Abstract

The National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Airborne Sounder Testbed (NAST) consists of two passive collocated cross-track scanning instruments, an infrared interferometer (NAST-I) and a microwave radiometer (NAST-M), that fly onboard high-altitude aircraft such as the NASA ER-2 at an altitude near 20 km. NAST-I provides relatively high spectral resolution (0.25-cm-1) measurements in the 645–2700-cm-1 spectral region with moderate spatial resolution (a linear resolution equal to 13% of the aircraft altitude at nadir) cross-track scanning. We report the methodology for retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition profiles from NAST-I radiance spectra. The profiles were determined by use of a statistical eigenvector regression algorithm and improved, as needed, by use of a nonlinear physical retrieval algorithm. Several field campaigns conducted under varied meteorological conditions have provided the data needed to verify the accuracy of the spectral radiance, the retrieval algorithm, and the scanning capabilities of this instrumentation. Retrieval examples are presented to demonstrate the ability to reveal fine-scale horizontal features with relatively high vertical resolution.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Q. Wark, H. E. Fleming, “Indirect measurements of atmospheric temperature profiles from satellite: I. Introduction,” Mon. Weather Rev. 94, 351–362 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “The use of eigenvectors of statistical co-variance matrices for interpreting satellite sounding radiometer observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1127–1140 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. W. McMillan, L. L. Strow, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. L. Huang, A. M. Thompson, D. P. McNamara, W. F. Ryan, “Remote sensing of carbon monoxide over the continental United States on September 12–23, 1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10695–10709 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, D. K. Zhou, C. A. Sisko, J. Li, B. Huang, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. Cousins, M. J. Gazarik, D. Mooney, “NAST-I: results from revolutionary aircraft sounding spectrometer,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III, A. M. Larar, ed., Proc. SPIE3756, 2–8 (1999).
  5. W. L. Smith, D. K. Zhou, F. W. Harrison, H. E. Revercomb, A. M. Larar, A. H. Huang, B. Huang, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of atmospheric profiles from satellites and aircraft,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Land and Atmosphere, W. L. Smith, Y. Yasuoka, eds., Proc. SPIE4151, 94–102 (2001).
  6. S. E. Hannon, L. L. Strow, W. W. McMillan, “Atmospheric infrared fast transmittance models: a comparison of two approaches,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research II, P. B. Hays, J. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE2830, 94–105 (1996).
  7. M. T. Chahine, H. Aumann, M. Goldberg, L. McMillin, P. Rosenkranz, D. Staelin, L. Strow, J. Susskind, “AIRS-team retrieval for core products and geophysical parameters,” Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, JPL D-17006, M. Gunson, ed. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pasadena, Calif., 2001).
  8. D. K. Zhou, W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, “Temperature and moisture retrieval algorithm development for the NAST interferometer,” in Proceedings, International Radiation Symposium 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Y. M. Timofeyev, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 847–850.
  9. D. K. Zhou, W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, “Tropospheric ozone near-nadir-viewing IR spectral sensitivity and ozone measurements from NAST-I,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Land and Atmosphere, W. L. Smith, Y. Yasuoka, eds., Proc. SPIE4151, 277–284 (2001).
  10. D. Cousins, W. L. Smith, “National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I),” in Application of Lidar to Current Atmospheric Topics II, A. J. Sedlacek, K. W. Fischer, eds., Proc. SPIE3127, 323–331 (1997).
  11. A. M. Larar, W. L. Smith, D. K. Zhou, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, H. E. Revercomb, D. C. Tobin, “Spectral radiance validation studies using NAST-I and other independent measurement systems,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques, Remote Sensing, and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research IV, A. M. Larar, M. G. Mlynczak, eds., Proc. SPIE4485, 81–90 (2002).
  12. R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. L. Smith, W. Edwards, A. Moore, S. Kooi, V. Brackett, M. Clayton, S. Fastig, D. Harper, L. Petway, L. Mathews, D. Whiteman, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Lauritsen, R. May, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds during CAMEX-3,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, 1999, Postconference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 114–116.
  13. W. L. Smith, G. E. Bingham, M. J. Gordon, G. W. Cantwell, D. K. Zhou, H.-L. Huang, “AIRS cloud-cleaning using multi-spectral MODIS imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., submitted for publication.
  14. W. L. Smith, “An improved method for calculating tropospheric temperature and moisture from satellite radiometer measurements,” Mon. Weather Rev. 96, 387–396 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. W. Salisbury, D. M. D’Aria, “Emissivity of terrestrial material in the 8–14 µm atmospheric window,” Remote Sens. Environ. 42, 83–106 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. K. Zhou, W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, “Surface temperature and emissivity from airborne measurements of IR radiance spectra,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union Fall Meet. Suppl. 82(47), A21B–0063 (2001).
  17. Courtesy of H. Woolf, Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, and F. Schmidlin, NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia.
  18. J. Li, “Temperature and water vapor weighting functions from radiative transfer equation with surface emissivity and solar reflectivity,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 11, 421–426 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. L. Ma, T. J. Schmit, W. L. Smith, “A nonlinear physical retrieval algorithm—its application to the GOES-8/9 sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 501–513 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Li, W. W. Wolf, W. P. Menzel, W. Zhang, H. L. Huang, T. H. Achtor, “Global soundings of the atmosphere from ATOVS measurements: the algorithm and validation,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1248–1268 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. R. Eyre, “Inversion of cloudy satellite sounding radiances by nonlinear optimal estimation. I: Theory and simulation for TOVS,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 42, 1001–1026 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Susskind, J. Rosenfield, D. Reuter, M. T. Chahine, “Remote sensing of weather and climate parameters from HIRS2/MSU on TIROS-N,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4677–4697 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. M. Hayden, “GOES-VAS simultaneous temperature-moisture retrieval algorithm,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 27, 705–733 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, A. J. Schreiner, “The simultaneous export retrieval package,” in Technical Proceedings of the Second International TOVS Study Conference, W. P. Menzel, ed. (Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wis., 1985), pp. 224–253.
  26. J. Li, H. L. Huang, “Retrieval of atmospheric profiles from satellite sounder measurements by use of the discrepancy principle,” Appl. Opt. 38, 916–923 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. V. A. Morozov, Methods for Solving Incorrectly Posed Problems (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984).
  28. M. F. Carfora, F. Esposito, C. Serio, “Numerical methods for retrieving aerosol size distributions from optical measurements of solar radiation,” J. Aerosol Sci. 29, 1225–1236 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. K. Zhou, W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, “Surface temperature and emissivity from airborne measurements of IR radiance spectra,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union Fall Meet. Suppl. 82(47), A21B–0063 (2001).

