Abstract

We have investigated important issues such as the power loss, the loss imbalance the fabrication tolerances, and the wavelength dependence for the design of a multimode interference-based 3-dB splitter on deeply etched InP waveguides under general, restricted, and symmetric interference mechanisms. For this investigation, we used the finite-element-based beam propagation approach. Results are presented.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi, H. Miyazawa, “Multimeter-wave Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 615–619 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. R. Amersfoort, J. D. B. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 32, 449–451 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. S. Burton, T. E. Schlesinger, M. Munowitz, “An investigation of the modal coupling of simple branching semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 754–759 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. John, N. Agrawal, W. Pieper, H. J. Ehrke, D. Franke, W. Furst, C. M. Weinhert, “Monolithically integrated nonlinear sagnae interferometer and its application as a 20Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 32, 782–784 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. B. Soldano, A. H. de Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer polarization splitter in InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402–405 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Heisman, R. W. Smith, “High speed polarization scrambler with adjustable phase chirp,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 311–318 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, “Multimode interference couplers for the conversion of zero- and first-order modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1228–1239 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. O. Lierstuen, A. Sudbo, “8-channel wavelength-division multiplexer based on multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1034–1036 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Baets, P. E. Lagasse, “Calculation of radiation loss in integrated-optic tapers and Y-junctions,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1972–1978 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. Buchmann, A. J. N. Houghton, “Optical y-junctions and s-bends formed by preferenctial y-etched single-mode rib waveguides in InP,” Electron. Lett. 18, 850–852 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Rasmussen, J. K. Rasmussen, J. H. Povlsen, “Design and performance evaluation of 1-by-64 multimode interference power splitter for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2069–2074 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. G. P. Herben, C. G. M. Vreeburg, X. J. M. Leijtens, H. Blok, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman, J. W. Pedersen, M. K. Smit, “Chirping of an MMI-PHASAR demultiplexer for application in multiwavelength laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1116–1118 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. J. Deri, E. C. M. Pennings, A. Scherer, A. S. Gozdz, C. Caneau, N. Andreadakis, V. Shah, L. Curtis, R. J. Hawkins, J. B. D. Soole, J. I. Song, “Ultracompact monolithic integration of balanced, polarization diversity photodetectors for coherent lightwave receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1238–1240 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. van Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stralen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multimode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1753–1755 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietal, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in photonic crystals,” Science 282, 274–276 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. O. Bryngdahl, “Image formation using self-imaging techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 416–419 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, Y. M. Li, R. M. Osgood, “A new design for ultracompact multimode interference-based 2 × 2 couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 96–98 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Themistos, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Interference mechanisms in MMI-based 3 dB power splitters on deeply etched InP,” in Proceedings of the Optoelectronics and Communications Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Communications (OECC/IOOC 2001) (OECC/IOCC, Sydney, Australia, 2001), pp. 589–590.
  20. M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, “General self-imaging properties in N × N multimode interference couplers including phase relations,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3905–3911 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Rajarajan, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V Grattan, “Accurate numerical analysis of multimode interference-based 3-dB couplers,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5672–5678 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. M. A. Rahman, J. B. Davies, “Finite-element solution of integrated optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 682–688 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, “Light propagation in graded-index optical fibers,” Appl. Opt. 17, 3990–3998 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Y. Tsuji, M. Koshiba, T. Tanabe, “A wide-angle-beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 33, 1544–1547 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. M. Knox, P. P. Toulios, “Integrated circuits for the millimeter through optical frequency range,” in Proceedings MRI Symposium on Submillimeter Waveguide, J. Fox, ed. (Polytechnic, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1970), pp. 497–516.

