Abstract

A 250-µm-bore size and 50-cm-length hollow-glass waveguide (HGW) coated with a thin film of silver has been used to transport laser pulses at 800 nm from a Ti:sapphire oscillator. The silver film is deposited by a liquid-phase process. The measured transmission of this silver-coated HGW is 95%, which is considerably higher than the transmission of HGWs with no coating, as reported by other groups. The image of the output beam taken at different distances from the fiber output shows that a single HE11 mode couples to free-space modes from the exit of the fiber. Considerable spectral broadening can be obtained with high-intensity femtosecond pulses when this waveguide is filled with argon. This HGW can be used for such applications as beam transport and optical-pulse compression.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. D. Rabii, D. J. Gibson, J. A. Harrington, “Processing and characterization of silver films used to fabricate hollow glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4486–4493 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. L. Fork, C. H. Brito Cruz, P. C. Becker, C. V. Shank, “Compression of optical pulses to six femtoseconds by using cubic phase compensation,” Opt. Lett. 12, 483–485 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, R. H. Stolen, C. V. Shank, J. A. Valdmanis, “Optical pulse compression to 8 fs at a 5 kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1120–1121 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Rolland, P. B. Corkum, “Compression of high power optical pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 641–646 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “A novel high energy pulse compression system: generation of multigigawatt sub-5-fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 189–196 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, K. Shihoyama, M. Kawachi, “Delivery of femtosecond pulses by flexible hollow fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 887–889 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. A. J. Marcatili, R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1809 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Bass, Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995).
  10. K. Matsuura, Y. Matsuura, J. A. Harrington, “Evaluation of gold, silver, and dielectric-coated hollow glass waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3418–3421 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Matsuura, G. Takada, T. Yamamoto, Y.-W. Shi, M. Miyagi, “Hollow fibers for delivery of Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers,” Appl. Opt. 41, 442–445 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. L. Abrams, “Coupling losses in hollow waveguide laser resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 838–843 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, K. Ferencz, “Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1562–1564 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Thøgersen, A. Borowiec, H. K. Haugen, “10 fs pulses from two-stage capillary-prism compressor,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 39 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2000), pp. 497–498
  15. G. P. Agrawal, Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2001).

2002

Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, K. Shihoyama, M. Kawachi, “Delivery of femtosecond pulses by flexible hollow fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 887–889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuura, G. Takada, T. Yamamoto, Y.-W. Shi, M. Miyagi, “Hollow fibers for delivery of Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers,” Appl. Opt. 41, 442–445 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

1997

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “A novel high energy pulse compression system: generation of multigigawatt sub-5-fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 189–196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, K. Ferencz, “Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1562–1564 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. Matsuura, Y. Matsuura, J. A. Harrington, “Evaluation of gold, silver, and dielectric-coated hollow glass waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3418–3421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1988

1987

1985

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, R. H. Stolen, C. V. Shank, J. A. Valdmanis, “Optical pulse compression to 8 fs at a 5 kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1120–1121 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1972

R. L. Abrams, “Coupling losses in hollow waveguide laser resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 838–843 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1964

E. A. J. Marcatili, R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1809 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, R. L.

R. L. Abrams, “Coupling losses in hollow waveguide laser resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 838–843 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2001).

Bass, M.

M. Bass, Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995).

Becker, P. C.

Borowiec, A.

J. Thøgersen, A. Borowiec, H. K. Haugen, “10 fs pulses from two-stage capillary-prism compressor,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 39 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2000), pp. 497–498

Brito Cruz, C. H.

Cheng, Z.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “A novel high energy pulse compression system: generation of multigigawatt sub-5-fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 189–196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, K. Ferencz, “Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1562–1564 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

De Silvestri, S.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “A novel high energy pulse compression system: generation of multigigawatt sub-5-fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 189–196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, R. H. Stolen, C. V. Shank, J. A. Valdmanis, “Optical pulse compression to 8 fs at a 5 kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1120–1121 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ferencz, K.

Fork, R. L.

R. L. Fork, C. H. Brito Cruz, P. C. Becker, C. V. Shank, “Compression of optical pulses to six femtoseconds by using cubic phase compensation,” Opt. Lett. 12, 483–485 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, R. H. Stolen, C. V. Shank, J. A. Valdmanis, “Optical pulse compression to 8 fs at a 5 kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1120–1121 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, D. J.

Harrington, J. A.

C. D. Rabii, D. J. Gibson, J. A. Harrington, “Processing and characterization of silver films used to fabricate hollow glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4486–4493 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Matsuura, Y. Matsuura, J. A. Harrington, “Evaluation of gold, silver, and dielectric-coated hollow glass waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3418–3421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, H. K.

J. Thøgersen, A. Borowiec, H. K. Haugen, “10 fs pulses from two-stage capillary-prism compressor,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 39 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2000), pp. 497–498

Kawachi, M.

Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, K. Shihoyama, M. Kawachi, “Delivery of femtosecond pulses by flexible hollow fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 887–889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, R. H. Stolen, C. V. Shank, J. A. Valdmanis, “Optical pulse compression to 8 fs at a 5 kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1120–1121 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “A novel high energy pulse compression system: generation of multigigawatt sub-5-fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 189–196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, K. Ferencz, “Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1562–1564 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lenzner, M.

