Abstract

A scanning spectral photometer is deployed on a rigid coastal ocean platform to measure upwelling solar radiances from the sea surface at nine elevation angles spanning 150° of azimuth. Measured radiance distributions at 500 nm wavelength have been compared with traditional model simulations employing the Cox and Munk distribution of wave slopes. The model captures the general features of the observed angular reflectance distributions, but: (a) the observed peak value of sunglint near the specular direction is larger than simulated, except for a very calm sea; the model-measurement differences increase with wind speed and are largest for low solar elevation; (b) the observed sunglint is wider than simulated. In contrast to some previous studies, our results do not show a clear dependence of the mean square sea-surface slope on stability (air-sea temperature difference).

© 2002 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Spooner, “Sur la lumiere des ondes de la mer,” Corresp. Astronomique du Baron de Zach 6, 331 (1822).
  2. E. O. Hulburt, “The polarization of light at sea,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 24, 35–42 (1934).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. V. Shuleikin, Fizika Moria (Physics of the Sea), (Izv. Akad. Nauk., Moscow, USSR, 1941) p. 833.
  4. C. Cox, W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Cox, W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).
  6. B. A. Hughes, H. L. Grant, R. W. Chappell, “A fast response surface-wave slope meter and measured wind-wave moments,” Deep-Sea Res. 24, 1211–1223 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Tang, O. H. Shemdin, “Measurement of high frequency waves using a wave follower,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, C14, 9832–9840 (1983).
  8. S. P. Haimbach, J. Wu, “Field trials of an optical scanner for studying sea-surface fine structures,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. OE-10, 451–453 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. A. Hwang, O. H. Shemdin, “The dependence of sea surface slope on atmospheric stability and swell conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, C11, 13,903–13,912 (1988).
  10. J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, “Scanning-laser glint measurements of sea-surface slope statistics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4202–4213 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Liu, W. J. Pierson, “Comparisons of scatterometer models for the AMI on ERS-1: The possibility of systematic azimuth angel biases of wind speed and direction,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 626–635 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Liu, X.-H. Yan, “The wind-induced wave growth rate and the spectrum of the gravity-capillary waves,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 25, 3196–3218 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Liu, X.-H. Yan, W. T. Liu, P. A. Hwang, “The probability density function of the ocean surface slopes and its effects on radar backscatter,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 27, 782–797 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Liu, M.-Y. Su, X.-H. Yan, W. T. Liu, “The mean-square slope of ocean surfacewaves and its effects on radar backscatter,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 17, 1092–1105 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. G. Trokhimovski, “Gravity-capillary wave curvature spectrum and mean-square slope retrieved from microwave radiometric measurements (Coastal Ocean Probing Experiment),” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 17, 1259–1270 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using measurements of reflected sunlight: effect of instrumental errors and aerosol absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 13,543–13,553 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, W. B. Rossow, A. A. Lacis, “Aerosol retrievals over the ocean by use of channels 1 and 2 AVHRR data: sensitivity analysis and preliminary results,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7325–7341 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Goloub, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F. M. Breon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ASEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, P. Goloub, D. Tanre, A. Marchand, “Characterization of aerosols over ocean from POLDER/ADEOS-1,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1421–1424 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243–246 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383–397 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. I. Sancer, “Shadow-corrected electromagnetic scattering from a randomly-rough ocean surface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 17, 557–585 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Morel, K. J. Voss, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: A comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, C7, 13,143–13,150 (1995).
  24. R. W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 1293–1316 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, “Correction of the sunglint contamination on the SeaWiFS aerosol optical thickness retrieval,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part I (SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), Chap. 9, pp. 65–69.
  26. R. G. Kleidman, Y. J. Kaufman, B-C Gao, L. A. Remer, V. G. Brackett, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, “Remote sensing of total precipitable water vapor in the near-IR over ocean glint,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2657–2660 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, M. R. Schoeberl, M. A. Yamasoe, “Retrieval of black carbon absorption from proposed satellite measurements over the ocean glint,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 34-1–34-4, doi: 10.1029/2002GL015403 (2002).
  28. J. Wu, “Sea-surface slope and equilibrium wind-wave spectra,” Phys. Fluids 13, 741–747 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  29. E. F. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J.-J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S: an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. B. Stull, An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 377–380.

