Abstract

Aerosol extinction coefficients have been derived in the 375–700-nm spectral domain from measurements in the stratosphere since 1992, at night, at mid- and high latitudes from 15 to 40 km, by two balloonborne spectrometers, Absorption par les Minoritaires Ozone et NOx (AMON) and Spectroscopie d’Absorption Lunaire pour l’Observation des Minoritaires Ozone et NOx (SALOMON). Log-normal size distributions associated with the Mie-computed extinction spectra that best fit the measurements permit calculation of integrated properties of the distributions. Although measured extinction spectra that correspond to background aerosols can be reproduced by the Mie scattering model by use of monomodal log-normal size distributions, each flight reveals some large discrepancies between measurement and theory at several altitudes. The agreement between measured and Mie-calculated extinction spectra is significantly improved by use of bimodal log-normal distributions. Nevertheless, neither monomodal nor bimodal distributions permit correct reproduction of some of the measured extinction shapes, especially for the 26 February 1997 AMON flight, which exhibited spectral behavior attributed to particles from a polar stratospheric cloud event.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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2002 (1)

2001 (2)

J.-B. Renard, F. Dalaudier, A. Hauchecorne, C. Robert, T. Lemaire, M. Pirre, J.-L. Bertaux, “Measurement of stratospheric chromatic scintillation by the balloon-borne spectrometer AMON-RA,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4254–4260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, N. Huret, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, “Measurements and simulation of stratospheric NO3 at mid- and high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 32,387–32,399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (7)

E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, C. Robert, G. Chalumeau, G. Berthet, M. Pirre, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “SALOMON: a new, light balloonborne UV–visible spectrometer for nighttime observations of stratospheric trace-gas species,” Appl. Opt. 39, 386–392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. K. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “Characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, “Retrieval of aerosol size distributions and integral properties from simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths by the linear minimizing error method,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14,719–14,736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. T. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, “The lognormal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics: empirical test using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sunphotometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 ° N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. M. Steele, J. D. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. M. Bevilacqua, S. T. Massie, “Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325–9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol surface area and volume inferred from HALOE, CLAES, and ILAS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25,345–25,352 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Fussen, E. Arijs, D. Nevejans, F. V. Hellemont, C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, “Validation of the ORA spatial inversion algorithm with respect to the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II data,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3121–3127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “The possible detection of OBrO in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25,383–25,395 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, S. J. Oltmans, “Vertical profiles of volcanic aerosol and polar stratospheric clouds above Kiruna, Sweden: winters 1993 and 1995,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 11–23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosols and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefèvre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime stratospheric NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, R. P. Turco, “Retrieval of aerosol size distributions from satellite extinction spectra using constrained linear inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,737–16,747 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,765–18,773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (5)

A. Bucholtz, “Rayleigh-scattering calculations for the terrestrial atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1227–1230 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homburg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three Northern Hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23,195–23,207 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Jaeger, T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, “Midlatitude lidar backscatter conversion based on balloon borne aerosols measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1729–1732 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,507–16,518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12,915–12,922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Dutton, P. Reddy, S. Ryan, J. J. DeLuisi, “Features and effects of aerosol optical depth observed at Mauna Loa, Hawaii: 1982–1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8295–8306 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Pinatubo aerosol near 19 km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Pommereau, J. Piquard, “Ozone, nitrogen dioxide and aerosol vertical distribution by UV–visible solar occultation from balloon,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 ° N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming, during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 199–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason, “Observations of a new SAGE II aerosol extinction mode following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 2179–2182 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. J. Hofmann, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric cloud observations during formation of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 2897–2912 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, “A comparative review of radiation aerosol models,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 57, 1–20 (1984).

1974 (1)

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmosphere,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Adriani, A.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 ° N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Allen, D.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Allen, D. A.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12,915–12,922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J.

J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. K. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “Characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arijs, E.

Balois, J.-Y.

Bauman, J. J.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Berardi, V.

