Abstract

The performance of the OC2 Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) algorithm based on 490- and 555-nm water-leaving radiances at low chlorophyll contents is compared with those of semianalytical models and a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model. We introduce our model, which uses two particle phase functions and scattering coefficient parameterizations to achieve a backscattering ratio that varies with chlorophyll concentration. We discuss the various parameterizations and compare them with existent measurements. The SeaWiFS algorithm could be confirmed within an accuracy of 35% over a chlorophyll range from 0.1 to 1 mg m-3, whereas for lower chlorophyll concentrations we found a significant overestimation of the OC2 algorithm.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  5. O. A. Bukin, A. N. Pavlov, M. S. Permyakov, A. Yu. Major, O. G. Konstantinov, A. V. Mallenok, S. A. Ogay, “Continuous measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Pacific Ocean by shipborne laser fluorometer and radiometer: comparison with SeaWiFS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 415–427 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Oschlies, V. Garcon, “An eddy-permitting coupled physical-biological model of the North Atlantic. I. Sensitivity to advection numerics and mixed layer physics,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 13, 135–160 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  25. F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zanefeld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
  29. D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  30. V. I. Haltrin, G. Kattawar, “Light fields with Raman scattering and fluorescence in sea water,” Tech. Rep. (Texas AM University, College Station, Tex., 1991).
  31. C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  32. C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. H. R. Gordon, “Bio-optical model describing the distribution of irradiance at the sea surface resulting from a point source embedded in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4133–4148 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. Zanefeld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  35. C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption-spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  36. P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, G. S. Fargion, “SeaBASS data protocols and policy,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds. NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-209966 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 170–172.

2001 (5)

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Bukin, A. N. Pavlov, M. S. Permyakov, A. Yu. Major, O. G. Konstantinov, A. V. Mallenok, S. A. Ogay, “Continuous measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Pacific Ocean by shipborne laser fluorometer and radiometer: comparison with SeaWiFS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 415–427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, F. Fell, V. Fournier-Sicre, B. Lemasle, M. Babin, “Comparison of the ocean inherent optical properties obtained from measurements and inverse modeling,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2384–2397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Oschlies, W. Koeve, V. Garcon, “An eddy-permitting coupled physical-biological model of the North Atlantic. II. Ecosystem dynamics and comparison with satellite and JGOFS local studies data,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 14, 499–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

A. Macke, D. L. Mitchell, L. von Bremen, “Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations for inhomogeneous mixed phase clouds,” Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 237–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Oschlies, V. Garcon, “An eddy-permitting coupled physical-biological model of the North Atlantic. I. Sensitivity to advection numerics and mixed layer physics,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 13, 135–160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Aas, N. K. Højerslev, “Analysis of underwater radiance observations: apparent optical properties and analytic functions describing the angular radiance distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8015–8024 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zanefeld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kharu, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. Zanefeld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, B. G. Mitchell, “Variability in near-surface particulate absorption spectra: what can a satellite ocean color imager see?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1349–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

1991 (1)

D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

R. Iturriga, D. Siegel, “Microphotometric characterization of phytoplankton and detrital absorption properties in the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1706–1726 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption-spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogeneous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1981 (1)

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on specific absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Aas, E.

E. Aas, N. K. Højerslev, “Analysis of underwater radiance observations: apparent optical properties and analytic functions describing the angular radiance distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8015–8024 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alarcon, G.

G. Alarcon, O. Ulloa, G. Yuras, V. Montecino, G. Pizarro, “Phytoplankton pigment concentration off northern and central Chile: comparison between estimates from in situ remote sensing reflectance and SeaWiFS,” presented at the Ocean Optics XV meeting, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

Babin, M.

Bailey, S. W.

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, G. S. Fargion, “SeaBASS data protocols and policy,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds. NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-209966 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 170–172.

Baker, K. S.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zanefeld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. Zanefeld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bukin, O. A.

O. A. Bukin, A. N. Pavlov, M. S. Permyakov, A. Yu. Major, O. G. Konstantinov, A. V. Mallenok, S. A. Ogay, “Continuous measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Pacific Ocean by shipborne laser fluorometer and radiometer: comparison with SeaWiFS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 415–427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kharu, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption-spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cota, G.