2002 (2)

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, M. R. Schoeberl, M. A. Yamasoe, “Retrieval of black carbon absorption from proposed satellite measurements over the ocean glint,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 34-1–34-4, doi: 10.1029/2002GL015403 (2002).

2001 (1)

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243–246 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

R. G. Kleidman, Y. J. Kaufman, B-C Gao, L. A. Remer, V. G. Brackett, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, “Remote sensing of total precipitable water vapor in the near-IR over ocean glint,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2657–2660 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M.-Y. Su, X.-H. Yan, W. T. Liu, “The mean-square slope of ocean surfacewaves and its effects on radar backscatter,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 17, 1092–1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Trokhimovski, “Gravity-capillary wave curvature spectrum and mean-square slope retrieved from microwave radiometric measurements (Coastal Ocean Probing Experiment),” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 17, 1259–1270 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, W. B. Rossow, A. A. Lacis, “Aerosol retrievals over the ocean by use of channels 1 and 2 AVHRR data: sensitivity analysis and preliminary results,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7325–7341 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Goloub, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F. M. Breon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ASEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, P. Goloub, D. Tanre, A. Marchand, “Characterization of aerosols over ocean from POLDER/ADEOS-1,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1421–1424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using measurements of reflected sunlight: effect of instrumental errors and aerosol absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 13,543–13,553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, “Scanning-laser glint measurements of sea-surface slope statistics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4202–4213 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, X.-H. Yan, W. T. Liu, P. A. Hwang, “The probability density function of the ocean surface slopes and its effects on radar backscatter,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 27, 782–797 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J.-J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S: an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: A comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, C7, 13,143–13,150 (1995).

Y. Liu, X.-H. Yan, “The wind-induced wave growth rate and the spectrum of the gravity-capillary waves,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 25, 3196–3218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Y. Liu, W. J. Pierson, “Comparisons of scatterometer models for the AMI on ERS-1: The possibility of systematic azimuth angel biases of wind speed and direction,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 626–635 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

P. A. Hwang, O. H. Shemdin, “The dependence of sea surface slope on atmospheric stability and swell conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, C11, 13,903–13,912 (1988).

1986 (1)

R. W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 1293–1316 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

S. P. Haimbach, J. Wu, “Field trials of an optical scanner for studying sea-surface fine structures,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. OE-10, 451–453 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

S. Tang, O. H. Shemdin, “Measurement of high frequency waves using a wave follower,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, C14, 9832–9840 (1983).

1977 (1)

B. A. Hughes, H. L. Grant, R. W. Chappell, “A fast response surface-wave slope meter and measured wind-wave moments,” Deep-Sea Res. 24, 1211–1223 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

J. Wu, “Sea-surface slope and equilibrium wind-wave spectra,” Phys. Fluids 13, 741–747 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

M. I. Sancer, “Shadow-corrected electromagnetic scattering from a randomly-rough ocean surface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 17, 557–585 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1954 (2)

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954).
[CrossRef]

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

1934 (1)

1822 (1)

J. Spooner, “Sur la lumiere des ondes de la mer,” Corresp. Astronomique du Baron de Zach 6, 331 (1822).

Bailey, S. W.

M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, “Correction of the sunglint contamination on the SeaWiFS aerosol optical thickness retrieval,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part I (SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), Chap. 9, pp. 65–69.

Brackett, V. G.

R. G. Kleidman, Y. J. Kaufman, B-C Gao, L. A. Remer, V. G. Brackett, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, “Remote sensing of total precipitable water vapor in the near-IR over ocean glint,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2657–2660 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Breon, F. M.

P. Goloub, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F. M. Breon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ASEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

R. G. Kleidman, Y. J. Kaufman, B-C Gao, L. A. Remer, V. G. Brackett, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, “Remote sensing of total precipitable water vapor in the near-IR over ocean glint,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2657–2660 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243–246 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, W. B. Rossow, A. A. Lacis, “Aerosol retrievals over the ocean by use of channels 1 and 2 AVHRR data: sensitivity analysis and preliminary results,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7325–7341 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chappell, R. W.

