fischer, C. Hüllenkremer, H.-D. Kleinschrodt, W. Mildner, R. Ponzer, H.-J. Schäfer, G. Sesselmann, F. Theopold, “Special features of large lidar telescopes,” in Lidar and Atmospheric Sensing, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. SPIE2505, 66–74 (1995).

Souprayen, C.

A. Hauchecorne, S. Godin, M. Marchand, B. Heese, C. Souprayen, “Quantification of the transport of chemical constituents from the polar vortex to middle latitudes in the lower stratosphere using the high-resolution advection model MIMOSA and effective diffusivity,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Steinbach, M.

M. Steinbach, U. Bräuer, H. Fischer, C. Hüllenkremer, H.-D. Kleinschrodt, W. Mildner, R. Ponzer, H.-J. Schäfer, G. Sesselmann, F. Theopold, “Special features of large lidar telescopes,” in Lidar and Atmospheric Sensing, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. SPIE2505, 66–74 (1995).

Theopold, F.

M. Steinbach, U. Bräuer, H. Fischer, C. Hüllenkremer, H.-D. Kleinschrodt, W. Mildner, R. Ponzer, H.-J. Schäfer, G. Sesselmann, F. Theopold, “Special features of large lidar telescopes,” in Lidar and Atmospheric Sensing, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. SPIE2505, 66–74 (1995).

von der Gathen, P.

G. Beyerle, I. S. McDermid, R. Neuber, P. von der Gathen, “Comparative study of stratospheric aerosols and ozone at mid and high latitudes during the Pinatubo episode, 1991–1994,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger, eds. (Springer, New York, 1996), pp. 489–492.

Walsh, T. D.

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems at JPL-TMF for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, S. M. Godin, T. D. Walsh, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric ozone and intercomparisons and validation,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4914–4923 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, M. L.

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems at JPL-TMF for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

G. Beyerle, M. R. Gross, D. A. Haner, N. T. Kjome, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, J. M. Rosen, H.-J. Schäfer, O. Schrems, “A lidar and backscatter sonde measurement campaign at Table Mountain during February-March 1997: observations of cirrus clouds,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 58, 1275–1287 (1998).

Geophys. Surv. (1)

I. S. McDermid, “Ground-based lidar and atmospheric studies,” Geophys. Surv. 9, 107–122 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. Haner, I. S. McDermid, “Stimulated Raman shifting of Nd:YAG fourth harmonic (266 nm) in H2, HD and D2,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1292–1298 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

T. Leblanc, I. S. McDermid, “Stratospheric ozone climatology from lidar measurements at Table Mountain (34.4 °N, 117.7 °W) and Mauna Loa (19.5 °N, 155.6 °W),” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14613–14623 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems at JPL-TMF for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Laser Eng. (1)

I. S. McDermid, “NDSC and the JPL stratospheric lidars,” Rev. Laser Eng. 23, 97–103 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

I. S. McDermid, G. Beyerle, D. A. Haner, T. Leblanc, “Redesign and improved performance of the tropospheric ozone lidar at Table Mountain,” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Sapporo, Japan, 3–8 July 2000.

A. Hauchecorne, S. Godin, M. Marchand, B. Heese, C. Souprayen, “Quantification of the transport of chemical constituents from the polar vortex to middle latitudes in the lower stratosphere using the high-resolution advection model MIMOSA and effective diffusivity,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

G. Beyerle, I. S. McDermid, R. Neuber, P. von der Gathen, “Comparative study of stratospheric aerosols and ozone at mid and high latitudes during the Pinatubo episode, 1991–1994,” in Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann, R. Neuber, P. Rairoux, U. Wandinger, eds. (Springer, New York, 1996), pp. 489–492.

M. Steinbach, U. Bräuer, H. Fischer, C. Hüllenkremer, H.-D. Kleinschrodt, W. Mildner, R. Ponzer, H.-J. Schäfer, G. Sesselmann, F. Theopold, “Special features of large lidar telescopes,” in Lidar and Atmospheric Sensing, R. J. Becherer, ed., Proc. SPIE2505, 66–74 (1995).

Sandia Hexapod Project, http://ppsc.pme.nthu.edu.tw/∼tclee/mirror/Sandia/hexapod.html .

I. S. McDermid, T. Leblanc, “An overview of 10 years of lidar measurements at Table Mountain Facility, California, and Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii,” presented at the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change Symposium 2001, Arcachon, France, 24–27 September 2001.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Design and dimensions of the telescope hexapod structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dual-fiber arrangement, located at the telescope focus.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the FOV of the twin fibers, projected into the atmosphere.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Geometric ray trace spot diagrams of the image from different altitudes on the dual fibers at the telescope focus.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Arrangement of the fibers, chopper wheel, and detector packages.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Details of the detector optics. The photomultiplier is located at the detector plane.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Typical nighttime raw data curves from a 2-h integration (19 March 2000, 02:52–04:52 UT). Note that the altitude of the TMF is 2.3 km.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Upper panel: ozone profiles (3 January 2001, 03:46–05:19 UT) from (red) the 289–299-nm pair, small telescopes; (blue) same but for the large telescope; (green) hybrid 299–355-nm pair. Note agreement in regions of overlap. Lower panel: composite troposphere and lower-stratosphere ozone profile.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Complete atmospheric ozone profile, 5–55 km (2 October 2001, 03:11–05:11 UT). Upper panel shows the five profile segments: two tropospheric (red, blue; 289–299 nm), two stratospheric (cyan, magenta; 308–355 nm), and one hybrid (green; 299–355 nm) that are combined to give the composite profile shown in the lower panel. Inset shows upper section on a logarithmic scale.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Primary Mirror Specifications

Metrics