Abstract

We have constructed and characterized a simple probe that is suitable for accurate measurements of irradiance in the UV to the vacuum UV spectral range. The irradiance meter consists of a PtSi detector located behind a 5-mm-diameter aperture. The probe was characterized at various wavelengths ranging from 130 to 320 nm by use of continuously tunable synchrotron radiation from the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility III. We determined the irradiance responsivity by scanning a small monochromatic beam over the active area of the irradiance meter and measuring its response on a grid with regular spacing. The angular response was also determined and shown to be suitable for applications such as photolithography. In addition, we studied the radiation damage using a 157-nm excimer laser and found that the irradiance meter can endure more than 100 J/cm2 of 157-nm radiation before a noticeable change occurs in its responsivity. Many industrial applications such as UV curing, photolithography, or semiconductor chip fabrication that require accurate measurement of the irradiance would benefit from having such a stable, accurate UV irradiance meter.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Xu, X. Huang, “Characterization and calibration of broadband ultraviolet radiometers,” Metrologia 37, 235–242 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. C. Larason, C. L. Cromer, “Sources of error in UV radiation measurements,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 106, 649–656 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. A. Bosch, D. E. Eisert, M. L. Furst, R. M. Graves, L. Greenler, A. Hamilton, L. R. Hughey, R. P. Madden, P. Robl, P. S. Shaw, W. S. Trzeciak, R. E. Vest, D. Wahl, “SURF III: A new electron storage ring at NIST,” in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation: SRI 99: Eleventh US National Conference, P. Pianetta, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.521, 383–390 (1999).
  4. P. S. Shaw, K. R. Lykke, R. Gupta, T. R. O’Brian, U. Arp, H. H. White, T. B. Lucatorto, J. L. Dehmer, A. C. Parr, “Ultraviolet radiometry with synchrotron radiation and cryogenic radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 38, 18–28 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, S. W. Brown, R. E. Vest, K. R. Lykke, “The new ultraviolet spectral responsivity scale based on cryogenic radiometry at Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2242–2247 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, K. R. Lykke, “NIST facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations with uniform sources,” Metrologia 37, 579–582 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. M. Bridges, C. L. Cromer, “Final report on calibration and characterization of I-line exposure meters,” Report 91 090 678A-ENG (International SEMATECH, Austin, Tex., 1991).
  8. C. A. Schrama, H. Rejin, “Novel calibration method for filter radiometers,” Metrologia 36, 179–182 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. C. Larason, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, K. R. Lykke, “Responsivity calibration methods for 365-nm irradiance meters,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 474–477 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Certain commercial equipment, instruments, or materials are identified in this paper to foster understanding. Such identification does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor does it imply that the materials or equipment identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose.
  11. K. Solt, H. Melchior, U. Kroth, P. Kuschnerus, V. Persch, H. Rabus, M. Richter, G. Ulm, “PtSi–n–Si Schottky-barrier photodetectors with stable spectral responsivity in the 120–250 nm spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3662–3664 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Werner, “Ultraviolet stability of silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 35, 407–411 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, K. R. Lykke, “Characterization of UV detectors at SURF III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1625–1628 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2002

P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, K. R. Lykke, “Characterization of UV detectors at SURF III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1625–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. C. Larason, C. L. Cromer, “Sources of error in UV radiation measurements,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 106, 649–656 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, S. W. Brown, R. E. Vest, K. R. Lykke, “The new ultraviolet spectral responsivity scale based on cryogenic radiometry at Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2242–2247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Larason, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, K. R. Lykke, “Responsivity calibration methods for 365-nm irradiance meters,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 474–477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, K. R. Lykke, “NIST facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations with uniform sources,” Metrologia 37, 579–582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Xu, X. Huang, “Characterization and calibration of broadband ultraviolet radiometers,” Metrologia 37, 235–242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

L. Werner, “Ultraviolet stability of silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 35, 407–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. Solt, H. Melchior, U. Kroth, P. Kuschnerus, V. Persch, H. Rabus, M. Richter, G. Ulm, “PtSi–n–Si Schottky-barrier photodetectors with stable spectral responsivity in the 120–250 nm spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3662–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arp, U.