2000 (1)

J. Li, W. W. Wolf, W. P. Menzel, W. Zhang, H. L. Huang, T. H. Achtor, “Global soundings of the atmosphere from ATOVS measurements: the algorithm and validation,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1248–1268 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. Li, H. L. Huang, “Retrieval of atmospheric profiles from satellite sounder measurements by use of the discrepancy principle,” Appl. Opt. 38, 916–923 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Ma, T. J. Schmit, W. L. Smith, “A nonlinear physical retrieval algorithm—its application to the GOES-8/9 sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 501–513 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. F. Carfora, F. Esposito, C. Serio, “Numerical methods for retrieving aerosol size distributions from optical measurements of solar radiation,” J. Aerosol Sci. 29, 1225–1236 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

W. W. McMillan, L. L. Strow, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. L. Huang, A. M. Thompson, D. P. McNamara, W. F. Ryan, “Remote sensing of carbon monoxide over the continental United States on September 12–23, 1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10695–10709 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Li, “Temperature and water vapor weighting functions from radiative transfer equation with surface emissivity and solar reflectivity,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 11, 421–426 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. W. Salisbury, D. M. D’Aria, “Emissivity of terrestrial material in the 8–14 µm atmospheric window,” Remote Sens. Environ. 42, 83–106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. R. Eyre, “Inversion of cloudy satellite sounding radiances by nonlinear optimal estimation. I: Theory and simulation for TOVS,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 42, 1001–1026 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

C. M. Hayden, “GOES-VAS simultaneous temperature-moisture retrieval algorithm,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 27, 705–733 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. Susskind, J. Rosenfield, D. Reuter, M. T. Chahine, “Remote sensing of weather and climate parameters from HIRS2/MSU on TIROS-N,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4677–4697 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “The use of eigenvectors of statistical co-variance matrices for interpreting satellite sounding radiometer observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1127–1140 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. L. Smith, “An improved method for calculating tropospheric temperature and moisture from satellite radiometer measurements,” Mon. Weather Rev. 96, 387–396 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

D. Q. Wark, H. E. Fleming, “Indirect measurements of atmospheric temperature profiles from satellite: I. Introduction,” Mon. Weather Rev. 94, 351–362 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Achtor, T. H.

J. Li, W. W. Wolf, W. P. Menzel, W. Zhang, H. L. Huang, T. H. Achtor, “Global soundings of the atmosphere from ATOVS measurements: the algorithm and validation,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1248–1268 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aumann, H.

M. T. Chahine, H. Aumann, M. Goldberg, L. McMillin, P. Rosenkranz, D. Staelin, L. Strow, J. Susskind, “AIRS-team retrieval for core products and geophysical parameters,” Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, JPL D-17006, M. Gunson, ed. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pasadena, Calif., 2001).

Bingham, G. E.

W. L. Smith, G. E. Bingham, M. J. Gordon, G. W. Cantwell, D. K. Zhou, H.-L. Huang, “AIRS cloud-cleaning using multi-spectral MODIS imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., submitted for publication.

Brackett, V.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. L. Smith, W. Edwards, A. Moore, S. Kooi, V. Brackett, M. Clayton, S. Fastig, D. Harper, L. Petway, L. Mathews, D. Whiteman, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Lauritsen, R. May, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds during CAMEX-3,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, 1999, Postconference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 114–116.

Browell, E. V.

A. M. Larar, W. L. Smith, D. K. Zhou, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, H. E. Revercomb, D. C. Tobin, “Spectral radiance validation studies using NAST-I and other independent measurement systems,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques, Remote Sensing, and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research IV, A. M. Larar, M. G. Mlynczak, eds., Proc. SPIE4485, 81–90 (2002).

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. L. Smith, W. Edwards, A. Moore, S. Kooi, V. Brackett, M. Clayton, S. Fastig, D. Harper, L. Petway, L. Mathews, D. Whiteman, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Lauritsen, R. May, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds during CAMEX-3,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, 1999, Postconference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 114–116.

Cantwell, G. W.

W. L. Smith, G. E. Bingham, M. J. Gordon, G. W. Cantwell, D. K. Zhou, H.-L. Huang, “AIRS cloud-cleaning using multi-spectral MODIS imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., submitted for publication.

Carfora, M. F.

M. F. Carfora, F. Esposito, C. Serio, “Numerical methods for retrieving aerosol size distributions from optical measurements of solar radiation,” J. Aerosol Sci. 29, 1225–1236 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chahine, M. T.

J. Susskind, J. Rosenfield, D. Reuter, M. T. Chahine, “Remote sensing of weather and climate parameters from HIRS2/MSU on TIROS-N,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4677–4697 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Chahine, H. Aumann, M. Goldberg, L. McMillin, P. Rosenkranz, D. Staelin, L. Strow, J. Susskind, “AIRS-team retrieval for core products and geophysical parameters,” Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, JPL D-17006, M. Gunson, ed. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pasadena, Calif., 2001).

Clayton, M.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. L. Smith, W. Edwards, A. Moore, S. Kooi, V. Brackett, M. Clayton, S. Fastig, D. Harper, L. Petway, L. Mathews, D. Whiteman, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Lauritsen, R. May, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds during CAMEX-3,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, 1999, Postconference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 114–116.