1998

K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi, H. Miyazawa, “Multimeter-wave Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 615–619 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, “Multimode interference couplers for the conversion of zero- and first-order modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1228–1239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietal, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in photonic crystals,” Science 282, 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, Y. M. Li, R. M. Osgood, “A new design for ultracompact multimode interference-based 2 × 2 couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 96–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Rajarajan, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V Grattan, “Accurate numerical analysis of multimode interference-based 3-dB couplers,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5672–5678 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. Tsuji, M. Koshiba, T. Tanabe, “A wide-angle-beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 33, 1544–1547 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. G. P. Herben, C. G. M. Vreeburg, X. J. M. Leijtens, H. Blok, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman, J. W. Pedersen, M. K. Smit, “Chirping of an MMI-PHASAR demultiplexer for application in multiwavelength laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1116–1118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

F. Heisman, R. W. Smith, “High speed polarization scrambler with adjustable phase chirp,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 311–318 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Amersfoort, J. D. B. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 32, 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. John, N. Agrawal, W. Pieper, H. J. Ehrke, D. Franke, W. Furst, C. M. Weinhert, “Monolithically integrated nonlinear sagnae interferometer and its application as a 20Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 32, 782–784 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

L. O. Lierstuen, A. Sudbo, “8-channel wavelength-division multiplexer based on multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1034–1036 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Rasmussen, J. K. Rasmussen, J. H. Povlsen, “Design and performance evaluation of 1-by-64 multimode interference power splitter for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2069–2074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

R. van Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stralen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multimode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1753–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, A. H. de Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer polarization splitter in InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402–405 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Burton, T. E. Schlesinger, M. Munowitz, “An investigation of the modal coupling of simple branching semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 754–759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, “General self-imaging properties in N × N multimode interference couplers including phase relations,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3905–3911 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

R. J. Deri, E. C. M. Pennings, A. Scherer, A. S. Gozdz, C. Caneau, N. Andreadakis, V. Shah, L. Curtis, R. J. Hawkins, J. B. D. Soole, J. I. Song, “Ultracompact monolithic integration of balanced, polarization diversity photodetectors for coherent lightwave receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1238–1240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984

B. M. A. Rahman, J. B. Davies, “Finite-element solution of integrated optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 682–688 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

P. Baets, P. E. Lagasse, “Calculation of radiation loss in integrated-optic tapers and Y-junctions,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1972–1978 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Buchmann, A. J. N. Houghton, “Optical y-junctions and s-bends formed by preferenctial y-etched single-mode rib waveguides in InP,” Electron. Lett. 18, 850–852 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978

1973

Agrawal, N.

E. John, N. Agrawal, W. Pieper, H. J. Ehrke, D. Franke, W. Furst, C. M. Weinhert, “Monolithically integrated nonlinear sagnae interferometer and its application as a 20Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 32, 782–784 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Amersfoort, M. R.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. D. B. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 32, 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Andreadakis, N.

R. J. Deri, E. C. M. Pennings, A. Scherer, A. S. Gozdz, C. Caneau, N. Andreadakis, V. Shah, L. Curtis, R. J. Hawkins, J. B. D. Soole, J. I. Song, “Ultracompact monolithic integration of balanced, polarization diversity photodetectors for coherent lightwave receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1238–1240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Andreadakis, N. C.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. D. B. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 32, 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bachmann, M.

Baets, P.

Besse, P. A.

Blok, H.

C. G. P. Herben, C. G. M. Vreeburg, X. J. M. Leijtens, H. Blok, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman, J. W. Pedersen, M. K. Smit, “Chirping of an MMI-PHASAR demultiplexer for application in multiwavelength laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1116–1118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bryngdahl, O.

Buchmann, P.

P. Buchmann, A. J. N. Houghton, “Optical y-junctions and s-bends formed by preferenctial y-etched single-mode rib waveguides in InP,” Electron. Lett. 18, 850–852 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Burton, R. S.

R. S. Burton, T. E. Schlesinger, M. Munowitz, “An investigation of the modal coupling of simple branching semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 754–759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Caneau, C.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. D. B. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 32, 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Deri, E. C. M. Pennings, A. Scherer, A. S. Gozdz, C. Caneau, N. Andreadakis, V. Shah, L. Curtis, R. J. Hawkins, J. B. D. Soole, J. I. Song, “Ultracompact monolithic integration of balanced, polarization diversity photodetectors for coherent lightwave receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1238–1240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chow, E.

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietal, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in photonic crystals,” Science 282, 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curtis, L.

R. J. Deri, E. C. M. Pennings, A. Scherer, A. S. Gozdz, C. Caneau, N. Andreadakis, V. Shah, L. Curtis, R. J. Hawkins, J. B. D. Soole, J. I. Song, “Ultracompact monolithic integration of balanced, polarization diversity photodetectors for coherent lightwave receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1238–1240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Davies, J. B.

