Abstract

Aerosol extinction coefficients have been derived in the 375–700-nm spectral domain from measurements in the stratosphere since 1992, at night, at mid- and high latitudes from 15 to 40 km, by two balloonborne spectrometers, Absorption par les Minoritaires Ozone et NOx (AMON) and Spectroscopie d’Absorption Lunaire pour l’Observation des Minoritaires Ozone et NOx (SALOMON). Log-normal size distributions associated with the Mie-computed extinction spectra that best fit the measurements permit calculation of integrated properties of the distributions. Although measured extinction spectra that correspond to background aerosols can be reproduced by the Mie scattering model by use of monomodal log-normal size distributions, each flight reveals some large discrepancies between measurement and theory at several altitudes. The agreement between measured and Mie-calculated extinction spectra is significantly improved by use of bimodal log-normal distributions. Nevertheless, neither monomodal nor bimodal distributions permit correct reproduction of some of the measured extinction shapes, especially for the 26 February 1997 AMON flight, which exhibited spectral behavior attributed to particles from a polar stratospheric cloud event.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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2002 (1)

2001 (2)

J.-B. Renard, F. Dalaudier, A. Hauchecorne, C. Robert, T. Lemaire, M. Pirre, J.-L. Bertaux, “Measurement of stratospheric chromatic scintillation by the balloon-borne spectrometer AMON-RA,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4254–4260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, N. Huret, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, “Measurements and simulation of stratospheric NO3 at mid- and high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 32,387–32,399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (7)

J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. K. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “Characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, “Retrieval of aerosol size distributions and integral properties from simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths by the linear minimizing error method,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14,719–14,736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. T. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, “The lognormal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics: empirical test using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sunphotometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, C. Robert, G. Chalumeau, G. Berthet, M. Pirre, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “SALOMON: a new, light balloonborne UV–visible spectrometer for nighttime observations of stratospheric trace-gas species,” Appl. Opt. 39, 386–392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 ° N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. M. Steele, J. D. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. M. Bevilacqua, S. T. Massie, “Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325–9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol surface area and volume inferred from HALOE, CLAES, and ILAS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25,345–25,352 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “The possible detection of OBrO in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25,383–25,395 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, S. J. Oltmans, “Vertical profiles of volcanic aerosol and polar stratospheric clouds above Kiruna, Sweden: winters 1993 and 1995,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 11–23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Fussen, E. Arijs, D. Nevejans, F. V. Hellemont, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, “Validation of the ORA spatial inversion algorithm with respect to the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II data,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3121–3127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosols and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefèvre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime stratospheric NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, R. P. Turco, “Retrieval of aerosol size distributions from satellite extinction spectra using constrained linear inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,737–16,747 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,765–18,773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (5)

A. Bucholtz, “Rayleigh-scattering calculations for the terrestrial atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1227–1230 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,507–16,518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homburg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three Northern Hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23,195–23,207 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Jaeger, T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, “Midlatitude lidar backscatter conversion based on balloon borne aerosols measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1729–1732 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12,915–12,922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Dutton, P. Reddy, S. Ryan, J. J. DeLuisi, “Features and effects of aerosol optical depth observed at Mauna Loa, Hawaii: 1982–1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8295–8306 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Pinatubo aerosol near 19 km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Pommereau, J. Piquard, “Ozone, nitrogen dioxide and aerosol vertical distribution by UV–visible solar occultation from balloon,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 ° N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming, during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 199–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason, “Observations of a new SAGE II aerosol extinction mode following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 2179–2182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. J. Hofmann, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric cloud observations during formation of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 2897–2912 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, “A comparative review of radiation aerosol models,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 57, 1–20 (1984).

1974 (1)

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmosphere,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Adriani, A.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 ° N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Allen, D.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Allen, D. A.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12,915–12,922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J.

J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. K. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “Characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arijs, E.

Balois, J.-Y.

Bauman, J. J.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berardi, V.

P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,765–18,773 (1996).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
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J. B. Renard, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Brogniez, M. Herman, C. Verwaerde, J.-Y. Balois, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, J. Crespin, T. Deshler, “Optical and physical properties of stratospheric aerosols from balloon measurements in the visible and near-infrared domains. II. Comparison of extinction, reflectance, polarization, and counting measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7540–7549 (2002).
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J.-B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, N. Huret, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, “Measurements and simulation of stratospheric NO3 at mid- and high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 32,387–32,399 (2001).
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J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, C. Robert, G. Chalumeau, G. Berthet, M. Pirre, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “SALOMON: a new, light balloonborne UV–visible spectrometer for nighttime observations of stratospheric trace-gas species,” Appl. Opt. 39, 386–392 (2000).
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G. Berthet, J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “Analysis of OBrO, IO and OIO absorption signature in UV–visible spectra measured at night and at sunrise by stratospheric balloon-borne instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