B. A. Hughes, H. L. Grant, R. W. Chappell, “A fast response surface-wave slope meter and measured wind-wave moments,” Deep-Sea Res. 24, 1211–1223 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhary, J.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243–246 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Churnside, J. H.

Cox, C.

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954).
[CrossRef]

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

Deuze, J. L.

P. Goloub, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F. M. Breon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ASEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, P. Goloub, D. Tanre, A. Marchand, “Characterization of aerosols over ocean from POLDER/ADEOS-1,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1421–1424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J.-J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S: an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferrare, R. A.

R. G. Kleidman, Y. J. Kaufman, B-C Gao, L. A. Remer, V. G. Brackett, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, “Remote sensing of total precipitable water vapor in the near-IR over ocean glint,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2657–2660 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gao, B-C

R. G. Kleidman, Y. J. Kaufman, B-C Gao, L. A. Remer, V. G. Brackett, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, “Remote sensing of total precipitable water vapor in the near-IR over ocean glint,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2657–2660 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: A comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, C7, 13,143–13,150 (1995).

Geogdzhayev, I. V.

Goloub, P.

P. Goloub, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F. M. Breon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ASEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, P. Goloub, D. Tanre, A. Marchand, “Characterization of aerosols over ocean from POLDER/ADEOS-1,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1421–1424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grant, H. L.

B. A. Hughes, H. L. Grant, R. W. Chappell, “A fast response surface-wave slope meter and measured wind-wave moments,” Deep-Sea Res. 24, 1211–1223 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Haimbach, S. P.

S. P. Haimbach, J. Wu, “Field trials of an optical scanner for studying sea-surface fine structures,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. OE-10, 451–453 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, P. Goloub, D. Tanre, A. Marchand, “Characterization of aerosols over ocean from POLDER/ADEOS-1,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1421–1424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Goloub, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F. M. Breon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ASEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J.-J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S: an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, B. A.

B. A. Hughes, H. L. Grant, R. W. Chappell, “A fast response surface-wave slope meter and measured wind-wave moments,” Deep-Sea Res. 24, 1211–1223 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hulburt, E. O.

Hwang, P. A.

Y. Liu, X.-H. Yan, W. T. Liu, P. A. Hwang, “The probability density function of the ocean surface slopes and its effects on radar backscatter,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 27, 782–797 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Hwang, O. H. Shemdin, “The dependence of sea surface slope on atmospheric stability and swell conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, C11, 13,903–13,912 (1988).

Ismail, S.

R. G. Kleidman, Y. J. Kaufman, B-C Gao, L. A. Remer, V. G. Brackett, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, “Remote sensing of total precipitable water vapor in the near-IR over ocean glint,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2657–2660 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, M. R. Schoeberl, M. A. Yamasoe, “Retrieval of black carbon absorption from proposed satellite measurements over the ocean glint,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 34-1–34-4, doi: 10.1029/2002GL015403 (2002).

R. G. Kleidman, Y. J. Kaufman, B-C Gao, L. A. Remer, V. G. Brackett, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, “Remote sensing of total precipitable water vapor in the near-IR over ocean glint,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2657–2660 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kleidman, R. G.

R. G. Kleidman, Y. J. Kaufman, B-C Gao, L. A. Remer, V. G. Brackett, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, “Remote sensing of total precipitable water vapor in the near-IR over ocean glint,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2657–2660 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lacis, A. A.

Liu, W. T.

Y. Liu, M.-Y. Su, X.-H. Yan, W. T. Liu, “The mean-square slope of ocean surfacewaves and its effects on radar backscatter,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 17, 1092–1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, X.-H. Yan, W. T. Liu, P. A. Hwang, “The probability density function of the ocean surface slopes and its effects on radar backscatter,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 27, 782–797 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, M.-Y. Su, X.-H. Yan, W. T. Liu, “The mean-square slope of ocean surfacewaves and its effects on radar backscatter,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 17, 1092–1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, X.-H. Yan, W. T. Liu, P. A. Hwang, “The probability density function of the ocean surface slopes and its effects on radar backscatter,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 27, 782–797 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, X.-H. Yan, “The wind-induced wave growth rate and the spectrum of the gravity-capillary waves,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 25, 3196–3218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, W. J. Pierson, “Comparisons of scatterometer models for the AMI on ERS-1: The possibility of systematic azimuth angel biases of wind speed and direction,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 626–635 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marchand, A.