B. M. A. Rahman, J. B. Davies, “Finite-element solution of integrated optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 682–688 (1984).
[CrossRef]

de Vreede, A. H.

L. B. Soldano, A. H. de Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer polarization splitter in InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402–405 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Deri, R. J.

R. J. Deri, E. C. M. Pennings, A. Scherer, A. S. Gozdz, C. Caneau, N. Andreadakis, V. Shah, L. Curtis, R. J. Hawkins, J. B. D. Soole, J. I. Song, “Ultracompact monolithic integration of balanced, polarization diversity photodetectors for coherent lightwave receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1238–1240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Eckner, J.

Ehrke, H. J.

E. John, N. Agrawal, W. Pieper, H. J. Ehrke, D. Franke, W. Furst, C. M. Weinhert, “Monolithically integrated nonlinear sagnae interferometer and its application as a 20Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 32, 782–784 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

Fleck, J. A.

Franke, D.

E. John, N. Agrawal, W. Pieper, H. J. Ehrke, D. Franke, W. Furst, C. M. Weinhert, “Monolithically integrated nonlinear sagnae interferometer and its application as a 20Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 32, 782–784 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Furst, W.

E. John, N. Agrawal, W. Pieper, H. J. Ehrke, D. Franke, W. Furst, C. M. Weinhert, “Monolithically integrated nonlinear sagnae interferometer and its application as a 20Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 32, 782–784 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gamper, E.

Gozdz, A. S.

R. J. Deri, E. C. M. Pennings, A. Scherer, A. S. Gozdz, C. Caneau, N. Andreadakis, V. Shah, L. Curtis, R. J. Hawkins, J. B. D. Soole, J. I. Song, “Ultracompact monolithic integration of balanced, polarization diversity photodetectors for coherent lightwave receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1238–1240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V

Grattan, K. T. V.

C. Themistos, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Interference mechanisms in MMI-based 3 dB power splitters on deeply etched InP,” in Proceedings of the Optoelectronics and Communications Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Communications (OECC/IOOC 2001) (OECC/IOCC, Sydney, Australia, 2001), pp. 589–590.

Groen, F. H.

C. G. P. Herben, C. G. M. Vreeburg, X. J. M. Leijtens, H. Blok, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman, J. W. Pedersen, M. K. Smit, “Chirping of an MMI-PHASAR demultiplexer for application in multiwavelength laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1116–1118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, A. H. de Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer polarization splitter in InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402–405 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, R. J.

R. J. Deri, E. C. M. Pennings, A. Scherer, A. S. Gozdz, C. Caneau, N. Andreadakis, V. Shah, L. Curtis, R. J. Hawkins, J. B. D. Soole, J. I. Song, “Ultracompact monolithic integration of balanced, polarization diversity photodetectors for coherent lightwave receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1238–1240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Heisman, F.

F. Heisman, R. W. Smith, “High speed polarization scrambler with adjustable phase chirp,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 311–318 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Herben, C. G. P.

C. G. P. Herben, C. G. M. Vreeburg, X. J. M. Leijtens, H. Blok, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman, J. W. Pedersen, M. K. Smit, “Chirping of an MMI-PHASAR demultiplexer for application in multiwavelength laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1116–1118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hietal, V.

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietal, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in photonic crystals,” Science 282, 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houghton, A. J. N.

P. Buchmann, A. J. N. Houghton, “Optical y-junctions and s-bends formed by preferenctial y-etched single-mode rib waveguides in InP,” Electron. Lett. 18, 850–852 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietal, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in photonic crystals,” Science 282, 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John, E.

E. John, N. Agrawal, W. Pieper, H. J. Ehrke, D. Franke, W. Furst, C. M. Weinhert, “Monolithically integrated nonlinear sagnae interferometer and its application as a 20Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 32, 782–784 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Knox, R. M.

R. M. Knox, P. P. Toulios, “Integrated circuits for the millimeter through optical frequency range,” in Proceedings MRI Symposium on Submillimeter Waveguide, J. Fox, ed. (Polytechnic, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1970), pp. 497–516.

Koshiba, M.