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Darbinjan, R. A.

G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, R. D. Nazareliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

Elepov, B. S.

G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, R. D. Nazareliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

Esaias, W. E.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, in “An overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Mem. 1045661, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fargion, G. S.

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, G. S. Fargion, “SeaBASS data protocols and policy,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds. NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-209966 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 170–172.

Feldman, G. C.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, in “An overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Mem. 1045661, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Fell, F.

Fournier-Sicre, V.

Fry, E. S.

Garcia, C. A. E.

C. Y. Omachi, C. A. E. Garcia, “Analysis of empirical algorithms of surface chlorophyll-a for SeaWiFS in the southwestern Atlantic ocean,” presented at the Ocean Optics XV meeting, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

Garcon, V.

A. Oschlies, W. Koeve, V. Garcon, “An eddy-permitting coupled physical-biological model of the North Atlantic. II. Ecosystem dynamics and comparison with satellite and JGOFS local studies data,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 14, 499–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Oschlies, V. Garcon, “An eddy-permitting coupled physical-biological model of the North Atlantic. I. Sensitivity to advection numerics and mixed layer physics,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 13, 135–160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kharu, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, B. G. Mitchell, “Variability in near-surface particulate absorption spectra: what can a satellite ocean color imager see?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1349–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

Gordon, H. R.

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Bio-optical model describing the distribution of irradiance at the sea surface resulting from a point source embedded in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4133–4148 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review, Vol. 4 of Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 114.

Gregg, W. W.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, in “An overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Mem. 1045661, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Haltrin, V. I.

V. I. Haltrin, G. Kattawar, “Light fields with Raman scattering and fluorescence in sea water,” Tech. Rep. (Texas AM University, College Station, Tex., 1991).

Hoge, F. E.

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Højerslev, N. K.

E. Aas, N. K. Højerslev, “Analysis of underwater radiance observations: apparent optical properties and analytic functions describing the angular radiance distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8015–8024 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, in “An overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Mem. 1045661, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Iturriga, R.

R. Iturriga, D. Siegel, “Microphotometric characterization of phytoplankton and detrital absorption properties in the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1706–1726 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Z.

Kargin, B. A.

G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, R. D. Nazareliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

Kattawar, G.

V. I. Haltrin, G. Kattawar, “Light fields with Raman scattering and fluorescence in sea water,” Tech. Rep. (Texas AM University, College Station, Tex., 1991).

Kattawar, G. W.

Kharu, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kharu, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, D. A.

D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Koeve, W.

A. Oschlies, W. Koeve, V. Garcon, “An eddy-permitting coupled physical-biological model of the North Atlantic. II. Ecosystem dynamics and comparison with satellite and JGOFS local studies data,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 14, 499–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Konstantinov, O. G.

O. A. Bukin, A. N. Pavlov, M. S. Permyakov, A. Yu. Major, O. G. Konstantinov, A. V. Mallenok, S. A. Ogay, “Continuous measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Pacific Ocean by shipborne laser fluorometer and radiometer: comparison with SeaWiFS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 415–427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kopelevich, O. V.

O. V. Kopelevich, “Small-parameter model of optical properties of sea water,” in Physical Ocean Optics, A. S. Monin, ed., Vol. 1 of Ocean Optics (NaukaMoscow, 1983), Chap. 8.

Lemasle, B.

Loisel, H.

Lyon, P. E.

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maass, H.

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Macke, A.

A. Macke, D. L. Mitchell, L. von Bremen, “Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations for inhomogeneous mixed phase clouds,” Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 237–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Major, A. Yu.

O. A. Bukin, A. N. Pavlov, M. S. Permyakov, A. Yu. Major, O. G. Konstantinov, A. V. Mallenok, S. A. Ogay, “Continuous measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Pacific Ocean by shipborne laser fluorometer and radiometer: comparison with SeaWiFS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 415–427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mallenok, A. V.