P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,765–18,773 (1996).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
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J. B. Renard, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Brogniez, M. Herman, C. Verwaerde, J.-Y. Balois, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, J. Crespin, T. Deshler, “Optical and physical properties of stratospheric aerosols from balloon measurements in the visible and near-infrared domains. II. Comparison of extinction, reflectance, polarization, and counting measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7540–7549 (2002).
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J.-B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, N. Huret, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, “Measurements and simulation of stratospheric NO3 at mid- and high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 32,387–32,399 (2001).
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J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, C. Robert, G. Chalumeau, G. Berthet, M. Pirre, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “SALOMON: a new, light balloonborne UV–visible spectrometer for nighttime observations of stratospheric trace-gas species,” Appl. Opt. 39, 386–392 (2000).
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G. Berthet, J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “Analysis of OBrO, IO and OIO absorption signature in UV–visible spectra measured at night and at sunrise by stratospheric balloon-borne instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

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C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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J. B. Renard, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Brogniez, M. Herman, C. Verwaerde, J.-Y. Balois, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, J. Crespin, T. Deshler, “Optical and physical properties of stratospheric aerosols from balloon measurements in the visible and near-infrared domains. II. Comparison of extinction, reflectance, polarization, and counting measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7540–7549 (2002).
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J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. K. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “Characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
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C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
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A. Bucholtz, “Rayleigh-scattering calculations for the terrestrial atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1227–1230 (1995).
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T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 ° N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
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E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
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J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. K. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “Characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
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Chalumeau, G.

Chan, K. R.

R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
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J. B. Renard, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Brogniez, M. Herman, C. Verwaerde, J.-Y. Balois, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, J. Crespin, T. Deshler, “Optical and physical properties of stratospheric aerosols from balloon measurements in the visible and near-infrared domains. II. Comparison of extinction, reflectance, polarization, and counting measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7540–7549 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, N. Huret, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, “Measurements and simulation of stratospheric NO3 at mid- and high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 32,387–32,399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, C. Robert, G. Chalumeau, G. Berthet, M. Pirre, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “SALOMON: a new, light balloonborne UV–visible spectrometer for nighttime observations of stratospheric trace-gas species,” Appl. Opt. 39, 386–392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Berthet, J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “Analysis of OBrO, IO and OIO absorption signature in UV–visible spectra measured at night and at sunrise by stratospheric balloon-borne instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

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P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23,195–23,207 (1995).
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d’Almeida, G. A.

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Dalaudier, F.

David, C.

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23,195–23,207 (1995).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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E. G. Dutton, P. Reddy, S. Ryan, J. J. DeLuisi, “Features and effects of aerosol optical depth observed at Mauna Loa, Hawaii: 1982–1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8295–8306 (1994).
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Deshler, T.

J. B. Renard, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Brogniez, M. Herman, C. Verwaerde, J.-Y. Balois, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, J. Crespin, T. Deshler, “Optical and physical properties of stratospheric aerosols from balloon measurements in the visible and near-infrared domains. II. Comparison of extinction, reflectance, polarization, and counting measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7540–7549 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 ° N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol surface area and volume inferred from HALOE, CLAES, and ILAS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25,345–25,352 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
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T. Deshler, S. J. Oltmans, “Vertical profiles of volcanic aerosol and polar stratospheric clouds above Kiruna, Sweden: winters 1993 and 1995,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 11–23 (1998).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Jaeger, T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, “Midlatitude lidar backscatter conversion based on balloon borne aerosols measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1729–1732 (1995).
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T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 ° N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
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T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming, during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 199–202 (1992).
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D. J. Hofmann, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric cloud observations during formation of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 2897–2912 (1991).
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Di Girolamo, P.

P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,765–18,773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, E. G.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Dutton, P. Reddy, S. Ryan, J. J. DeLuisi, “Features and effects of aerosol optical depth observed at Mauna Loa, Hawaii: 1982–1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8295–8306 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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N. T. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, “The lognormal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics: empirical test using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sunphotometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
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Eckermann, S. D.

E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
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R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12,915–12,922 (1994).
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J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Pinatubo aerosol near 19 km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
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R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fierli, F.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 ° N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fong, W.

R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
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H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homburg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three Northern Hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
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C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
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Fromm, M. D.

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
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Fujimoto, T.

H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homburg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three Northern Hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fussen, D.

Godin, S.

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23,195–23,207 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J.

J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Pinatubo aerosol near 19 km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. K.