J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, P. Goloub, D. Tanre, A. Marchand, “Characterization of aerosols over ocean from POLDER/ADEOS-1,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1421–1424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Goloub, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F. M. Breon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ASEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martins, J. V.

Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, M. R. Schoeberl, M. A. Yamasoe, “Retrieval of black carbon absorption from proposed satellite measurements over the ocean glint,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 34-1–34-4, doi: 10.1029/2002GL015403 (2002).

Mishchenko, M.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243–246 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. Cairns, W. B. Rossow, A. A. Lacis, “Aerosol retrievals over the ocean by use of channels 1 and 2 AVHRR data: sensitivity analysis and preliminary results,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7325–7341 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using measurements of reflected sunlight: effect of instrumental errors and aerosol absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 13,543–13,553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

R. W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 1293–1316 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Morcrette, J.-J.

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J.-J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S: an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: A comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, C7, 13,143–13,150 (1995).

Munk, W.

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954).
[CrossRef]

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

Pierson, W. J.

Y. Liu, W. J. Pierson, “Comparisons of scatterometer models for the AMI on ERS-1: The possibility of systematic azimuth angel biases of wind speed and direction,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 626–635 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Preisendorfer, R. W.

R. W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 1293–1316 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Remer, L. A.

Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, M. R. Schoeberl, M. A. Yamasoe, “Retrieval of black carbon absorption from proposed satellite measurements over the ocean glint,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 34-1–34-4, doi: 10.1029/2002GL015403 (2002).

R. G. Kleidman, Y. J. Kaufman, B-C Gao, L. A. Remer, V. G. Brackett, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, “Remote sensing of total precipitable water vapor in the near-IR over ocean glint,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2657–2660 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rossow, W. B.

Sancer, M. I.

M. I. Sancer, “Shadow-corrected electromagnetic scattering from a randomly-rough ocean surface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 17, 557–585 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Schoeberl, M. R.

Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, M. R. Schoeberl, M. A. Yamasoe, “Retrieval of black carbon absorption from proposed satellite measurements over the ocean glint,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 34-1–34-4, doi: 10.1029/2002GL015403 (2002).

Shaw, J. A.

Shemdin, O. H.

P. A. Hwang, O. H. Shemdin, “The dependence of sea surface slope on atmospheric stability and swell conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, C11, 13,903–13,912 (1988).

S. Tang, O. H. Shemdin, “Measurement of high frequency waves using a wave follower,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, C14, 9832–9840 (1983).

Shuleikin, V. V.

V. V. Shuleikin, Fizika Moria (Physics of the Sea), (Izv. Akad. Nauk., Moscow, USSR, 1941) p. 833.

Spooner, J.

J. Spooner, “Sur la lumiere des ondes de la mer,” Corresp. Astronomique du Baron de Zach 6, 331 (1822).

Stull, R. B.

R. B. Stull, An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 377–380.

Su, M.-Y.

Y. Liu, M.-Y. Su, X.-H. Yan, W. T. Liu, “The mean-square slope of ocean surfacewaves and its effects on radar backscatter,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 17, 1092–1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S.

S. Tang, O. H. Shemdin, “Measurement of high frequency waves using a wave follower,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, C14, 9832–9840 (1983).

Tanre, D.

P. Goloub, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F. M. Breon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ASEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, P. Goloub, D. Tanre, A. Marchand, “Characterization of aerosols over ocean from POLDER/ADEOS-1,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1421–1424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J.-J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S: an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243–246 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using measurements of reflected sunlight: effect of instrumental errors and aerosol absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 13,543–13,553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trokhimovski, Y. G.

Y. G. Trokhimovski, “Gravity-capillary wave curvature spectrum and mean-square slope retrieved from microwave radiometric measurements (Coastal Ocean Probing Experiment),” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 17, 1259–1270 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E. F.