O. A. Bukin, A. N. Pavlov, M. S. Permyakov, A. Yu. Major, O. G. Konstantinov, A. V. Mallenok, S. A. Ogay, “Continuous measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Pacific Ocean by shipborne laser fluorometer and radiometer: comparison with SeaWiFS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 415–427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marchuk, G. I.

G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, R. D. Nazareliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

Maritorena, S.

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kharu, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kharu, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, in “An overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Mem. 1045661, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Mikhailov, G. A.

G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, R. D. Nazareliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

Mitchell, B. G.

H. Loisel, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, F. Fell, V. Fournier-Sicre, B. Lemasle, M. Babin, “Comparison of the ocean inherent optical properties obtained from measurements and inverse modeling,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2384–2397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kharu, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, B. G. Mitchell, “Variability in near-surface particulate absorption spectra: what can a satellite ocean color imager see?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1349–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, D. L.

A. Macke, D. L. Mitchell, L. von Bremen, “Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations for inhomogeneous mixed phase clouds,” Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 237–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

Montecino, V.

G. Alarcon, O. Ulloa, G. Yuras, V. Montecino, G. Pizarro, “Phytoplankton pigment concentration off northern and central Chile: comparison between estimates from in situ remote sensing reflectance and SeaWiFS,” presented at the Ocean Optics XV meeting, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

Morel, A.

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6864–6879 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogeneous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review, Vol. 4 of Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 114.

Nazareliev, R. D.

G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, R. D. Nazareliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kharu, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ogay, S. A.

O. A. Bukin, A. N. Pavlov, M. S. Permyakov, A. Yu. Major, O. G. Konstantinov, A. V. Mallenok, S. A. Ogay, “Continuous measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Pacific Ocean by shipborne laser fluorometer and radiometer: comparison with SeaWiFS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 415–427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Omachi, C. Y.

C. Y. Omachi, C. A. E. Garcia, “Analysis of empirical algorithms of surface chlorophyll-a for SeaWiFS in the southwestern Atlantic ocean,” presented at the Ocean Optics XV meeting, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

Oschlies, A.

A. Oschlies, W. Koeve, V. Garcon, “An eddy-permitting coupled physical-biological model of the North Atlantic. II. Ecosystem dynamics and comparison with satellite and JGOFS local studies data,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 14, 499–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Oschlies, V. Garcon, “An eddy-permitting coupled physical-biological model of the North Atlantic. I. Sensitivity to advection numerics and mixed layer physics,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 13, 135–160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pavlov, A. N.

O. A. Bukin, A. N. Pavlov, M. S. Permyakov, A. Yu. Major, O. G. Konstantinov, A. V. Mallenok, S. A. Ogay, “Continuous measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Pacific Ocean by shipborne laser fluorometer and radiometer: comparison with SeaWiFS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 415–427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zanefeld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Permyakov, M. S.

O. A. Bukin, A. N. Pavlov, M. S. Permyakov, A. Yu. Major, O. G. Konstantinov, A. V. Mallenok, S. A. Ogay, “Continuous measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Pacific Ocean by shipborne laser fluorometer and radiometer: comparison with SeaWiFS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 415–427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. J.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption-spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, T.

T. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” SIO Ref 72-78 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1972).

Pizarro, G.

G. Alarcon, O. Ulloa, G. Yuras, V. Montecino, G. Pizarro, “Phytoplankton pigment concentration off northern and central Chile: comparison between estimates from in situ remote sensing reflectance and SeaWiFS,” presented at the Ocean Optics XV meeting, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

Platt, T.

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pope, R. M.

Prieur, L.

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on specific absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Reinersman, P.

Roesler, C.

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. Zanefeld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, C. S.

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption-spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on specific absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D.

R. Iturriga, D. Siegel, “Microphotometric characterization of phytoplankton and detrital absorption properties in the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1706–1726 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kharu, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, B. G. Mitchell, “Variability in near-surface particulate absorption spectra: what can a satellite ocean color imager see?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1349–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200–800 nm),” Appl. Opt. 20, 177–184 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, K.

Stavn, R. H.

Stramski, D.