Cousins, D.

D. Cousins, W. L. Smith, “National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I),” in Application of Lidar to Current Atmospheric Topics II, A. J. Sedlacek, K. W. Fischer, eds., Proc. SPIE3127, 323–331 (1997).

W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, D. K. Zhou, C. A. Sisko, J. Li, B. Huang, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. Cousins, M. J. Gazarik, D. Mooney, “NAST-I: results from revolutionary aircraft sounding spectrometer,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III, A. M. Larar, ed., Proc. SPIE3756, 2–8 (1999).

D’Aria, D. M.

J. W. Salisbury, D. M. D’Aria, “Emissivity of terrestrial material in the 8–14 µm atmospheric window,” Remote Sens. Environ. 42, 83–106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, W.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. L. Smith, W. Edwards, A. Moore, S. Kooi, V. Brackett, M. Clayton, S. Fastig, D. Harper, L. Petway, L. Mathews, D. Whiteman, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Lauritsen, R. May, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds during CAMEX-3,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, 1999, Postconference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 114–116.

Esposito, F.

M. F. Carfora, F. Esposito, C. Serio, “Numerical methods for retrieving aerosol size distributions from optical measurements of solar radiation,” J. Aerosol Sci. 29, 1225–1236 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eyre, J. R.

J. R. Eyre, “Inversion of cloudy satellite sounding radiances by nonlinear optimal estimation. I: Theory and simulation for TOVS,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 42, 1001–1026 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fastig, S.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. L. Smith, W. Edwards, A. Moore, S. Kooi, V. Brackett, M. Clayton, S. Fastig, D. Harper, L. Petway, L. Mathews, D. Whiteman, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Lauritsen, R. May, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds during CAMEX-3,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, 1999, Postconference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 114–116.

Ferrare, R. A.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. L. Smith, W. Edwards, A. Moore, S. Kooi, V. Brackett, M. Clayton, S. Fastig, D. Harper, L. Petway, L. Mathews, D. Whiteman, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Lauritsen, R. May, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds during CAMEX-3,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, 1999, Postconference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 114–116.

A. M. Larar, W. L. Smith, D. K. Zhou, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, H. E. Revercomb, D. C. Tobin, “Spectral radiance validation studies using NAST-I and other independent measurement systems,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques, Remote Sensing, and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research IV, A. M. Larar, M. G. Mlynczak, eds., Proc. SPIE4485, 81–90 (2002).

Fleming, H. E.

D. Q. Wark, H. E. Fleming, “Indirect measurements of atmospheric temperature profiles from satellite: I. Introduction,” Mon. Weather Rev. 94, 351–362 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Gazarik, M. J.

W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, D. K. Zhou, C. A. Sisko, J. Li, B. Huang, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. Cousins, M. J. Gazarik, D. Mooney, “NAST-I: results from revolutionary aircraft sounding spectrometer,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III, A. M. Larar, ed., Proc. SPIE3756, 2–8 (1999).

Goldberg, M.

M. T. Chahine, H. Aumann, M. Goldberg, L. McMillin, P. Rosenkranz, D. Staelin, L. Strow, J. Susskind, “AIRS-team retrieval for core products and geophysical parameters,” Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, JPL D-17006, M. Gunson, ed. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pasadena, Calif., 2001).

Gordon, M. J.

W. L. Smith, G. E. Bingham, M. J. Gordon, G. W. Cantwell, D. K. Zhou, H.-L. Huang, “AIRS cloud-cleaning using multi-spectral MODIS imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., submitted for publication.

Hannon, S. E.

S. E. Hannon, L. L. Strow, W. W. McMillan, “Atmospheric infrared fast transmittance models: a comparison of two approaches,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research II, P. B. Hays, J. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE2830, 94–105 (1996).

Harper, D.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. L. Smith, W. Edwards, A. Moore, S. Kooi, V. Brackett, M. Clayton, S. Fastig, D. Harper, L. Petway, L. Mathews, D. Whiteman, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Lauritsen, R. May, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds during CAMEX-3,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, 1999, Postconference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 114–116.

Harrison, F. W.

W. L. Smith, D. K. Zhou, F. W. Harrison, H. E. Revercomb, A. M. Larar, A. H. Huang, B. Huang, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of atmospheric profiles from satellites and aircraft,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Land and Atmosphere, W. L. Smith, Y. Yasuoka, eds., Proc. SPIE4151, 94–102 (2001).

Hayden, C. M.

C. M. Hayden, “GOES-VAS simultaneous temperature-moisture retrieval algorithm,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 27, 705–733 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, A. J. Schreiner, “The simultaneous export retrieval package,” in Technical Proceedings of the Second International TOVS Study Conference, W. P. Menzel, ed. (Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wis., 1985), pp. 224–253.

Howell, H. B.

W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, D. K. Zhou, C. A. Sisko, J. Li, B. Huang, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. Cousins, M. J. Gazarik, D. Mooney, “NAST-I: results from revolutionary aircraft sounding spectrometer,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III, A. M. Larar, ed., Proc. SPIE3756, 2–8 (1999).

Huang, A. H.

W. L. Smith, D. K. Zhou, F. W. Harrison, H. E. Revercomb, A. M. Larar, A. H. Huang, B. Huang, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of atmospheric profiles from satellites and aircraft,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Land and Atmosphere, W. L. Smith, Y. Yasuoka, eds., Proc. SPIE4151, 94–102 (2001).

Huang, B.

W. L. Smith, D. K. Zhou, F. W. Harrison, H. E. Revercomb, A. M. Larar, A. H. Huang, B. Huang, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of atmospheric profiles from satellites and aircraft,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Land and Atmosphere, W. L. Smith, Y. Yasuoka, eds., Proc. SPIE4151, 94–102 (2001).