S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, K. Ferencz, “Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1562–1564 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “A novel high energy pulse compression system: generation of multigigawatt sub-5-fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 189–196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili, R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1809 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, K.

K. Matsuura, Y. Matsuura, J. A. Harrington, “Evaluation of gold, silver, and dielectric-coated hollow glass waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3418–3421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, Y.

Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, K. Shihoyama, M. Kawachi, “Delivery of femtosecond pulses by flexible hollow fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 887–889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuura, G. Takada, T. Yamamoto, Y.-W. Shi, M. Miyagi, “Hollow fibers for delivery of Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers,” Appl. Opt. 41, 442–445 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Matsuura, Y. Matsuura, J. A. Harrington, “Evaluation of gold, silver, and dielectric-coated hollow glass waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3418–3421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miyagi, M.

Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, K. Shihoyama, M. Kawachi, “Delivery of femtosecond pulses by flexible hollow fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 887–889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Matsuura, G. Takada, T. Yamamoto, Y.-W. Shi, M. Miyagi, “Hollow fibers for delivery of Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers,” Appl. Opt. 41, 442–445 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “A novel high energy pulse compression system: generation of multigigawatt sub-5-fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 189–196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rabii, C. D.

Rolland, C.

Sartania, S.

S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, K. Ferencz, “Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1562–1564 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “A novel high energy pulse compression system: generation of multigigawatt sub-5-fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 189–196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmeltzer, R. A.

E. A. J. Marcatili, R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1809 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

R. L. Fork, C. H. Brito Cruz, P. C. Becker, C. V. Shank, “Compression of optical pulses to six femtoseconds by using cubic phase compensation,” Opt. Lett. 12, 483–485 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, R. H. Stolen, C. V. Shank, J. A. Valdmanis, “Optical pulse compression to 8 fs at a 5 kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1120–1121 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.-W.

Shihoyama, K.

Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, K. Shihoyama, M. Kawachi, “Delivery of femtosecond pulses by flexible hollow fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 887–889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “A novel high energy pulse compression system: generation of multigigawatt sub-5-fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 189–196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, K. Ferencz, “Generation of 0.1-TW 5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1562–1564 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “A novel high energy pulse compression system: generation of multigigawatt sub-5-fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 189–196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, R. H. Stolen, C. V. Shank, J. A. Valdmanis, “Optical pulse compression to 8 fs at a 5 kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1120–1121 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “A novel high energy pulse compression system: generation of multigigawatt sub-5-fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 189–196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takada, G.

Tempea, G.

Thøgersen, J.

J. Thøgersen, A. Borowiec, H. K. Haugen, “10 fs pulses from two-stage capillary-prism compressor,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 39 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2000), pp. 497–498

Valdmanis, J. A.

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, R. H. Stolen, C. V. Shank, J. A. Valdmanis, “Optical pulse compression to 8 fs at a 5 kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1120–1121 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, “A novel high energy pulse compression system: generation of multigigawatt sub-5-fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 189–196 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. H. Knox, R. L. Fork, M. C. Downer, R. H. Stolen, C. V. Shank, J. A. Valdmanis, “Optical pulse compression to 8 fs at a 5 kHz repetition rate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 1120–1121 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, “Generation of high energy 10 fs pulses by a new pulse compression technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2793–2795 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili, R. A. Schmeltzer, “Hollow metallic and dielectric waveguides for long distance optical transmission and lasers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 43, 1783–1809 (1964).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. L. Abrams, “Coupling losses in hollow waveguide laser resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 838–843 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, K. Shihoyama, M. Kawachi, “Delivery of femtosecond pulses by flexible hollow fibers,” J. Appl. Phys. 91, 887–889 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Eng.

K. Matsuura, Y. Matsuura, J. A. Harrington, “Evaluation of gold, silver, and dielectric-coated hollow glass waveguides,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3418–3421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

M. Bass, Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995).

J. Thøgersen, A. Borowiec, H. K. Haugen, “10 fs pulses from two-stage capillary-prism compressor,” in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 39 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 2000), pp. 497–498

G. P. Agrawal, Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2001).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical attenuation constant of the HE11 mode as a function of core diameter for a fused-silica hollow waveguide and a silver-coated hollow glass waveguide at 800 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

AFM scan of the silver thin film deposited for 20 min on glass slide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Horizontal spatial output intensity (dots) at 20 cm from the output of the HGW and a Gaussian fit to the data (curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of theoretical (line) and experimental beam diameters as a function of the distance from the output of the silver-coated HGW. Theoretical values were obtained from propagation of the HE11 mode in free space. Triangles are the horizontal beam diameters, and squares are the vertical beam diameters measured experimentally.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectrum of output pulses (solid curve) when the silver-coated hollow fiber was filled with argon at a pressure of 2.4 atm. The output spectrum obtained from the fused silica hollow fiber (dotted curve) and the spectrum of the input pulses (dashed curve) are shown for comparison.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α=2.4052π2λ2a3Re12ν2+1ν2-1,
f=0.64 πaD2λ,

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