R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
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Goutail, F.

Grainger, R. G.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
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Hamill, P.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, G.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 ° N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
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Hansen, J. E.

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmosphere,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
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Hauchecorne, A.

J.-B. Renard, F. Dalaudier, A. Hauchecorne, C. Robert, T. Lemaire, M. Pirre, J.-L. Bertaux, “Measurement of stratospheric chromatic scintillation by the balloon-borne spectrometer AMON-RA,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4254–4260 (2001).
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T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 ° N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hellemont, F. V.

Herman, B. M.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

Hervig, M. E.

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol surface area and volume inferred from HALOE, CLAES, and ILAS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25,345–25,352 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

H. T. Jaeger, T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, “Midlatitude lidar backscatter conversion based on balloon borne aerosols measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1729–1732 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming, during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 199–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hofmann, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric cloud observations during formation of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 2897–2912 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

N. T. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, “The lognormal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics: empirical test using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sunphotometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Homburg, F.

H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homburg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three Northern Hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hoppel, K. W.

C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
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C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hornstein, J. S.

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
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J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefèvre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime stratospheric NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
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Huret, N.

J.-B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, N. Huret, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, “Measurements and simulation of stratospheric NO3 at mid- and high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 32,387–32,399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
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C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
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E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
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J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefèvre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime stratospheric NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
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J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. K. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “Characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
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R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12,915–12,922 (1994).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
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C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
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C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
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J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. K. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “Characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
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P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23,195–23,207 (1995).
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A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
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J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
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H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homburg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three Northern Hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
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T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 ° N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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J.-P. Naudet, C. Robert, D. Huguenin, “Balloon measurements of stratospheric trace species using a multichanel UV–visible spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the 14th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programs and Related Research, ESA document SP-355, (European Space Agency, Paris, 1994), pp. 165–168.

Nevejans, D.

Newchurch, M.

D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosols and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
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J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefèvre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime stratospheric NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
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N. T. O’Neill, A. Ignatov, B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, “The lognormal distribution as a reference for reporting aerosol optical depth statistics: empirical test using multi-year, multi-site AERONET sunphotometer data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3333–3336 (2000).
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R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
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P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,765–18,773 (1996).
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P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23,195–23,207 (1995).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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J.-B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, N. Huret, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, “Measurements and simulation of stratospheric NO3 at mid- and high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 32,387–32,399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, F. Dalaudier, A. Hauchecorne, C. Robert, T. Lemaire, M. Pirre, J.-L. Bertaux, “Measurement of stratospheric chromatic scintillation by the balloon-borne spectrometer AMON-RA,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4254–4260 (2001).
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E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, C. Robert, G. Chalumeau, G. Berthet, M. Pirre, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “SALOMON: a new, light balloonborne UV–visible spectrometer for nighttime observations of stratospheric trace-gas species,” Appl. Opt. 39, 386–392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “The possible detection of OBrO in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25,383–25,395 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosols and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefèvre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime stratospheric NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
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G. Berthet, J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “Analysis of OBrO, IO and OIO absorption signature in UV–visible spectra measured at night and at sunrise by stratospheric balloon-borne instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
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[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pulvirenti, L.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 ° N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ramananahérisoa, R.

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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Renard, J. B.

Renard, J.-B.

J.-B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, N. Huret, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, “Measurements and simulation of stratospheric NO3 at mid- and high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 32,387–32,399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, F. Dalaudier, A. Hauchecorne, C. Robert, T. Lemaire, M. Pirre, J.-L. Bertaux, “Measurement of stratospheric chromatic scintillation by the balloon-borne spectrometer AMON-RA,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4254–4260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, C. Robert, G. Chalumeau, G. Berthet, M. Pirre, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “SALOMON: a new, light balloonborne UV–visible spectrometer for nighttime observations of stratospheric trace-gas species,” Appl. Opt. 39, 386–392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “The possible detection of OBrO in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25,383–25,395 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosols and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefèvre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime stratospheric NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Berthet, J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “Analysis of OBrO, IO and OIO absorption signature in UV–visible spectra measured at night and at sunrise by stratospheric balloon-borne instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Rivière, E. D.