Bosch, R. A.

R. A. Bosch, D. E. Eisert, M. L. Furst, R. M. Graves, L. Greenler, A. Hamilton, L. R. Hughey, R. P. Madden, P. Robl, P. S. Shaw, W. S. Trzeciak, R. E. Vest, D. Wahl, “SURF III: A new electron storage ring at NIST,” in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation: SRI 99: Eleventh US National Conference, P. Pianetta, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.521, 383–390 (1999).

Bridges, J. M.

J. M. Bridges, C. L. Cromer, “Final report on calibration and characterization of I-line exposure meters,” Report 91 090 678A-ENG (International SEMATECH, Austin, Tex., 1991).

Brown, S. W.

P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, S. W. Brown, R. E. Vest, K. R. Lykke, “The new ultraviolet spectral responsivity scale based on cryogenic radiometry at Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2242–2247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Larason, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, K. R. Lykke, “Responsivity calibration methods for 365-nm irradiance meters,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 474–477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, K. R. Lykke, “NIST facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations with uniform sources,” Metrologia 37, 579–582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cromer, C. L.

T. C. Larason, C. L. Cromer, “Sources of error in UV radiation measurements,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 106, 649–656 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bridges, C. L. Cromer, “Final report on calibration and characterization of I-line exposure meters,” Report 91 090 678A-ENG (International SEMATECH, Austin, Tex., 1991).

Dehmer, J. L.

Eisert, D. E.

R. A. Bosch, D. E. Eisert, M. L. Furst, R. M. Graves, L. Greenler, A. Hamilton, L. R. Hughey, R. P. Madden, P. Robl, P. S. Shaw, W. S. Trzeciak, R. E. Vest, D. Wahl, “SURF III: A new electron storage ring at NIST,” in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation: SRI 99: Eleventh US National Conference, P. Pianetta, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.521, 383–390 (1999).

Eppeldauer, G. P.

T. C. Larason, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, K. R. Lykke, “Responsivity calibration methods for 365-nm irradiance meters,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 474–477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, K. R. Lykke, “NIST facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations with uniform sources,” Metrologia 37, 579–582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Furst, M. L.

R. A. Bosch, D. E. Eisert, M. L. Furst, R. M. Graves, L. Greenler, A. Hamilton, L. R. Hughey, R. P. Madden, P. Robl, P. S. Shaw, W. S. Trzeciak, R. E. Vest, D. Wahl, “SURF III: A new electron storage ring at NIST,” in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation: SRI 99: Eleventh US National Conference, P. Pianetta, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.521, 383–390 (1999).

Graves, R. M.

R. A. Bosch, D. E. Eisert, M. L. Furst, R. M. Graves, L. Greenler, A. Hamilton, L. R. Hughey, R. P. Madden, P. Robl, P. S. Shaw, W. S. Trzeciak, R. E. Vest, D. Wahl, “SURF III: A new electron storage ring at NIST,” in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation: SRI 99: Eleventh US National Conference, P. Pianetta, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.521, 383–390 (1999).

Greenler, L.

R. A. Bosch, D. E. Eisert, M. L. Furst, R. M. Graves, L. Greenler, A. Hamilton, L. R. Hughey, R. P. Madden, P. Robl, P. S. Shaw, W. S. Trzeciak, R. E. Vest, D. Wahl, “SURF III: A new electron storage ring at NIST,” in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation: SRI 99: Eleventh US National Conference, P. Pianetta, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.521, 383–390 (1999).

Gupta, R.

P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, K. R. Lykke, “Characterization of UV detectors at SURF III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1625–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, S. W. Brown, R. E. Vest, K. R. Lykke, “The new ultraviolet spectral responsivity scale based on cryogenic radiometry at Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2242–2247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Shaw, K. R. Lykke, R. Gupta, T. R. O’Brian, U. Arp, H. H. White, T. B. Lucatorto, J. L. Dehmer, A. C. Parr, “Ultraviolet radiometry with synchrotron radiation and cryogenic radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 38, 18–28 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, A.