Y. Tsuji, M. Koshiba, T. Tanabe, “A wide-angle-beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 33, 1544–1547 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lagasse, P. E.

LeBlanc, H. P.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. D. B. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 32, 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leijtens, X. J. M.

C. G. P. Herben, C. G. M. Vreeburg, X. J. M. Leijtens, H. Blok, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman, J. W. Pedersen, M. K. Smit, “Chirping of an MMI-PHASAR demultiplexer for application in multiwavelength laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1116–1118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

Levy, D. S.

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, Y. M. Li, R. M. Osgood, “A new design for ultracompact multimode interference-based 2 × 2 couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 96–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. M.

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, Y. M. Li, R. M. Osgood, “A new design for ultracompact multimode interference-based 2 × 2 couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 96–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lierstuen, L. O.

L. O. Lierstuen, A. Sudbo, “8-channel wavelength-division multiplexer based on multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1034–1036 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. Y.

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietal, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in photonic crystals,” Science 282, 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melchior, H.

Metaal, E. G.

L. B. Soldano, A. H. de Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer polarization splitter in InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402–405 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mitomi, O.

Miyazawa, H.

Moerman, I.

C. G. P. Herben, C. G. M. Vreeburg, X. J. M. Leijtens, H. Blok, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman, J. W. Pedersen, M. K. Smit, “Chirping of an MMI-PHASAR demultiplexer for application in multiwavelength laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1116–1118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Munowitz, M.

R. S. Burton, T. E. Schlesinger, M. Munowitz, “An investigation of the modal coupling of simple branching semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 754–759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, K.

Osgood, R. M.

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, Y. M. Li, R. M. Osgood, “A new design for ultracompact multimode interference-based 2 × 2 couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 96–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, J. W.

C. G. P. Herben, C. G. M. Vreeburg, X. J. M. Leijtens, H. Blok, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman, J. W. Pedersen, M. K. Smit, “Chirping of an MMI-PHASAR demultiplexer for application in multiwavelength laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1116–1118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. van Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stralen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multimode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1753–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Deri, E. C. M. Pennings, A. Scherer, A. S. Gozdz, C. Caneau, N. Andreadakis, V. Shah, L. Curtis, R. J. Hawkins, J. B. D. Soole, J. I. Song, “Ultracompact monolithic integration of balanced, polarization diversity photodetectors for coherent lightwave receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1238–1240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pieper, W.

E. John, N. Agrawal, W. Pieper, H. J. Ehrke, D. Franke, W. Furst, C. M. Weinhert, “Monolithically integrated nonlinear sagnae interferometer and its application as a 20Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 32, 782–784 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Povlsen, J. H.

T. Rasmussen, J. K. Rasmussen, J. H. Povlsen, “Design and performance evaluation of 1-by-64 multimode interference power splitter for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2069–2074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rahman, B. M. A.

M. Rajarajan, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V Grattan, “Accurate numerical analysis of multimode interference-based 3-dB couplers,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5672–5678 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. M. A. Rahman, J. B. Davies, “Finite-element solution of integrated optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 682–688 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. Themistos, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Interference mechanisms in MMI-based 3 dB power splitters on deeply etched InP,” in Proceedings of the Optoelectronics and Communications Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Communications (OECC/IOOC 2001) (OECC/IOCC, Sydney, Australia, 2001), pp. 589–590.

Rajarajan, M.

Rajhel, A.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. D. B. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 32, 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, J. K.

T. Rasmussen, J. K. Rasmussen, J. H. Povlsen, “Design and performance evaluation of 1-by-64 multimode interference power splitter for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2069–2074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rasmussen, T.

T. Rasmussen, J. K. Rasmussen, J. H. Povlsen, “Design and performance evaluation of 1-by-64 multimode interference power splitter for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2069–2074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scarmozzino, R.

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, Y. M. Li, R. M. Osgood, “A new design for ultracompact multimode interference-based 2 × 2 couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 96–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

R. J. Deri, E. C. M. Pennings, A. Scherer, A. S. Gozdz, C. Caneau, N. Andreadakis, V. Shah, L. Curtis, R. J. Hawkins, J. B. D. Soole, J. I. Song, “Ultracompact monolithic integration of balanced, polarization diversity photodetectors for coherent lightwave receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1238–1240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schlesinger, T. E.