J.-B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, N. Huret, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, “Measurements and simulation of stratospheric NO3 at mid- and high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 32,387–32,399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Robert, C.

J. B. Renard, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Brogniez, M. Herman, C. Verwaerde, J.-Y. Balois, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, J. Crespin, T. Deshler, “Optical and physical properties of stratospheric aerosols from balloon measurements in the visible and near-infrared domains. II. Comparison of extinction, reflectance, polarization, and counting measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7540–7549 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, N. Huret, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, “Measurements and simulation of stratospheric NO3 at mid- and high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 32,387–32,399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, F. Dalaudier, A. Hauchecorne, C. Robert, T. Lemaire, M. Pirre, J.-L. Bertaux, “Measurement of stratospheric chromatic scintillation by the balloon-borne spectrometer AMON-RA,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4254–4260 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, C. Robert, G. Chalumeau, G. Berthet, M. Pirre, J.-P. Pommereau, F. Goutail, “SALOMON: a new, light balloonborne UV–visible spectrometer for nighttime observations of stratospheric trace-gas species,” Appl. Opt. 39, 386–392 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “The possible detection of OBrO in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25,383–25,395 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefèvre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime stratospheric NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Naudet, C. Robert, D. Huguenin, “Balloon measurements of stratospheric trace species using a multichanel UV–visible spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the 14th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programs and Related Research, ESA document SP-355, (European Space Agency, Paris, 1994), pp. 165–168.

C. Robert, “Réalisation d’un spectromètre stellaire multicanal embarquable sous ballon stratosphérique,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Orléans, Orléans, France, 1992).

G. Berthet, J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “Analysis of OBrO, IO and OIO absorption signature in UV–visible spectra measured at night and at sunrise by stratospheric balloon-borne instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Rodgers, C. D.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,507–16,518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rozier, W. R.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 ° N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming, during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 199–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rusch, D. W.

C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Russell, J. M.

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12,915–12,922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, S.

E. G. Dutton, P. Reddy, S. Ryan, J. J. DeLuisi, “Features and effects of aerosol optical depth observed at Mauna Loa, Hawaii: 1982–1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8295–8306 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Saxena, V. K.

J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. K. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “Characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
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J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, from Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, New York, 1998).

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C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
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G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols, Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

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R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12,915–12,922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Pinatubo aerosol near 19 km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, N.

P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,765–18,773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Starr, W. L.

R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Steele, H. M.

H. M. Steele, J. D. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. M. Bevilacqua, S. T. Massie, “Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325–9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, R. P. Turco, “Retrieval of aerosol size distributions from satellite extinction spectra using constrained linear inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,737–16,747 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, L. L.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taupin, F. G.

J.-B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, N. Huret, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, “Measurements and simulation of stratospheric NO3 at mid- and high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 32,387–32,399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, F. W.

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,507–16,518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thomason, L. W.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason, “Observations of a new SAGE II aerosol extinction mode following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 2179–2182 (1992).
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Toon, O. B.

R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Toumi, R.

D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosols and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmosphere,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
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Turco, R. P.

H. M. Steele, J. D. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. M. Bevilacqua, S. T. Massie, “Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325–9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, R. P. Turco, “Retrieval of aerosol size distributions from satellite extinction spectra using constrained linear inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,737–16,747 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Uchino, O.

H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homburg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three Northern Hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Velotta, R.

P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,765–18,773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Verma, S.

J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Pinatubo aerosol near 19 km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12,915–12,922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Verwaerde, C.

Yue, G. K.

G. K. Yue, “Retrieval of aerosol size distributions and integral properties from simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths by the linear minimizing error method,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14,719–14,736 (2000).
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H. T. Jaeger, T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, “Midlatitude lidar backscatter conversion based on balloon borne aerosols measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1729–1732 (1995).
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L. W. Thomason, “Observations of a new SAGE II aerosol extinction mode following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 2179–2182 (1992).
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J.-P. Pommereau, J. Piquard, “Ozone, nitrogen dioxide and aerosol vertical distribution by UV–visible solar occultation from balloon,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1227–1230 (1994).
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J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, F. Lefèvre, E. Lateltin, B. Nozière, D. Huguenin, “Vertical distribution of nighttime stratospheric NO2 from balloon measurements: comparison with models,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 73–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, D. J. Hofmann, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming, during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 199–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 ° N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Pinatubo aerosol near 19 km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Jäger, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, T. Fujimoto, V. Freudenthaler, F. Homburg, “Ground-based remote sensing of the decay of the Pinatubo eruption cloud at three Northern Hemisphere sites,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 607–610 (1995).
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J. Geophys. Res. (24)