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J.-J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S: an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: A comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, C7, 13,143–13,150 (1995).

Wang, M.

M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, “Correction of the sunglint contamination on the SeaWiFS aerosol optical thickness retrieval,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part I (SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), Chap. 9, pp. 65–69.

Wu, J.

S. P. Haimbach, J. Wu, “Field trials of an optical scanner for studying sea-surface fine structures,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. OE-10, 451–453 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, “Sea-surface slope and equilibrium wind-wave spectra,” Phys. Fluids 13, 741–747 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Yamasoe, M. A.

Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, M. R. Schoeberl, M. A. Yamasoe, “Retrieval of black carbon absorption from proposed satellite measurements over the ocean glint,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 34-1–34-4, doi: 10.1029/2002GL015403 (2002).

Yan, X.-H.

Y. Liu, M.-Y. Su, X.-H. Yan, W. T. Liu, “The mean-square slope of ocean surfacewaves and its effects on radar backscatter,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 17, 1092–1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, X.-H. Yan, W. T. Liu, P. A. Hwang, “The probability density function of the ocean surface slopes and its effects on radar backscatter,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 27, 782–797 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, X.-H. Yan, “The wind-induced wave growth rate and the spectrum of the gravity-capillary waves,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 25, 3196–3218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Corresp. Astronomique du Baron de Zach (1)

J. Spooner, “Sur la lumiere des ondes de la mer,” Corresp. Astronomique du Baron de Zach 6, 331 (1822).

Deep-Sea Res. (1)

B. A. Hughes, H. L. Grant, R. W. Chappell, “A fast response surface-wave slope meter and measured wind-wave moments,” Deep-Sea Res. 24, 1211–1223 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (4)

J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, P. Goloub, D. Tanre, A. Marchand, “Characterization of aerosols over ocean from POLDER/ADEOS-1,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1421–1424 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, M. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties using multispectral and multiangle photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243–246 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Kleidman, Y. J. Kaufman, B-C Gao, L. A. Remer, V. G. Brackett, R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, “Remote sensing of total precipitable water vapor in the near-IR over ocean glint,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2657–2660 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, L. A. Remer, M. R. Schoeberl, M. A. Yamasoe, “Retrieval of black carbon absorption from proposed satellite measurements over the ocean glint,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 34-1–34-4, doi: 10.1029/2002GL015403 (2002).

IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. (1)

S. P. Haimbach, J. Wu, “Field trials of an optical scanner for studying sea-surface fine structures,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. OE-10, 451–453 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

M. I. Sancer, “Shadow-corrected electromagnetic scattering from a randomly-rough ocean surface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 17, 557–585 (1969).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (2)

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J.-J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum, 6S: an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, W. J. Pierson, “Comparisons of scatterometer models for the AMI on ERS-1: The possibility of systematic azimuth angel biases of wind speed and direction,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 626–635 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing (1)

P. Goloub, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F. M. Breon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over the ocean using the POLDER/ASEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. (2)

Y. Liu, M.-Y. Su, X.-H. Yan, W. T. Liu, “The mean-square slope of ocean surfacewaves and its effects on radar backscatter,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 17, 1092–1105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Trokhimovski, “Gravity-capillary wave curvature spectrum and mean-square slope retrieved from microwave radiometric measurements (Coastal Ocean Probing Experiment),” J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech. 17, 1259–1270 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, “Case studies of aerosol retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

A. Morel, K. J. Voss, B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: A comparison of modeled and measured upward radiance fields,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, C7, 13,143–13,150 (1995).

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using measurements of reflected sunlight: effect of instrumental errors and aerosol absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 13,543–13,553 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Hwang, O. H. Shemdin, “The dependence of sea surface slope on atmospheric stability and swell conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, C11, 13,903–13,912 (1988).

S. Tang, O. H. Shemdin, “Measurement of high frequency waves using a wave follower,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, C14, 9832–9840 (1983).