R. A. Bosch, D. E. Eisert, M. L. Furst, R. M. Graves, L. Greenler, A. Hamilton, L. R. Hughey, R. P. Madden, P. Robl, P. S. Shaw, W. S. Trzeciak, R. E. Vest, D. Wahl, “SURF III: A new electron storage ring at NIST,” in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation: SRI 99: Eleventh US National Conference, P. Pianetta, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.521, 383–390 (1999).

Huang, X.

G. Xu, X. Huang, “Characterization and calibration of broadband ultraviolet radiometers,” Metrologia 37, 235–242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hughey, L. R.

R. A. Bosch, D. E. Eisert, M. L. Furst, R. M. Graves, L. Greenler, A. Hamilton, L. R. Hughey, R. P. Madden, P. Robl, P. S. Shaw, W. S. Trzeciak, R. E. Vest, D. Wahl, “SURF III: A new electron storage ring at NIST,” in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation: SRI 99: Eleventh US National Conference, P. Pianetta, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.521, 383–390 (1999).

Kroth, U.

K. Solt, H. Melchior, U. Kroth, P. Kuschnerus, V. Persch, H. Rabus, M. Richter, G. Ulm, “PtSi–n–Si Schottky-barrier photodetectors with stable spectral responsivity in the 120–250 nm spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3662–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuschnerus, P.

K. Solt, H. Melchior, U. Kroth, P. Kuschnerus, V. Persch, H. Rabus, M. Richter, G. Ulm, “PtSi–n–Si Schottky-barrier photodetectors with stable spectral responsivity in the 120–250 nm spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3662–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Larason, T. C.

P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, K. R. Lykke, “Characterization of UV detectors at SURF III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1625–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Larason, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, K. R. Lykke, “Responsivity calibration methods for 365-nm irradiance meters,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 474–477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Larason, C. L. Cromer, “Sources of error in UV radiation measurements,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 106, 649–656 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, S. W. Brown, R. E. Vest, K. R. Lykke, “The new ultraviolet spectral responsivity scale based on cryogenic radiometry at Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2242–2247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lucatorto, T. B.

Lykke, K. R.

P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, K. R. Lykke, “Characterization of UV detectors at SURF III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1625–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Larason, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, K. R. Lykke, “Responsivity calibration methods for 365-nm irradiance meters,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 474–477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, S. W. Brown, R. E. Vest, K. R. Lykke, “The new ultraviolet spectral responsivity scale based on cryogenic radiometry at Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2242–2247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, K. R. Lykke, “NIST facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations with uniform sources,” Metrologia 37, 579–582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Shaw, K. R. Lykke, R. Gupta, T. R. O’Brian, U. Arp, H. H. White, T. B. Lucatorto, J. L. Dehmer, A. C. Parr, “Ultraviolet radiometry with synchrotron radiation and cryogenic radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 38, 18–28 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Madden, R. P.

R. A. Bosch, D. E. Eisert, M. L. Furst, R. M. Graves, L. Greenler, A. Hamilton, L. R. Hughey, R. P. Madden, P. Robl, P. S. Shaw, W. S. Trzeciak, R. E. Vest, D. Wahl, “SURF III: A new electron storage ring at NIST,” in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation: SRI 99: Eleventh US National Conference, P. Pianetta, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.521, 383–390 (1999).

Melchior, H.

K. Solt, H. Melchior, U. Kroth, P. Kuschnerus, V. Persch, H. Rabus, M. Richter, G. Ulm, “PtSi–n–Si Schottky-barrier photodetectors with stable spectral responsivity in the 120–250 nm spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3662–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O’Brian, T. R.

Parr, A. C.

Persch, V.

K. Solt, H. Melchior, U. Kroth, P. Kuschnerus, V. Persch, H. Rabus, M. Richter, G. Ulm, “PtSi–n–Si Schottky-barrier photodetectors with stable spectral responsivity in the 120–250 nm spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3662–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rabus, H.