W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, D. K. Zhou, C. A. Sisko, J. Li, B. Huang, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. Cousins, M. J. Gazarik, D. Mooney, “NAST-I: results from revolutionary aircraft sounding spectrometer,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III, A. M. Larar, ed., Proc. SPIE3756, 2–8 (1999).

Huang, H. L.

J. Li, W. W. Wolf, W. P. Menzel, W. Zhang, H. L. Huang, T. H. Achtor, “Global soundings of the atmosphere from ATOVS measurements: the algorithm and validation,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1248–1268 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, H. L. Huang, “Retrieval of atmospheric profiles from satellite sounder measurements by use of the discrepancy principle,” Appl. Opt. 38, 916–923 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. McMillan, L. L. Strow, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. L. Huang, A. M. Thompson, D. P. McNamara, W. F. Ryan, “Remote sensing of carbon monoxide over the continental United States on September 12–23, 1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10695–10709 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.-L.

W. L. Smith, G. E. Bingham, M. J. Gordon, G. W. Cantwell, D. K. Zhou, H.-L. Huang, “AIRS cloud-cleaning using multi-spectral MODIS imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., submitted for publication.

Ismail, S.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. L. Smith, W. Edwards, A. Moore, S. Kooi, V. Brackett, M. Clayton, S. Fastig, D. Harper, L. Petway, L. Mathews, D. Whiteman, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Lauritsen, R. May, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds during CAMEX-3,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, 1999, Postconference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 114–116.

Kooi, S.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. L. Smith, W. Edwards, A. Moore, S. Kooi, V. Brackett, M. Clayton, S. Fastig, D. Harper, L. Petway, L. Mathews, D. Whiteman, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Lauritsen, R. May, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds during CAMEX-3,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, 1999, Postconference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 114–116.

Larar, A. M.

D. K. Zhou, W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, “Surface temperature and emissivity from airborne measurements of IR radiance spectra,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union Fall Meet. Suppl. 82(47), A21B–0063 (2001).

W. L. Smith, D. K. Zhou, F. W. Harrison, H. E. Revercomb, A. M. Larar, A. H. Huang, B. Huang, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of atmospheric profiles from satellites and aircraft,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Land and Atmosphere, W. L. Smith, Y. Yasuoka, eds., Proc. SPIE4151, 94–102 (2001).

A. M. Larar, W. L. Smith, D. K. Zhou, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, H. E. Revercomb, D. C. Tobin, “Spectral radiance validation studies using NAST-I and other independent measurement systems,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques, Remote Sensing, and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research IV, A. M. Larar, M. G. Mlynczak, eds., Proc. SPIE4485, 81–90 (2002).

D. K. Zhou, W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, “Temperature and moisture retrieval algorithm development for the NAST interferometer,” in Proceedings, International Radiation Symposium 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Y. M. Timofeyev, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 847–850.

D. K. Zhou, W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, “Tropospheric ozone near-nadir-viewing IR spectral sensitivity and ozone measurements from NAST-I,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Land and Atmosphere, W. L. Smith, Y. Yasuoka, eds., Proc. SPIE4151, 277–284 (2001).

W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, D. K. Zhou, C. A. Sisko, J. Li, B. Huang, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. Cousins, M. J. Gazarik, D. Mooney, “NAST-I: results from revolutionary aircraft sounding spectrometer,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III, A. M. Larar, ed., Proc. SPIE3756, 2–8 (1999).

Lauritsen, D.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. L. Smith, W. Edwards, A. Moore, S. Kooi, V. Brackett, M. Clayton, S. Fastig, D. Harper, L. Petway, L. Mathews, D. Whiteman, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Lauritsen, R. May, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds during CAMEX-3,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, 1999, Postconference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 114–116.

Li, J.

J. Li, W. W. Wolf, W. P. Menzel, W. Zhang, H. L. Huang, T. H. Achtor, “Global soundings of the atmosphere from ATOVS measurements: the algorithm and validation,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1248–1268 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, H. L. Huang, “Retrieval of atmospheric profiles from satellite sounder measurements by use of the discrepancy principle,” Appl. Opt. 38, 916–923 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, “Temperature and water vapor weighting functions from radiative transfer equation with surface emissivity and solar reflectivity,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 11, 421–426 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, D. K. Zhou, C. A. Sisko, J. Li, B. Huang, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. Cousins, M. J. Gazarik, D. Mooney, “NAST-I: results from revolutionary aircraft sounding spectrometer,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III, A. M. Larar, ed., Proc. SPIE3756, 2–8 (1999).

Ma, X. L.

X. L. Ma, T. J. Schmit, W. L. Smith, “A nonlinear physical retrieval algorithm—its application to the GOES-8/9 sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 501–513 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mathews, L.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. L. Smith, W. Edwards, A. Moore, S. Kooi, V. Brackett, M. Clayton, S. Fastig, D. Harper, L. Petway, L. Mathews, D. Whiteman, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Lauritsen, R. May, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds during CAMEX-3,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, 1999, Postconference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 114–116.

May, R.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. L. Smith, W. Edwards, A. Moore, S. Kooi, V. Brackett, M. Clayton, S. Fastig, D. Harper, L. Petway, L. Mathews, D. Whiteman, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Lauritsen, R. May, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds during CAMEX-3,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, 1999, Postconference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 114–116.

McMillan, W. W.

W. W. McMillan, L. L. Strow, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. L. Huang, A. M. Thompson, D. P. McNamara, W. F. Ryan, “Remote sensing of carbon monoxide over the continental United States on September 12–23, 1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10695–10709 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Hannon, L. L. Strow, W. W. McMillan, “Atmospheric infrared fast transmittance models: a comparison of two approaches,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research II, P. B. Hays, J. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE2830, 94–105 (1996).

McMillin, L.

M. T. Chahine, H. Aumann, M. Goldberg, L. McMillin, P. Rosenkranz, D. Staelin, L. Strow, J. Susskind, “AIRS-team retrieval for core products and geophysical parameters,” Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, JPL D-17006, M. Gunson, ed. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pasadena, Calif., 2001).