R. S. Burton, T. E. Schlesinger, M. Munowitz, “An investigation of the modal coupling of simple branching semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 754–759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shah, V.

R. J. Deri, E. C. M. Pennings, A. Scherer, A. S. Gozdz, C. Caneau, N. Andreadakis, V. Shah, L. Curtis, R. J. Hawkins, J. B. D. Soole, J. I. Song, “Ultracompact monolithic integration of balanced, polarization diversity photodetectors for coherent lightwave receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1238–1240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

C. G. P. Herben, C. G. M. Vreeburg, X. J. M. Leijtens, H. Blok, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman, J. W. Pedersen, M. K. Smit, “Chirping of an MMI-PHASAR demultiplexer for application in multiwavelength laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1116–1118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, A. H. de Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer polarization splitter in InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402–405 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. W.

F. Heisman, R. W. Smith, “High speed polarization scrambler with adjustable phase chirp,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 311–318 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, A. H. de Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer polarization splitter in InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402–405 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. I.

R. J. Deri, E. C. M. Pennings, A. Scherer, A. S. Gozdz, C. Caneau, N. Andreadakis, V. Shah, L. Curtis, R. J. Hawkins, J. B. D. Soole, J. I. Song, “Ultracompact monolithic integration of balanced, polarization diversity photodetectors for coherent lightwave receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1238–1240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Soole, J. B. D.

R. J. Deri, E. C. M. Pennings, A. Scherer, A. S. Gozdz, C. Caneau, N. Andreadakis, V. Shah, L. Curtis, R. J. Hawkins, J. B. D. Soole, J. I. Song, “Ultracompact monolithic integration of balanced, polarization diversity photodetectors for coherent lightwave receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1238–1240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Soole, J. D. B.

M. R. Amersfoort, J. D. B. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 32, 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sudbo, A.

L. O. Lierstuen, A. Sudbo, “8-channel wavelength-division multiplexer based on multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1034–1036 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, T.

Y. Tsuji, M. Koshiba, T. Tanabe, “A wide-angle-beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 33, 1544–1547 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Themistos, C.

C. Themistos, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Interference mechanisms in MMI-based 3 dB power splitters on deeply etched InP,” in Proceedings of the Optoelectronics and Communications Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Communications (OECC/IOOC 2001) (OECC/IOCC, Sydney, Australia, 2001), pp. 589–590.

Toulios, P. P.

R. M. Knox, P. P. Toulios, “Integrated circuits for the millimeter through optical frequency range,” in Proceedings MRI Symposium on Submillimeter Waveguide, J. Fox, ed. (Polytechnic, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1970), pp. 497–516.

Tsuji, Y.

Y. Tsuji, M. Koshiba, T. Tanabe, “A wide-angle-beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 33, 1544–1547 (1997).
[CrossRef]

van der Heijden, J. M. M.

R. van Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stralen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multimode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1753–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van Dongen, T.

R. van Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stralen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multimode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1753–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van Roijen, R.

R. van Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stralen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multimode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1753–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van Stralen, M. J. N.

R. van Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stralen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multimode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1753–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Verbeek, B. H.

R. van Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stralen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multimode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1753–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, A. H. de Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer polarization splitter in InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402–405 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietal, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in photonic crystals,” Science 282, 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vreeburg, C. G. M.

C. G. P. Herben, C. G. M. Vreeburg, X. J. M. Leijtens, H. Blok, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman, J. W. Pedersen, M. K. Smit, “Chirping of an MMI-PHASAR demultiplexer for application in multiwavelength laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1116–1118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weinhert, C. M.