H. Loisel, D. Stramski, B. G. Mitchell, F. Fell, V. Fournier-Sicre, B. Lemasle, M. Babin, “Comparison of the ocean inherent optical properties obtained from measurements and inverse modeling,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2384–2397 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, V.

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sundman, L. K.

Ulloa, O.

G. Alarcon, O. Ulloa, G. Yuras, V. Montecino, G. Pizarro, “Phytoplankton pigment concentration off northern and central Chile: comparison between estimates from in situ remote sensing reflectance and SeaWiFS,” presented at the Ocean Optics XV meeting, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

von Bremen, L.

A. Macke, D. L. Mitchell, L. von Bremen, “Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations for inhomogeneous mixed phase clouds,” Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 237–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Werdell, P. J.

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, G. S. Fargion, “SeaBASS data protocols and policy,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds. NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-209966 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 170–172.

Yuras, G.

G. Alarcon, O. Ulloa, G. Yuras, V. Montecino, G. Pizarro, “Phytoplankton pigment concentration off northern and central Chile: comparison between estimates from in situ remote sensing reflectance and SeaWiFS,” presented at the Ocean Optics XV meeting, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

Zanefeld, J. R.

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. Zanefeld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zanefeld, J. R. V.

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zanefeld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Boundary-Layer Meteorol. (1)

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurements of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Global Biogeochem. Cycles (2)

A. Oschlies, V. Garcon, “An eddy-permitting coupled physical-biological model of the North Atlantic. I. Sensitivity to advection numerics and mixed layer physics,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 13, 135–160 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Oschlies, W. Koeve, V. Garcon, “An eddy-permitting coupled physical-biological model of the North Atlantic. II. Ecosystem dynamics and comparison with satellite and JGOFS local studies data,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 14, 499–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (2)

O. A. Bukin, A. N. Pavlov, M. S. Permyakov, A. Yu. Major, O. G. Konstantinov, A. V. Mallenok, S. A. Ogay, “Continuous measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Pacific Ocean by shipborne laser fluorometer and radiometer: comparison with SeaWiFS data,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 415–427 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Sathyendranath, G. Cota, V. Stuart, H. Maass, T. Platt, “Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigments: a comparison of empirical and theoretical approaches,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 22, 249–273 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (7)

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogeneous matter content (case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kharu, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16,631–16,648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Barnard, W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zanefeld, “Global relationships of the inherent optical properties of the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,955–24,968 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. Aas, N. K. Højerslev, “Analysis of underwater radiance observations: apparent optical properties and analytic functions describing the angular radiance distribution,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8015–8024 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (6)

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. Zanefeld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption-spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. Prieur, S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on specific absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26, 671–689 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. Iturriga, D. Siegel, “Microphotometric characterization of phytoplankton and detrital absorption properties in the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1706–1726 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter: a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver, D. A. Siegel, B. G. Mitchell, “Variability in near-surface particulate absorption spectra: what can a satellite ocean color imager see?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1349–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Earth B (1)

A. Macke, D. L. Mitchell, L. von Bremen, “Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations for inhomogeneous mixed phase clouds,” Phys. Chem. Earth B 24, 237–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Oceanogr. (1)

D. Stramski, D. A. Kiefer, “Light scattering by microorganisms in the open ocean,” Prog. Oceanogr. 28, 343–383 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

V. I. Haltrin, G. Kattawar, “Light fields with Raman scattering and fluorescence in sea water,” Tech. Rep. (Texas AM University, College Station, Tex., 1991).

T. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters,” SIO Ref 72-78 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1972).

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, G. S. Fargion, “SeaBASS data protocols and policy,” in Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 2, G. S. Fargion, J. L. Mueller, eds. NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-209966 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 2000), pp. 170–172.