McNamara, D. P.

W. W. McMillan, L. L. Strow, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. L. Huang, A. M. Thompson, D. P. McNamara, W. F. Ryan, “Remote sensing of carbon monoxide over the continental United States on September 12–23, 1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10695–10709 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, W. P.

J. Li, W. W. Wolf, W. P. Menzel, W. Zhang, H. L. Huang, T. H. Achtor, “Global soundings of the atmosphere from ATOVS measurements: the algorithm and validation,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1248–1268 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mooney, D.

W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, D. K. Zhou, C. A. Sisko, J. Li, B. Huang, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. Cousins, M. J. Gazarik, D. Mooney, “NAST-I: results from revolutionary aircraft sounding spectrometer,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III, A. M. Larar, ed., Proc. SPIE3756, 2–8 (1999).

Moore, A.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. L. Smith, W. Edwards, A. Moore, S. Kooi, V. Brackett, M. Clayton, S. Fastig, D. Harper, L. Petway, L. Mathews, D. Whiteman, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Lauritsen, R. May, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds during CAMEX-3,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, 1999, Postconference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 114–116.

Morozov, V. A.

V. A. Morozov, Methods for Solving Incorrectly Posed Problems (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984).

Petway, L.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. L. Smith, W. Edwards, A. Moore, S. Kooi, V. Brackett, M. Clayton, S. Fastig, D. Harper, L. Petway, L. Mathews, D. Whiteman, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Lauritsen, R. May, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds during CAMEX-3,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, 1999, Postconference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 114–116.

Reuter, D.

J. Susskind, J. Rosenfield, D. Reuter, M. T. Chahine, “Remote sensing of weather and climate parameters from HIRS2/MSU on TIROS-N,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4677–4697 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Revercomb, H. E.

W. W. McMillan, L. L. Strow, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. L. Huang, A. M. Thompson, D. P. McNamara, W. F. Ryan, “Remote sensing of carbon monoxide over the continental United States on September 12–23, 1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10695–10709 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, D. K. Zhou, C. A. Sisko, J. Li, B. Huang, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. Cousins, M. J. Gazarik, D. Mooney, “NAST-I: results from revolutionary aircraft sounding spectrometer,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III, A. M. Larar, ed., Proc. SPIE3756, 2–8 (1999).

W. L. Smith, D. K. Zhou, F. W. Harrison, H. E. Revercomb, A. M. Larar, A. H. Huang, B. Huang, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of atmospheric profiles from satellites and aircraft,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Land and Atmosphere, W. L. Smith, Y. Yasuoka, eds., Proc. SPIE4151, 94–102 (2001).

A. M. Larar, W. L. Smith, D. K. Zhou, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, H. E. Revercomb, D. C. Tobin, “Spectral radiance validation studies using NAST-I and other independent measurement systems,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques, Remote Sensing, and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research IV, A. M. Larar, M. G. Mlynczak, eds., Proc. SPIE4485, 81–90 (2002).

Rodgers, C. D.

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfield, J.

J. Susskind, J. Rosenfield, D. Reuter, M. T. Chahine, “Remote sensing of weather and climate parameters from HIRS2/MSU on TIROS-N,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4677–4697 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rosenkranz, P.

M. T. Chahine, H. Aumann, M. Goldberg, L. McMillin, P. Rosenkranz, D. Staelin, L. Strow, J. Susskind, “AIRS-team retrieval for core products and geophysical parameters,” Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, JPL D-17006, M. Gunson, ed. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pasadena, Calif., 2001).

Ryan, W. F.

W. W. McMillan, L. L. Strow, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. L. Huang, A. M. Thompson, D. P. McNamara, W. F. Ryan, “Remote sensing of carbon monoxide over the continental United States on September 12–23, 1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10695–10709 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salisbury, J. W.

J. W. Salisbury, D. M. D’Aria, “Emissivity of terrestrial material in the 8–14 µm atmospheric window,” Remote Sens. Environ. 42, 83–106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schmidlin, F. J.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. L. Smith, W. Edwards, A. Moore, S. Kooi, V. Brackett, M. Clayton, S. Fastig, D. Harper, L. Petway, L. Mathews, D. Whiteman, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Lauritsen, R. May, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds during CAMEX-3,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, 1999, Postconference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 114–116.

Schmit, T. J.

X. L. Ma, T. J. Schmit, W. L. Smith, “A nonlinear physical retrieval algorithm—its application to the GOES-8/9 sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 501–513 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schreiner, A. J.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, A. J. Schreiner, “The simultaneous export retrieval package,” in Technical Proceedings of the Second International TOVS Study Conference, W. P. Menzel, ed. (Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wis., 1985), pp. 224–253.

Serio, C.

M. F. Carfora, F. Esposito, C. Serio, “Numerical methods for retrieving aerosol size distributions from optical measurements of solar radiation,” J. Aerosol Sci. 29, 1225–1236 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sisko, C. A.

W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, D. K. Zhou, C. A. Sisko, J. Li, B. Huang, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. Cousins, M. J. Gazarik, D. Mooney, “NAST-I: results from revolutionary aircraft sounding spectrometer,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III, A. M. Larar, ed., Proc. SPIE3756, 2–8 (1999).

Smith, W. L.

D. K. Zhou, W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, “Surface temperature and emissivity from airborne measurements of IR radiance spectra,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union Fall Meet. Suppl. 82(47), A21B–0063 (2001).