E. John, N. Agrawal, W. Pieper, H. J. Ehrke, D. Franke, W. Furst, C. M. Weinhert, “Monolithically integrated nonlinear sagnae interferometer and its application as a 20Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 32, 782–784 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. van Roijen, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stralen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multimode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1753–1755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

P. Buchmann, A. J. N. Houghton, “Optical y-junctions and s-bends formed by preferenctial y-etched single-mode rib waveguides in InP,” Electron. Lett. 18, 850–852 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Amersfoort, J. D. B. Soole, H. P. LeBlanc, N. C. Andreadakis, A. Rajhel, C. Caneau, “Passband broadening of integrated arrayed waveguide filters using multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 32, 449–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. John, N. Agrawal, W. Pieper, H. J. Ehrke, D. Franke, W. Furst, C. M. Weinhert, “Monolithically integrated nonlinear sagnae interferometer and its application as a 20Gbit/s all-optical demultiplexer,” Electron. Lett. 32, 782–784 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

F. Heisman, R. W. Smith, “High speed polarization scrambler with adjustable phase chirp,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 311–318 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

L. O. Lierstuen, A. Sudbo, “8-channel wavelength-division multiplexer based on multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1034–1036 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, A. H. de Vreede, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, “Mach-Zehnder interferometer polarization splitter in InGaAsP/InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 402–405 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. G. P. Herben, C. G. M. Vreeburg, X. J. M. Leijtens, H. Blok, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman, J. W. Pedersen, M. K. Smit, “Chirping of an MMI-PHASAR demultiplexer for application in multiwavelength laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1116–1118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Deri, E. C. M. Pennings, A. Scherer, A. S. Gozdz, C. Caneau, N. Andreadakis, V. Shah, L. Curtis, R. J. Hawkins, J. B. D. Soole, J. I. Song, “Ultracompact monolithic integration of balanced, polarization diversity photodetectors for coherent lightwave receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1238–1240 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, Y. M. Li, R. M. Osgood, “A new design for ultracompact multimode interference-based 2 × 2 couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 96–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Magn.

Y. Tsuji, M. Koshiba, T. Tanabe, “A wide-angle-beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 33, 1544–1547 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

B. M. A. Rahman, J. B. Davies, “Finite-element solution of integrated optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2, 682–688 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. Rasmussen, J. K. Rasmussen, J. H. Povlsen, “Design and performance evaluation of 1-by-64 multimode interference power splitter for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 2069–2074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Burton, T. E. Schlesinger, M. Munowitz, “An investigation of the modal coupling of simple branching semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 754–759 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi, H. Miyazawa, “Multimeter-wave Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 615–619 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, “Multimode interference couplers for the conversion of zero- and first-order modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1228–1239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Science

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietal, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in photonic crystals,” Science 282, 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

C. Themistos, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, “Interference mechanisms in MMI-based 3 dB power splitters on deeply etched InP,” in Proceedings of the Optoelectronics and Communications Conference and the International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Communications (OECC/IOOC 2001) (OECC/IOCC, Sydney, Australia, 2001), pp. 589–590.

R. M. Knox, P. P. Toulios, “Integrated circuits for the millimeter through optical frequency range,” in Proceedings MRI Symposium on Submillimeter Waveguide, J. Fox, ed. (Polytechnic, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1970), pp. 497–516.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the interference mechanism schemes for the 3-dB MMI-based power splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of the MMI length for a 3-dB splitter with the MMI width.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Power loss for the TE and TM polarizations for a 9-µm-wide MMI under the RI mechanism.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Field intensity evolution of an input field launched through a 9-µm-wide MMI-based 3-dB power splitter under the SI mechanism along the direction of propagation z.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Twofold image of an input field launched through a 15-µm-wide MMI under the RI mechanism obtained at a length of 322.2 µm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Length tolerance of a 15-µm-wide MMI-based 3-dB splitter under the three interference mechanisms.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Power loss characteristics with an input waveguide x-axis shift for a 15-µm-wide MMI 3-dB splitter under the three interference mechanisms.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Power loss characteristics with an output waveguide spacing shift for a 9-µm-wide MMI 3-dB splitter under the three interference mechanisms.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

MMI width tolerance of a 9-µm-wide MMI-based 3-dB splitter under the three interference mechanisms.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Wavelength response characteristics of a 9-µm-wide MMI-based 3-dB power splitter under the three interference mechanisms.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Wavelength response characteristics of a 15-µm-wide MMI-based 3-dB power splitter under the three interference mechanisms.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Loss imbalance characteristics with a wavelength variation for a 9-µm-wide MMI-based 3-dB power splitter under the three interference mechanisms.

Equations (1)

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Lπ=πβ0-β1,

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