J.-B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, N. Huret, G. Berthet, C. Robert, M. Chartier, “Measurements and simulation of stratospheric NO3 at mid- and high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 32,387–32,399 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hofmann, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric cloud observations during formation of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 2897–2912 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, K. G. Snetsinger, J. K. Goodman, O. B. Toon, G. V. Ferry, V. R. Oberbeck, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, W. Fong, W. L. Starr, K. R. Chan, “Condensed nitrate, sulfate, and chloride in Antarctic stratospheric aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 11,271–11,284 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, S. Verma, “Physical and optical properties of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a Sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12,915–12,922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Brogniez, J. Lenoble, R. Ramananahérisoa, K. H. Fricke, E. P. Shettle, K. W. Hoppel, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. S. Hornstein, J. Lumpe, M. D. Fromm, S. S. Krigman, “Second European Stratospheric Arctic and Midlatitude Experiment campaign: correlative measurements of aerosol in the northern polar atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1489–1494 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Dutton, P. Reddy, S. Ryan, J. J. DeLuisi, “Features and effects of aerosol optical depth observed at Mauna Loa, Hawaii: 1982–1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8295–8306 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Chazette, C. David, J. Lefrère, S. Godin, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Comparative lidar study of the optical, geometrical, and dynamical properties of stratospheric post-volcanic aerosols, following the eruptions of El Chichon and Mount Pinatubo,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23,195–23,207 (1995).
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P. Di Girolamo, G. Pappalardo, N. Spinelli, V. Berardi, R. Velotta, “Lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol layer over southern Italy in the period 1991–1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,765–18,773 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, R. P. Turco, “Retrieval of aerosol size distributions from satellite extinction spectra using constrained linear inversion,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16,737–16,747 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Steele, J. D. Lumpe, R. P. Turco, R. M. Bevilacqua, S. T. Massie, “Retrieval of aerosol surface area and volume densities from extinction measurements: application to POAM II and SAGE II,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9325–9336 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Randall, R. M. Bevilacqua, J. D. Lumpe, K. W. Hoppel, D. W. Rusch, E. P. Shettle, “Comparison of Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II aerosol measurements from 1994 to 1996,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3929–3942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric aerosol surface area and volume inferred from HALOE, CLAES, and ILAS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25,345–25,352 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Lary, R. Toumi, A. M. Lee, M. Newchurch, M. Pirre, J.-B. Renard, “Carbon aerosols and atmospheric photochemistry,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3671–3682 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “The possible detection of OBrO in the stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25,383–25,395 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, R. F. Pueschel, J. J. Bauman, J. B. Pollack, S. L. Brooks, P. Hamill, L. W. Thomason, L. L. Stowe, T. Deshler, E. G. Dutton, R. W. Bergstrom, “Global to microscale evolution of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol derived from diverse measurements and analyses,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,745–18,763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, C. Robert, G. Moreau, D. Huguenin, J. M. Russell, “Nocturnal vertical distribution of stratospheric O3, NO2 and NO3 from balloon measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 28,793–28,804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Anderson, C. Brogniez, L. Cazier, V. K. Saxena, J. Lenoble, M. P. McCormick, “Characterization of aerosols from simulated SAGE III measurements applying two retrieval techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 2013–2027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, “Retrieval of aerosol size distributions and integral properties from simulated extinction measurements at SAGE III wavelengths by the linear minimizing error method,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14,719–14,736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 ° N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
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E. D. Rivière, N. Huret, F. G. Taupin, J.-B. Renard, M. Pirre, S. D. Eckermann, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, F. Lefèvre, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, “Role of lee waves in the formation of solid polar stratospheric clouds: case studies from February 1997,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 6845–6853 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Grainger, A. Lambert, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, “Stratospheric aerosol effective radius, surface area and volume estimated from infrared measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,507–16,518 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Lambert, R. G. Grainger, C. D. Rodgers, F. W. Taylor, J. L. Mergenthaler, J. B. Kumer, S. T. Massie, “Global evolution of Mt. Pinatubo volcanic aerosols observed by the infrared limb-sounding instruments CLAES and ISAMS on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 1495–1512 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmosphere,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
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C. Robert, “Réalisation d’un spectromètre stellaire multicanal embarquable sous ballon stratosphérique,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Orléans, Orléans, France, 1992).