X. L. Ma, T. J. Schmit, W. L. Smith, “A nonlinear physical retrieval algorithm—its application to the GOES-8/9 sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 501–513 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. McMillan, L. L. Strow, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. L. Huang, A. M. Thompson, D. P. McNamara, W. F. Ryan, “Remote sensing of carbon monoxide over the continental United States on September 12–23, 1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10695–10709 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “The use of eigenvectors of statistical co-variance matrices for interpreting satellite sounding radiometer observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1127–1140 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, “An improved method for calculating tropospheric temperature and moisture from satellite radiometer measurements,” Mon. Weather Rev. 96, 387–396 (1968).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, G. E. Bingham, M. J. Gordon, G. W. Cantwell, D. K. Zhou, H.-L. Huang, “AIRS cloud-cleaning using multi-spectral MODIS imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., submitted for publication.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, A. J. Schreiner, “The simultaneous export retrieval package,” in Technical Proceedings of the Second International TOVS Study Conference, W. P. Menzel, ed. (Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wis., 1985), pp. 224–253.

W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, D. K. Zhou, C. A. Sisko, J. Li, B. Huang, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. Cousins, M. J. Gazarik, D. Mooney, “NAST-I: results from revolutionary aircraft sounding spectrometer,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III, A. M. Larar, ed., Proc. SPIE3756, 2–8 (1999).

W. L. Smith, D. K. Zhou, F. W. Harrison, H. E. Revercomb, A. M. Larar, A. H. Huang, B. Huang, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of atmospheric profiles from satellites and aircraft,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Land and Atmosphere, W. L. Smith, Y. Yasuoka, eds., Proc. SPIE4151, 94–102 (2001).

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. L. Smith, W. Edwards, A. Moore, S. Kooi, V. Brackett, M. Clayton, S. Fastig, D. Harper, L. Petway, L. Mathews, D. Whiteman, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Lauritsen, R. May, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds during CAMEX-3,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, 1999, Postconference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 114–116.

D. K. Zhou, W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, “Temperature and moisture retrieval algorithm development for the NAST interferometer,” in Proceedings, International Radiation Symposium 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Y. M. Timofeyev, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 847–850.

D. K. Zhou, W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, “Tropospheric ozone near-nadir-viewing IR spectral sensitivity and ozone measurements from NAST-I,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Land and Atmosphere, W. L. Smith, Y. Yasuoka, eds., Proc. SPIE4151, 277–284 (2001).

A. M. Larar, W. L. Smith, D. K. Zhou, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, H. E. Revercomb, D. C. Tobin, “Spectral radiance validation studies using NAST-I and other independent measurement systems,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques, Remote Sensing, and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research IV, A. M. Larar, M. G. Mlynczak, eds., Proc. SPIE4485, 81–90 (2002).

D. Cousins, W. L. Smith, “National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I),” in Application of Lidar to Current Atmospheric Topics II, A. J. Sedlacek, K. W. Fischer, eds., Proc. SPIE3127, 323–331 (1997).

Staelin, D.

M. T. Chahine, H. Aumann, M. Goldberg, L. McMillin, P. Rosenkranz, D. Staelin, L. Strow, J. Susskind, “AIRS-team retrieval for core products and geophysical parameters,” Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, JPL D-17006, M. Gunson, ed. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pasadena, Calif., 2001).

Strow, L.

M. T. Chahine, H. Aumann, M. Goldberg, L. McMillin, P. Rosenkranz, D. Staelin, L. Strow, J. Susskind, “AIRS-team retrieval for core products and geophysical parameters,” Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, JPL D-17006, M. Gunson, ed. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pasadena, Calif., 2001).

Strow, L. L.

W. W. McMillan, L. L. Strow, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. L. Huang, A. M. Thompson, D. P. McNamara, W. F. Ryan, “Remote sensing of carbon monoxide over the continental United States on September 12–23, 1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10695–10709 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Hannon, L. L. Strow, W. W. McMillan, “Atmospheric infrared fast transmittance models: a comparison of two approaches,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research II, P. B. Hays, J. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE2830, 94–105 (1996).

Susskind, J.

J. Susskind, J. Rosenfield, D. Reuter, M. T. Chahine, “Remote sensing of weather and climate parameters from HIRS2/MSU on TIROS-N,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4677–4697 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Chahine, H. Aumann, M. Goldberg, L. McMillin, P. Rosenkranz, D. Staelin, L. Strow, J. Susskind, “AIRS-team retrieval for core products and geophysical parameters,” Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, JPL D-17006, M. Gunson, ed. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pasadena, Calif., 2001).

Thompson, A. M.

W. W. McMillan, L. L. Strow, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. L. Huang, A. M. Thompson, D. P. McNamara, W. F. Ryan, “Remote sensing of carbon monoxide over the continental United States on September 12–23, 1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10695–10709 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, D. C.

A. M. Larar, W. L. Smith, D. K. Zhou, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, H. E. Revercomb, D. C. Tobin, “Spectral radiance validation studies using NAST-I and other independent measurement systems,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques, Remote Sensing, and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research IV, A. M. Larar, M. G. Mlynczak, eds., Proc. SPIE4485, 81–90 (2002).

Wark, D. Q.

D. Q. Wark, H. E. Fleming, “Indirect measurements of atmospheric temperature profiles from satellite: I. Introduction,” Mon. Weather Rev. 94, 351–362 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Whiteman, D.

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. L. Smith, W. Edwards, A. Moore, S. Kooi, V. Brackett, M. Clayton, S. Fastig, D. Harper, L. Petway, L. Mathews, D. Whiteman, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Lauritsen, R. May, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds during CAMEX-3,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, 1999, Postconference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 114–116.

Wolf, W. W.

J. Li, W. W. Wolf, W. P. Menzel, W. Zhang, H. L. Huang, T. H. Achtor, “Global soundings of the atmosphere from ATOVS measurements: the algorithm and validation,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1248–1268 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Woolf, H.

Courtesy of H. Woolf, Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, and F. Schmidlin, NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia.

Woolf, H. M.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “The use of eigenvectors of statistical co-variance matrices for interpreting satellite sounding radiometer observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1127–1140 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, A. J. Schreiner, “The simultaneous export retrieval package,” in Technical Proceedings of the Second International TOVS Study Conference, W. P. Menzel, ed. (Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wis., 1985), pp. 224–253.