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C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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J. B. Renard, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Brogniez, M. Herman, C. Verwaerde, J.-Y. Balois, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, J. Crespin, T. Deshler, “Optical and physical properties of stratospheric aerosols from balloon measurements in the visible and near-infrared domains. II. Comparison of extinction, reflectance, polarization, and counting measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7540–7549 (2002).
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J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. K. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “Characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
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T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 ° N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
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E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
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J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. K. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “Characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
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Chalumeau, G.

Chan, K. R.

R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
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J. B. Renard, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Brogniez, M. Herman, C. Verwaerde, J.-Y. Balois, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, J. Crespin, T. Deshler, “Optical and physical properties of stratospheric aerosols from balloon measurements in the visible and near-infrared domains. II. Comparison of extinction, reflectance, polarization, and counting measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7540–7549 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, N. Huret, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, “Measurements and simulation of stratospheric NO3 at mid- and high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 32,387–32,399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, C. Robert, G. Chalumeau, G. Berthet, M. Pirre, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “SALOMON: a new, light balloonborne UV–visible spectrometer for nighttime observations of stratospheric trace-gas species,” Appl. Opt. 39, 386–392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Berthet, J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “Analysis of OBrO, IO and OIO absorption signature in UV–visible spectra measured at night and at sunrise by stratospheric balloon-borne instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

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P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23,195–23,207 (1995).
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Dalaudier, F.

David, C.

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23,195–23,207 (1995).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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E. G. Dutton, P. Reddy, S. Ryan, J. J. DeLuisi, “Features and effects of aerosol optical depth observed at Mauna Loa, Hawaii: 1982–1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8295–8306 (1994).
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J. B. Renard, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Brogniez, M. Herman, C. Verwaerde, J.-Y. Balois, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, J. Crespin, T. Deshler, “Optical and physical properties of stratospheric aerosols from balloon measurements in the visible and near-infrared domains. II. Comparison of extinction, reflectance, polarization, and counting measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7540–7549 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 ° N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
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T. Deshler, S. J. Oltmans, “Vertical profiles of volcanic aerosol and polar stratospheric clouds above Kiruna, Sweden: winters 1993 and 1995,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 11–23 (1998).
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M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
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M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol surface area and volume inferred from HALOE, CLAES, and ILAS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25,345–25,352 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
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H. T. Jaeger, T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, “Midlatitude lidar backscatter conversion based on balloon borne aerosols measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1729–1732 (1995).
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T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 ° N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
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T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming, during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 199–202 (1992).
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D. J. Hofmann, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric cloud observations during formation of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 2897–2912 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Di Girolamo, P.

P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,765–18,773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, E. G.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Dutton, P. Reddy, S. Ryan, J. J. DeLuisi, “Features and effects of aerosol optical depth observed at Mauna Loa, Hawaii: 1982–1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8295–8306 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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N. T. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, “The lognormal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics: empirical test using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sunphotometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
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E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
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R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12,915–12,922 (1994).
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J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Pinatubo aerosol near 19 km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
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R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
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Fierli, F.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 ° N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fong, W.

R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
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H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homburg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three Northern Hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
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C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
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Fromm, M. D.

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
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Fujimoto, T.

H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homburg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three Northern Hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
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Fussen, D.

Godin, S.

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23,195–23,207 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J.

J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Pinatubo aerosol near 19 km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. K.

R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
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Goutail, F.

Grainger, R. G.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
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Hamill, P.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, G.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 ° N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
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Hansen, J. E.

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmosphere,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
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Hauchecorne, A.

J.-B. Renard, F. Dalaudier, A. Hauchecorne, C. Robert, T. Lemaire, M. Pirre, J.-L. Bertaux, “Measurement of stratospheric chromatic scintillation by the balloon-borne spectrometer AMON-RA,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4254–4260 (2001).
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T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 ° N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hellemont, F. V.

Herman, B. M.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

Hervig, M. E.

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol surface area and volume inferred from HALOE, CLAES, and ILAS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25,345–25,352 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

H. T. Jaeger, T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, “Midlatitude lidar backscatter conversion based on balloon borne aerosols measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1729–1732 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming, during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 199–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hofmann, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric cloud observations during formation of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 2897–2912 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

N. T. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, “The lognormal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics: empirical test using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sunphotometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Homburg, F.

H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homburg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three Northern Hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hoppel, K. W.