J.-P. Naudet, C. Robert, D. Huguenin, “Balloon measurements of stratospheric trace species using a multichanel UV–visible spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the 14th ESA Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programs and Related Research, ESA document SP-355, (European Space Agency, Paris, 1994), pp. 165–168.

G. Berthet, J.-B. Renard, M. Chartier, M. Pirre, C. Robert, “Analysis of OBrO, IO and OIO absorption signature in UV–visible spectra measured at night and at sunrise by stratospheric balloon-borne instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols, Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

J. H. Seinfeld, S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, from Air Pollution to Climate Change (Wiley, New York, 1998).

S. Voigt, J. Orphal, J. P. Burrows: information available at their Internet site, www.iup.physik.uni-bremen.de/gruppen/molspec/index.html .

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of retrieved aerosol slant optical depths (SALOMON observation on 22 February 2000 from Kiruna; Moon elevation, -1.7°): (a) Raw optical depth spectrum, (b) spectrum after Rayleigh scattering has been neutralized; (c) spectrum after the O3 contribution has been removed, and (d) residual spectrum obtained after the contributions of other species (NO2, NO3, and OClO) were removed and the spectrum was fitted by a third-order polynomial. The remaining slope is attributed to the spectrum of the aerosol optical depth.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of O3 optical depth spectrum and the least-squares fit by the 203-K O3 cross sections measured at Bremen University.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of aerosol extinction coefficients profiles (at 530 nm) measured by the AMON on 24 March 1994, along with error bars, with several observations from the OHP lidar at 532 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of aerosol extinction measured by the AMON on 16 October 1993, along with error bars, with two observations from the SAGE II on the same date. The wavelengths for the AMON data (400, 450, and 525 nm) were chosen to match the SAGE II wavelengths (385, 453, 525 nm) as closely as possible. SAGE II observations located at (a) 49.1 ° N, 12.2 W at 0715 UT and (b) 49.3 ° N, 11.9 ° E at 0538 UT.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the wavelength dependence of aerosols extinction measured from the AMON flight (box rules, which represent the error measurements) and from the SAGE II for the two coincidences: 49.1 ° N, 12.2 ° W at 0715 UT (triangles) and 49.3 ° N, 11.9 ° E at 0538 UT (diamonds). The numbers immediately to the right of the box rules correspond to the tangent altitudes for the AMON; the numbers near the right-hand boundary of the figure correspond to SAGE II tangent altitudes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Example of a normalized aerosol extinction spectra measured by the AMON on 16 October 1993 at 20.2 and 17.5 km. (a) Spectrum fitted by the Mie model with a monomodal log-normal distribution at 20.2 km. (b) Spectrum fitted by the Mie model with a bimodal log-normal distribution at 20.2 km. (c) Same as (a) but at 17.5 km, (d) same as (b) but at 17.5 km.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Monomodal (dashed curves) and bimodal (solid curves) log-normal size distributions for the 16 October 1993 AMON flight. (a) At 20.2 km the monomodal distribution was obtained with r 0 = 0.18 µm and σ = 1.7; the bimodal distribution was obtained with r 01 = 0.30 µm, σ1 = 1.1, r 02 = 1.0 µm, and σ2 = 1.2. (b) At 17.5 km the monomodal distribution was obtained with r 0 = 1.0 µm and σ = 1.3; the bimodal distribution was obtained with r 01 = 0.16 µm, σ1 = 2.2, r 02 = 1.0 µm, and σ2 = 1.2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Standard deviations of the difference between measured aerosol extinction and fit for the 16 October 1993, flight of AMON. Bimodal distributions led to better fits than monomodal distributions.