Zhang, W.

J. Li, W. W. Wolf, W. P. Menzel, W. Zhang, H. L. Huang, T. H. Achtor, “Global soundings of the atmosphere from ATOVS measurements: the algorithm and validation,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1248–1268 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D. K.

D. K. Zhou, W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, “Surface temperature and emissivity from airborne measurements of IR radiance spectra,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union Fall Meet. Suppl. 82(47), A21B–0063 (2001).

W. L. Smith, G. E. Bingham, M. J. Gordon, G. W. Cantwell, D. K. Zhou, H.-L. Huang, “AIRS cloud-cleaning using multi-spectral MODIS imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., submitted for publication.

W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, D. K. Zhou, C. A. Sisko, J. Li, B. Huang, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. Cousins, M. J. Gazarik, D. Mooney, “NAST-I: results from revolutionary aircraft sounding spectrometer,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III, A. M. Larar, ed., Proc. SPIE3756, 2–8 (1999).

D. K. Zhou, W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, “Temperature and moisture retrieval algorithm development for the NAST interferometer,” in Proceedings, International Radiation Symposium 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Y. M. Timofeyev, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 847–850.

W. L. Smith, D. K. Zhou, F. W. Harrison, H. E. Revercomb, A. M. Larar, A. H. Huang, B. Huang, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of atmospheric profiles from satellites and aircraft,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Land and Atmosphere, W. L. Smith, Y. Yasuoka, eds., Proc. SPIE4151, 94–102 (2001).

A. M. Larar, W. L. Smith, D. K. Zhou, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, H. E. Revercomb, D. C. Tobin, “Spectral radiance validation studies using NAST-I and other independent measurement systems,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques, Remote Sensing, and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research IV, A. M. Larar, M. G. Mlynczak, eds., Proc. SPIE4485, 81–90 (2002).

D. K. Zhou, W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, “Tropospheric ozone near-nadir-viewing IR spectral sensitivity and ozone measurements from NAST-I,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Land and Atmosphere, W. L. Smith, Y. Yasuoka, eds., Proc. SPIE4151, 277–284 (2001).

Adv. Atmos. Sci. (1)

J. Li, “Temperature and water vapor weighting functions from radiative transfer equation with surface emissivity and solar reflectivity,” Adv. Atmos. Sci. 11, 421–426 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union Fall Meet. Suppl. (1)

D. K. Zhou, W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, “Surface temperature and emissivity from airborne measurements of IR radiance spectra,” Eos Trans. Am. Geophys. Union Fall Meet. Suppl. 82(47), A21B–0063 (2001).

J. Aerosol Sci. (1)

M. F. Carfora, F. Esposito, C. Serio, “Numerical methods for retrieving aerosol size distributions from optical measurements of solar radiation,” J. Aerosol Sci. 29, 1225–1236 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (3)

C. M. Hayden, “GOES-VAS simultaneous temperature-moisture retrieval algorithm,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 27, 705–733 (1988).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Ma, T. J. Schmit, W. L. Smith, “A nonlinear physical retrieval algorithm—its application to the GOES-8/9 sounder,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 501–513 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, W. W. Wolf, W. P. Menzel, W. Zhang, H. L. Huang, T. H. Achtor, “Global soundings of the atmosphere from ATOVS measurements: the algorithm and validation,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1248–1268 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, “The use of eigenvectors of statistical co-variance matrices for interpreting satellite sounding radiometer observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1127–1140 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

W. W. McMillan, L. L. Strow, W. L. Smith, H. E. Revercomb, H. L. Huang, A. M. Thompson, D. P. McNamara, W. F. Ryan, “Remote sensing of carbon monoxide over the continental United States on September 12–23, 1993,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 10695–10709 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Susskind, J. Rosenfield, D. Reuter, M. T. Chahine, “Remote sensing of weather and climate parameters from HIRS2/MSU on TIROS-N,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4677–4697 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Weather Rev. (2)

D. Q. Wark, H. E. Fleming, “Indirect measurements of atmospheric temperature profiles from satellite: I. Introduction,” Mon. Weather Rev. 94, 351–362 (1966).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, “An improved method for calculating tropospheric temperature and moisture from satellite radiometer measurements,” Mon. Weather Rev. 96, 387–396 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

J. R. Eyre, “Inversion of cloudy satellite sounding radiances by nonlinear optimal estimation. I: Theory and simulation for TOVS,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 42, 1001–1026 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

J. W. Salisbury, D. M. D’Aria, “Emissivity of terrestrial material in the 8–14 µm atmospheric window,” Remote Sens. Environ. 42, 83–106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. (1)

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

Courtesy of H. Woolf, Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, and F. Schmidlin, NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia.

W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, D. K. Zhou, C. A. Sisko, J. Li, B. Huang, H. B. Howell, H. E. Revercomb, D. Cousins, M. J. Gazarik, D. Mooney, “NAST-I: results from revolutionary aircraft sounding spectrometer,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research III, A. M. Larar, ed., Proc. SPIE3756, 2–8 (1999).

W. L. Smith, D. K. Zhou, F. W. Harrison, H. E. Revercomb, A. M. Larar, A. H. Huang, B. Huang, “Hyperspectral remote sensing of atmospheric profiles from satellites and aircraft,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Land and Atmosphere, W. L. Smith, Y. Yasuoka, eds., Proc. SPIE4151, 94–102 (2001).

S. E. Hannon, L. L. Strow, W. W. McMillan, “Atmospheric infrared fast transmittance models: a comparison of two approaches,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research II, P. B. Hays, J. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE2830, 94–105 (1996).

M. T. Chahine, H. Aumann, M. Goldberg, L. McMillin, P. Rosenkranz, D. Staelin, L. Strow, J. Susskind, “AIRS-team retrieval for core products and geophysical parameters,” Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, JPL D-17006, M. Gunson, ed. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Pasadena, Calif., 2001).