G. I. Marchuk, G. A. Mikhailov, R. D. Nazareliev, R. A. Darbinjan, B. A. Kargin, B. S. Elepov, The Monte Carlo Methods in Atmospheric Optics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, in “An overview of SeaWiFS and Ocean Color,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Mem. 1045661, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

C. Y. Omachi, C. A. E. Garcia, “Analysis of empirical algorithms of surface chlorophyll-a for SeaWiFS in the southwestern Atlantic ocean,” presented at the Ocean Optics XV meeting, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

G. Alarcon, O. Ulloa, G. Yuras, V. Montecino, G. Pizarro, “Phytoplankton pigment concentration off northern and central Chile: comparison between estimates from in situ remote sensing reflectance and SeaWiFS,” presented at the Ocean Optics XV meeting, Monaco, 16–20 October 2000.

O. V. Kopelevich, “Small-parameter model of optical properties of sea water,” in Physical Ocean Optics, A. S. Monin, ed., Vol. 1 of Ocean Optics (NaukaMoscow, 1983), Chap. 8.

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review, Vol. 4 of Lecture Notes on Coastal and Estuarine Studies (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983), p. 114.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ratio of absorption by phytoplankton to particle absorption as a function of chlorophyll concentration at (a) 490 and (b) 555 nm for our model. Reference values of Iturriga and Siegel22 are given as symbols.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption coefficients for (a) 490 nm and (b) 555 nm and scattering coefficients for (c) 490 nm and (d) 555 nm as a function of chlorophyll concentration. Solid curves, absorption/scattering coefficients of phytoplankton and detritus of our model; dotted curves, absorption/scattering coefficients of particles and CDOM (scattering only by particles) of model S; dotted-dashed curves, particle absorption/scattering coefficients of model M. See text for additional comments.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase functions for detritus and phytoplankton (PHYTO) together with the Petzold phase function. Dotted-dashed curves, calculated phase functions for chlorophyll concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg m-3 as a combination of detritus and phytoplankton according to Eq. (12).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Backscattering ratios at 490 nm (curves) and 555 nm (curves with diamonds) as a function of chlorophyll concentration. Models of Morel, our model, and model S are shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Spectral ratio of particle absorption coefficients at 490 nm and 555 nm as a function of chlorophyll concentration: our model phytoplankton (solid curves), our model phytoplankton and detritus (stars), model S (dotted curves), and model M (dotted-dashed curves), and values of Barnard (dashed curves) are shown. (b) Same as (a) but for the spectral scattering ratio.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Spectral ratio of total absorption coefficients at 490 and 555 nm as a function of chlorophyll concentration. Our model (solid curve), model S (dotted curve), and model M (dotted-dashed curve) are shown. The diamond marks the clear-water value. (b) Same as (a) but for scattering coefficients.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflectances for (a) 490 nm and (b) 555 nm as a function of chlorophyll concentration: our model (solid curves), Monte Carlo calculation (triangles), model S (dotted curves), and model M (dotted-dashed curves).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Water-leaving radiances for (a) 490 nm and (b) 555 nm as a function of chlorophyll concentration: our model (solid curves), model S (dotted curves), model M (dotted-dashed curves), and SeaBASS data (symbols).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Spectral ratios of reflectance at 490 and 555 nm as a function of chlorophyll concentration. Our model (solid curve), model S (dotted curve), model M (dotted-dashed curve), and SeaBASS data (symbols) are shown. (b) Chlorophyll concentration (OC2 CHL) calculated with the OC2 algorithm from the spectral reflectance ratios of the models as a function of chlorophyll concentration. The thin dotted curve gives the 35% accuracy range of the algorithm.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Overview of Optical Propertiesa According to Sathyendranath et al.b and Morel and Maritorenac

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameterization Scheme of Our Modela

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R=f bba,
bb=brb.
Lwn=0.54 F0RQ,
Rrs=LuEd=LwnF0.
Rrs=R/Q.
aλ=axλchl,
bλ=bxλchl,
atotal=awater+aphytoplankton+adetritus+aCDOM,
btotal=bwater+bphytoplankton+bdetritus.
Ptotal=bphyPphy+bdetPdet+bwaterPwaterbphy+bdet+bwater.
x=α chlβ.
Pchl=bphychlPphy+bdetchlPdetbphy+bdet.
brparticle= bphybrphy+bdetbrdet/bphy+bdet.
brλ =0.002+0.020.5-0.25 logchlλ/550

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