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Aerosol surface area density vertical profiles calculated for the 16 October 1993 AMON flight. Good agreement between surface area densities calculated from monomodal and bimodal distributions can be observed.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of vertical profiles of effective radius from the 16 October 1993 AMON flight and the SAGE II monthly data averaged in October 1993 in the 40°–50 ° N latitude range. Monomodal distributions were assumed for the calculations.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Example of normalized aerosol extinction spectra and Mie model fits for the 24 March 1994 AMON flight: (a) spectrum fitted at 23.6 km. (b) Monomodal and bimodal size distributions at 23.6 km. The monomodal distribution was obtained with r 0 = 0.20 µm and σ = 1.5; the bimodal distribution was obtained with r 01 = 0.025 µm, σ1 = 1.1, r 02 = 0.3 µm, and σ2 = 1.1. (c) Same as (a) but at 21.6 km. (d) Same as (b) but at 21.6 km. Monomodal distribution with r 0 = 0.2 µm and σ = 1.7, bimodal distribution with r 01 = 0.06 µm, σ1 = 2.2, r 02 = 1.0 µm, and σ2 = 1.1.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Example of normalized aerosol extinction spectrum and Mie model fits for the 26 February 1997 flight of AMON: (a) spectrum fitted at 15.5 km, (b) Monomodal and bimodal size distributions at 15.5 km. Monomodal distribution with r 0 = 0.3 µm and σ = 1.2, bimodal distribution with r 01 = 0.05 µm, σ1 = 1.3, r 02 = 1.0 µm, and σ2 = 1.1. Note that the extinction y-axis scale of Figs. 12, 13, and 15 differs by a factor of 2 from the scale of Figs. 6 and 11.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Extinction spectral behavior attributed to the presence of nonspherical frozen particles after a polar stratospheric cloud event for the 26 February 1997 AMON flight. None of the distributions can fit this spectral dependence.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Comparison of aerosol surface area densities derived from the 26 February 1997 AMON flight and from the University of Wyoming optical particle counter (UW OPC). Boldface symbols, values corresponding mostly to background aerosols; good agreement can be observed between the two sets of values. Lightface symbols, values corresponding to aerosols resulting from a polar stratospheric cloud event; significant disagreement stands out because the nature of aerosols can differ for the two flights.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Example of normalized aerosol extinction spectra and Mie model fits for the 22 February 2000 SALOMON flight: (a) spectrum fitted at 25.5 km, (b) monomodal size distribution at 25.5 km with r 0 = 0.17 µm and σ = 1.2, (c) spectrum fitted at 19 km. (d) Monomodal and bimodal size distributions at 19 km; monomodal distribution with r 0 = 0.035 µm and σ = 2.0, bimodal distribution with r 01 = 0.06 µm, σ1 = 1.5, r 02 = 1.0 µm, and σ2 = 1.1. (e) Spectrum fitted at 17 km. (f) Monomodal and bimodal size distributions at 17 km; monomodal distribution with r 0 = 0.06 µm and σ = 1.8, bimodal distribution with r 01 = 0.05 µm, σ1 = 1.3, r 02 = 1.0 µm, and σ2 = 1.1.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Aerosol surface area density vertical profiles calculated for the various AMON flights and the 22 February 2000 SALOMON flight. Surface density values from monomodal distributions are plotted when bimodal distributions are unnecessary. Surface density values are removed at altitudes where the measured extinction spectra are not suitably fitted. Profiles for (a) the 24 May 1992 AMON flight, (b) the 16 October 1993 AMON flight, (c) the 24 March 1994 AMON flight, (d) the 26 February 1997 AMON flight, (e) the 12 February 1999 AMON flight, and (f) for the 22 February 2000 SALOMON flight.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Flight Conditions of the Instruments Discussed in This Paper

Equations (6)

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dNdr=i=1pN0iri ln σi2πexp-12ln ri-ln r0iln σi2,
Reff=0r3dNrdrdr0r2dNrdrdr.
Reff=i=1pN0ir0i3 exp9/2ln σi2i=1pN0ir0i2 exp2ln σi2
S=04πr2dNrdrdr,
S=i=1p4πN0i r0i2 exp2ln σi2.
Eλ=σdλN0,

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