K. Solt, H. Melchior, U. Kroth, P. Kuschnerus, V. Persch, H. Rabus, M. Richter, G. Ulm, “PtSi–n–Si Schottky-barrier photodetectors with stable spectral responsivity in the 120–250 nm spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3662–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rejin, H.

C. A. Schrama, H. Rejin, “Novel calibration method for filter radiometers,” Metrologia 36, 179–182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Richter, M.

K. Solt, H. Melchior, U. Kroth, P. Kuschnerus, V. Persch, H. Rabus, M. Richter, G. Ulm, “PtSi–n–Si Schottky-barrier photodetectors with stable spectral responsivity in the 120–250 nm spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3662–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Robl, P.

R. A. Bosch, D. E. Eisert, M. L. Furst, R. M. Graves, L. Greenler, A. Hamilton, L. R. Hughey, R. P. Madden, P. Robl, P. S. Shaw, W. S. Trzeciak, R. E. Vest, D. Wahl, “SURF III: A new electron storage ring at NIST,” in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation: SRI 99: Eleventh US National Conference, P. Pianetta, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.521, 383–390 (1999).

Schrama, C. A.

C. A. Schrama, H. Rejin, “Novel calibration method for filter radiometers,” Metrologia 36, 179–182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, P. S.

P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, K. R. Lykke, “Characterization of UV detectors at SURF III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1625–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, S. W. Brown, R. E. Vest, K. R. Lykke, “The new ultraviolet spectral responsivity scale based on cryogenic radiometry at Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2242–2247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Shaw, K. R. Lykke, R. Gupta, T. R. O’Brian, U. Arp, H. H. White, T. B. Lucatorto, J. L. Dehmer, A. C. Parr, “Ultraviolet radiometry with synchrotron radiation and cryogenic radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 38, 18–28 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bosch, D. E. Eisert, M. L. Furst, R. M. Graves, L. Greenler, A. Hamilton, L. R. Hughey, R. P. Madden, P. Robl, P. S. Shaw, W. S. Trzeciak, R. E. Vest, D. Wahl, “SURF III: A new electron storage ring at NIST,” in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation: SRI 99: Eleventh US National Conference, P. Pianetta, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.521, 383–390 (1999).

Solt, K.

K. Solt, H. Melchior, U. Kroth, P. Kuschnerus, V. Persch, H. Rabus, M. Richter, G. Ulm, “PtSi–n–Si Schottky-barrier photodetectors with stable spectral responsivity in the 120–250 nm spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3662–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Trzeciak, W. S.

R. A. Bosch, D. E. Eisert, M. L. Furst, R. M. Graves, L. Greenler, A. Hamilton, L. R. Hughey, R. P. Madden, P. Robl, P. S. Shaw, W. S. Trzeciak, R. E. Vest, D. Wahl, “SURF III: A new electron storage ring at NIST,” in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation: SRI 99: Eleventh US National Conference, P. Pianetta, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.521, 383–390 (1999).

Ulm, G.

K. Solt, H. Melchior, U. Kroth, P. Kuschnerus, V. Persch, H. Rabus, M. Richter, G. Ulm, “PtSi–n–Si Schottky-barrier photodetectors with stable spectral responsivity in the 120–250 nm spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3662–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vest, R. E.

P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, S. W. Brown, R. E. Vest, K. R. Lykke, “The new ultraviolet spectral responsivity scale based on cryogenic radiometry at Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2242–2247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bosch, D. E. Eisert, M. L. Furst, R. M. Graves, L. Greenler, A. Hamilton, L. R. Hughey, R. P. Madden, P. Robl, P. S. Shaw, W. S. Trzeciak, R. E. Vest, D. Wahl, “SURF III: A new electron storage ring at NIST,” in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation: SRI 99: Eleventh US National Conference, P. Pianetta, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.521, 383–390 (1999).

Wahl, D.