C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
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C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hornstein, J. S.

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
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J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefèvre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime stratospheric NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
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J.-P. Naudet, C. Robert, D. Huguenin, “Balloon measurements of stratospheric trace species using a multichanel UV–visible spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the 14th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programs and Related Research, ESA document SP-355, (European Space Agency, Paris, 1994), pp. 165–168.

Huret, N.

J.-B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, N. Huret, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, “Measurements and simulation of stratospheric NO3 at mid- and high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 32,387–32,399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
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C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
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D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosols and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
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D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosols and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
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E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
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J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefèvre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime stratospheric NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
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Lenoble, J.

J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. K. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “Characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
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R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12,915–12,922 (1994).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
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C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
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C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
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J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. K. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “Characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
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P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23,195–23,207 (1995).
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A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
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J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
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H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homburg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three Northern Hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
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T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 ° N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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J.-P. Naudet, C. Robert, D. Huguenin, “Balloon measurements of stratospheric trace species using a multichanel UV–visible spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the 14th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programs and Related Research, ESA document SP-355, (European Space Agency, Paris, 1994), pp. 165–168.

Nevejans, D.

Newchurch, M.

D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosols and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
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J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefèvre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime stratospheric NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
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N. T. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, “The lognormal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics: empirical test using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sunphotometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
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R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
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P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,765–18,773 (1996).
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E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
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P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23,195–23,207 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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J. B. Renard, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Brogniez, M. Herman, C. Verwaerde, J.-Y. Balois, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, J. Crespin, T. Deshler, “Optical and physical properties of stratospheric aerosols from balloon measurements in the visible and near-infrared domains. II. Comparison of extinction, reflectance, polarization, and counting measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7540–7549 (2002).
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J.-B. Renard, F. Dalaudier, A. Hauchecorne, C. Robert, T. Lemaire, M. Pirre, J.-L. Bertaux, “Measurement of stratospheric chromatic scintillation by the balloon-borne spectrometer AMON-RA,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4254–4260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, N. Huret, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, “Measurements and simulation of stratospheric NO3 at mid- and high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 32,387–32,399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, C. Robert, G. Chalumeau, G. Berthet, M. Pirre, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “SALOMON: a new, light balloonborne UV–visible spectrometer for nighttime observations of stratospheric trace-gas species,” Appl. Opt. 39, 386–392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “The possible detection of OBrO in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25,383–25,395 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefèvre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime stratospheric NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosols and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Berthet, J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “Analysis of OBrO, IO and OIO absorption signature in UV–visible spectra measured at night and at sunrise by stratospheric balloon-borne instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Pueschel, R. F.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12,915–12,922 (1994).
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J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Pinatubo aerosol near 19 km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pulvirenti, L.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 ° N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ramananahérisoa, R.

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Renard, J. B.

Renard, J.-B.

J.-B. Renard, F. Dalaudier, A. Hauchecorne, C. Robert, T. Lemaire, M. Pirre, J.-L. Bertaux, “Measurement of stratospheric chromatic scintillation by the balloon-borne spectrometer AMON-RA,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4254–4260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, N. Huret, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, “Measurements and simulation of stratospheric NO3 at mid- and high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 32,387–32,399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, C. Robert, G. Chalumeau, G. Berthet, M. Pirre, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “SALOMON: a new, light balloonborne UV–visible spectrometer for nighttime observations of stratospheric trace-gas species,” Appl. Opt. 39, 386–392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “The possible detection of OBrO in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25,383–25,395 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefèvre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime stratospheric NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosols and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Berthet, J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “Analysis of OBrO, IO and OIO absorption signature in UV–visible spectra measured at night and at sunrise by stratospheric balloon-borne instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Rivière, E. D.

J.-B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, N. Huret, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, “Measurements and simulation of stratospheric NO3 at mid- and high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 32,387–32,399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Robert, C.

J. B. Renard, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Brogniez, M. Herman, C. Verwaerde, J.-Y. Balois, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, J. Crespin, T. Deshler, “Optical and physical properties of stratospheric aerosols from balloon measurements in the visible and near-infrared domains. II. Comparison of extinction, reflectance, polarization, and counting measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7540–7549 (2002).
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J.-B. Renard, F. Dalaudier, A. Hauchecorne, C. Robert, T. Lemaire, M. Pirre, J.-L. Bertaux, “Measurement of stratospheric chromatic scintillation by the balloon-borne spectrometer AMON-RA,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4254–4260 (2001).
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J.-B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, N. Huret, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, “Measurements and simulation of stratospheric NO3 at mid- and high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 32,387–32,399 (2001).
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J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, C. Robert, G. Chalumeau, G. Berthet, M. Pirre, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “SALOMON: a new, light balloonborne UV–visible spectrometer for nighttime observations of stratospheric trace-gas species,” Appl. Opt. 39, 386–392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “The possible detection of OBrO in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25,383–25,395 (1998).
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J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefèvre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime stratospheric NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Berthet, J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “Analysis of OBrO, IO and OIO absorption signature in UV–visible spectra measured at night and at sunrise by stratospheric balloon-borne instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

C. Robert, “Réalisation d’un spectromètre stellaire multicanal embarquable sous ballon stratosphérique,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Orléans, Orléans, France, 1992).