J. Mar. Res. (1)

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. Oceanogr. (3)

Y. Liu, X.-H. Yan, “The wind-induced wave growth rate and the spectrum of the gravity-capillary waves,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 25, 3196–3218 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, X.-H. Yan, W. T. Liu, P. A. Hwang, “The probability density function of the ocean surface slopes and its effects on radar backscatter,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 27, 782–797 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 1293–1316 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Fluids (1)

J. Wu, “Sea-surface slope and equilibrium wind-wave spectra,” Phys. Fluids 13, 741–747 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. Wang, S. W. Bailey, “Correction of the sunglint contamination on the SeaWiFS aerosol optical thickness retrieval,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part I (SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), Chap. 9, pp. 65–69.

R. B. Stull, An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988), pp. 377–380.

V. V. Shuleikin, Fizika Moria (Physics of the Sea), (Izv. Akad. Nauk., Moscow, USSR, 1941) p. 833.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Azimuthal reflectance distributions for solar zenith angle of 58° for different wind speeds and mean square slope (solid curve: σcm 2, dashed curve: σcm 2*2, dashed-dotted curve: σcm 2/2).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Azimuthal reflectance distributions for solar zenith angle of 68°. Other parameters the same as for Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Azimuthal reflectance distributions for solar zenith angle of 78°. Other parameters the same as for Fig. 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Azimuthal reflectance distributions for solar zenith angle of 58° for different wind speeds and different peakedness coefficients (solid curve: Cox and Munk peakedness coefficients, dashed curve: Cox and Munk peakedness coefficients *2, dashed-dotted curve: Cox and Munk peakedness coefficients/2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured and (b) simulated reflectances for Jan. 6 at 08 LST. SZA is 83.1. Wind speed is 5.8 m/s and wind direction is 251.4. AOD is 0.056.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Measured and (b) simulated reflectances for Jan. 6 at 12 LST. SZA is 59.3. Wind speed is 4.9 m/s and wind direction is 244.5. AOD is 0.056.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Differences between the observed reflectance and the simulated reflectance for (a) 08 LST and (b) 12 LST.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Azimuthal distribution of observed (solid curve) and simulated (dashed curve) reflectances for view elevation angle of 12° for 08:30 LST, Jan. 6, 2001 when SZA is approximately 78.4°, (b) for view elevation angle of 32° for 12:00 LST when SZA is 59.3°.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Regression relationships between RM, the ratio of maximum observed to maximum simulated reflectance, and wind speeds for elevation angles of (a) 12°, (b) 22°, (c) 32°.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Observed reflectance distributions for (a) Jan. 10 and (b) 11 at 12:30 LST, wind speeds are 4.8 (b) 0.6 m/s. AODs are 0.033 and 0.036.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Relationship between simulated and observed azimuth width of sunglint for January 6, 10, 11, and 13, 2001 at COVE.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Relationship between RM (the ratio of maximum observed to maximum simulated reflectance) and Ri (Richardson number).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Viewing Distances from Nadir and Diameters of the Field of View of SP1A for Different Elevation Angles

Tables Icon

Table 2 Ratios of Specular Reflectancea

Tables Icon

Table 3 Parameters for Three Elevation Angles

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

px=p0x1+n=1Ncnn! Hnx,
p=2πσcσu-1 exp-12ξ2+η21-12 c21×ξ2-1η-16 c03η3-3η+124 c40ξ4-6ξ2+3+14 c22ξ2-1η2-1+124 c04η4-6η2+3,
ξ=zxσc, η=zyσu,
σcm2=σc2+σu2=0.003+5.12×10-3U,
c21=0.01-0.0086U, c03=0.04-0.033U
c40=0.40, c22=0.12, c04=0.23.
σwu2=lnU+1.210-2 U7 m/s =0.85lnU-1.4510-1 U>7 m/s,
σsc2/σcm2=1.42-2.80Ri -0.23<Ri<0.27, σsc2/σcm2=0.65 Ri0.27,
Ri=g ΔTa-wTwUz2.
U=u*klnzz0,
ρθs, θv, Δφ=πLθs, θv, Δφd2cosθsEs0d02,
Rmax=maxRobs, Rsim, Rn_obs=RobsRmax, Rn_sim=RsimRmax,
Δφsp=5.95+0.9787Δφ6s

Metrics