R. A. Bosch, D. E. Eisert, M. L. Furst, R. M. Graves, L. Greenler, A. Hamilton, L. R. Hughey, R. P. Madden, P. Robl, P. S. Shaw, W. S. Trzeciak, R. E. Vest, D. Wahl, “SURF III: A new electron storage ring at NIST,” in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation: SRI 99: Eleventh US National Conference, P. Pianetta, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.521, 383–390 (1999).

Werner, L.

L. Werner, “Ultraviolet stability of silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 35, 407–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

White, H. H.

Xu, G.

G. Xu, X. Huang, “Characterization and calibration of broadband ultraviolet radiometers,” Metrologia 37, 235–242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Solt, H. Melchior, U. Kroth, P. Kuschnerus, V. Persch, H. Rabus, M. Richter, G. Ulm, “PtSi–n–Si Schottky-barrier photodetectors with stable spectral responsivity in the 120–250 nm spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3662–3664 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

T. C. Larason, S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, K. R. Lykke, “Responsivity calibration methods for 365-nm irradiance meters,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 474–477 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.

T. C. Larason, C. L. Cromer, “Sources of error in UV radiation measurements,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 106, 649–656 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia

G. Xu, X. Huang, “Characterization and calibration of broadband ultraviolet radiometers,” Metrologia 37, 235–242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Werner, “Ultraviolet stability of silicon photodiodes,” Metrologia 35, 407–411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, G. P. Eppeldauer, K. R. Lykke, “NIST facility for spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations with uniform sources,” Metrologia 37, 579–582 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Schrama, H. Rejin, “Novel calibration method for filter radiometers,” Metrologia 36, 179–182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, S. W. Brown, R. E. Vest, K. R. Lykke, “The new ultraviolet spectral responsivity scale based on cryogenic radiometry at Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 2242–2247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Shaw, T. C. Larason, R. Gupta, K. R. Lykke, “Characterization of UV detectors at SURF III,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1625–1628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

Certain commercial equipment, instruments, or materials are identified in this paper to foster understanding. Such identification does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor does it imply that the materials or equipment identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose.

J. M. Bridges, C. L. Cromer, “Final report on calibration and characterization of I-line exposure meters,” Report 91 090 678A-ENG (International SEMATECH, Austin, Tex., 1991).

R. A. Bosch, D. E. Eisert, M. L. Furst, R. M. Graves, L. Greenler, A. Hamilton, L. R. Hughey, R. P. Madden, P. Robl, P. S. Shaw, W. S. Trzeciak, R. E. Vest, D. Wahl, “SURF III: A new electron storage ring at NIST,” in Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation: SRI 99: Eleventh US National Conference, P. Pianetta, J. Arthur, S. Brennan, eds., AIP Conf. Proc.521, 383–390 (1999).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Beam scanning technique for irradiance responsivity calibration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured power responsivity of the irradiance meter by the scanning technique with a 2 mm × 2 mm beam at 157 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Irradiance responsivity of the irradiance meter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular response of a PtSi photodiode measured at both p polarization and s polarization at 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, and 50° relative to normal incidence.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Angular response of a PtSi photodiode with unpolarized radiation at 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, and 50° relative to normal incidence.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Degradation of the PtSi photodiode response (at 157 nm) caused by 157-nm excimer laser radiation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Irradiance Responsivity of the Irradiance Meter

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

RiE=Asx, ydxdy,
SΦnx-x, y-ydxdy=1,
sΦx, y=ix, yPx, y,
ix, y=SPx, yΦnx-x, y-ysx, ydxdy.
sΦx, y=AΦnx-x, y-ysx, ydxdy.
SsΦx, ydxdy=S AΦnx-x, y-ysx, ydxdydxdy.
SsΦx, ydxdy=A SΦnx-x, y-ydxdysx, ydxdy,
SsΦx, ydxdy=Asx, ydxdy,
R=SsΦx, ydxdy,
R=Six, yPx, ydxdy.
R=x, yix, yPx, yΔxΔy,

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