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Rodgers, C. D.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,507–16,518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rozier, W. R.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 ° N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming, during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 199–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rusch, D. W.

C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Russell, J. M.

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12,915–12,922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, S.

E. G. Dutton, P. Reddy, S. Ryan, J. J. DeLuisi, “Features and effects of aerosol optical depth observed at Mauna Loa, Hawaii: 1982–1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8295–8306 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Saxena, V. K.

J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. K. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “Characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
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J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, from Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, New York, 1998).

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C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
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R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12,915–12,922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Pinatubo aerosol near 19 km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
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P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,765–18,773 (1996).
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Starr, W. L.

R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
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Steele, H. M.

H. M. Steele, J. D. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. M. Bevilacqua, S. T. Massie, “Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325–9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, R. P. Turco, “Retrieval of aerosol size distributions from satellite extinction spectra using constrained linear inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,737–16,747 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, L. L.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taupin, F. G.

J.-B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, N. Huret, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, “Measurements and simulation of stratospheric NO3 at mid- and high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 32,387–32,399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, F. W.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,507–16,518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thomason, L. W.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
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L. W. Thomason, “Observations of a new SAGE II aerosol extinction mode following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 2179–2182 (1992).
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Toon, O. B.

R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
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Toumi, R.

D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosols and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
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Travis, L. D.

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmosphere,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
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Turco, R. P.

H. M. Steele, J. D. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. M. Bevilacqua, S. T. Massie, “Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325–9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, R. P. Turco, “Retrieval of aerosol size distributions from satellite extinction spectra using constrained linear inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,737–16,747 (1997).
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Uchino, O.

H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homburg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three Northern Hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
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Velotta, R.

P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,765–18,773 (1996).
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Verma, S.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12,915–12,922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Pinatubo aerosol near 19 km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
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R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

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Yue, G. K.

G. K. Yue, “Retrieval of aerosol size distributions and integral properties from simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths by the linear minimizing error method,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14,719–14,736 (2000).
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T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming, during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 199–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 ° N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Pinatubo aerosol near 19 km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homburg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three Northern Hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
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J.-B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, N. Huret, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, “Measurements and simulation of stratospheric NO3 at mid- and high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 32,387–32,399 (2001).
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D. J. Hofmann, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric cloud observations during formation of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 2897–2912 (1991).
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R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12,915–12,922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Dutton, P. Reddy, S. Ryan, J. J. DeLuisi, “Features and effects of aerosol optical depth observed at Mauna Loa, Hawaii: 1982–1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8295–8306 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23,195–23,207 (1995).
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P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,765–18,773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, R. P. Turco, “Retrieval of aerosol size distributions from satellite extinction spectra using constrained linear inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,737–16,747 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, J. D. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. M. Bevilacqua, S. T. Massie, “Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325–9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol surface area and volume inferred from HALOE, CLAES, and ILAS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25,345–25,352 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. K. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “Characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, “Retrieval of aerosol size distributions and integral properties from simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths by the linear minimizing error method,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14,719–14,736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosols and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “The possible detection of OBrO in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25,383–25,395 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,507–16,518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
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E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
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Space Sci. Rev. (1)

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmosphere,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

G. Berthet, J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “Analysis of OBrO, IO and OIO absorption signature in UV–visible spectra measured at night and at sunrise by stratospheric balloon-borne instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols, Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, from Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, New York, 1998).

S. Voigt, J. Orphal, J. P. Burrows: information available at their Internet site, www.iup.physik.uni-bremen.de/gruppen/molspec/index.html .

C. Robert, “Réalisation d’un spectromètre stellaire multicanal embarquable sous ballon stratosphérique,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Orléans, Orléans, France, 1992).

J.-P. Naudet, C. Robert, D. Huguenin, “Balloon measurements of stratospheric trace species using a multichanel UV–visible spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the 14th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programs and Related Research, ESA document SP-355, (European Space Agency, Paris, 1994), pp. 165–168.

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