D. K. Zhou, W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, “Temperature and moisture retrieval algorithm development for the NAST interferometer,” in Proceedings, International Radiation Symposium 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, W. L. Smith, Y. M. Timofeyev, eds. (Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 2001), pp. 847–850.

D. K. Zhou, W. L. Smith, A. M. Larar, “Tropospheric ozone near-nadir-viewing IR spectral sensitivity and ozone measurements from NAST-I,” in Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of the Land and Atmosphere, W. L. Smith, Y. Yasuoka, eds., Proc. SPIE4151, 277–284 (2001).

D. Cousins, W. L. Smith, “National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I),” in Application of Lidar to Current Atmospheric Topics II, A. J. Sedlacek, K. W. Fischer, eds., Proc. SPIE3127, 323–331 (1997).

A. M. Larar, W. L. Smith, D. K. Zhou, E. V. Browell, R. A. Ferrare, H. E. Revercomb, D. C. Tobin, “Spectral radiance validation studies using NAST-I and other independent measurement systems,” in Optical Spectroscopic Techniques, Remote Sensing, and Instrumentation for Atmospheric and Space Research IV, A. M. Larar, M. G. Mlynczak, eds., Proc. SPIE4485, 81–90 (2002).

R. A. Ferrare, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. L. Smith, W. Edwards, A. Moore, S. Kooi, V. Brackett, M. Clayton, S. Fastig, D. Harper, L. Petway, L. Mathews, D. Whiteman, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Lauritsen, R. May, “LASE measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and clouds during CAMEX-3,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, 1999, Postconference Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 114–116.

W. L. Smith, G. E. Bingham, M. J. Gordon, G. W. Cantwell, D. K. Zhou, H.-L. Huang, “AIRS cloud-cleaning using multi-spectral MODIS imagery,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., submitted for publication.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, A. J. Schreiner, “The simultaneous export retrieval package,” in Technical Proceedings of the Second International TOVS Study Conference, W. P. Menzel, ed. (Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wis., 1985), pp. 224–253.

V. A. Morozov, Methods for Solving Incorrectly Posed Problems (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Weighting function matrices of (a) fixed gas (constant mixing ratio) and (b) water vapor of NAST-I channels calculated with the U.S. 1976 Standard Atmosphere. The peak (or valley) of the weighting function of fixed gas (or water vapor) of each channel indicated in wave number is associated with a pressure altitude.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulated NAST-I spectral radiance from the radiosonde collected on Andros Island, Bahamas (24.7 °N, 77.8 °W) at 00:30 UTC, 14 September 1998. The channels indicated in black were selected for regression analyses and retrieval. (b) Estimated NAST-I random noise level for this flight as obtained from calibration blackbody looks.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

STDE over dependent samples (CAMEX-3 training data set) as a function of the number of EOFs for (a) temperature and (b) water vapor assuming NAST-I calibration noise (EOF numbers of 10, 26, and 58 are indicated by dash-dot, solid, and dashed curves, respectively).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mean of profile STDE for (a) temperature and (b) water vapor shown as solid (full NAST-I calibration noise) and dashed curves (half NAST-I calibration noise).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Standard deviation of radiance difference between observed and retrieval simulated (see text) as a function of the number of EOFs: (a) band sample mean [note: band 1 (645–1300 cm-1), band 2 (1290–1999 cm-1), band 3 (1985–2700 cm-1) are multiplied by 1, 2, and 5, respectively] and (b) spectral distribution.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sample of NAST-I regression and radiosonde comparison from CAMEX-3 validation flight over Andros Island, Bahamas, 14 September 1998. Radiosonde profile (black) and NAST-I means from 26 (blue) and 23 (red) EOF regressions plotted in (a) and (b) for temperature and relative humidity, respectively. The cross sections of temperature and relative humidity resulting from 26 and 23 EOF regressions are shown. The ER-2 flew over the radiosonde site at ∼1.82 UTC. The aircraft location (latitude and longitude) associated with UTC is indicated in Fig. 12.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

NAST-I brightness temperatures and selected optimal channel index (in dots) used in the physical retrieval processing.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Convergence example from physical iteration shows that (a) the absolute difference of brightness temperature between observed and retrieval simulations is minimized from the first guess (open circles, 26 EOF regression) to the final (physical retrieval, dots). The differences between (b) temperature and (c) moisture profiles associated with (a) radiance adjustment are indicated.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Similar to Fig. 6 but physical retrievals that use regression as a first guess. Radiosonde profile (black) and NAST-I mean of physical retrievals by use of 26 (blue) and 23 (red) EOF regressions as first guesses plotted in (a) and (b) for temperature and relative humidity, respectively. Shown are the cross sections of temperature and relative humidity that resulted by use of 26 and 23 EOF regressions as first guesses (see text).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Differences of (a) temperature and (c) relative humidity vertical cross sections between the physical retrieval [Figs. 9(c) and 9(e)] and the 26 EOF regression retrievals [Figs. 6(c) and 6(e)]. Differences of (b) temperature and (d) relative humidity vertical cross sections between the physical retrieval [Figs. 9(d) and 9(f)] and the 23 EOF regression retrievals [Figs. 6(d) and 6(f)].

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Water vapor mixing ratio and relative humidity comparisons between NAST-I and LASE. (a) Mean profiles were produced from (c) NAST-I data (red) and (d) LASE data (blue), respectively, and the means in (b) were produced from (e) NAST-I data (red) and (f) LASE data (blue), respectively. In addition, the radiosonde (black) and Raman lidar (green) are also plotted for comparison (see text).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Same data set as shown in Fig. 6 displayed in select horizontal levels: (a) skin temperature, (b) surface emissivity, (c) relative humidity at 500 mbars (see text).

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Mij=1Sk=1S kikj,
Ci=j=1nc jUji.
Aj=i=1n-1 KjiCi+KjnPs=i=1n-1 Kjil=1nc lUli+KjnPs,
R-Rs=εBsτs-PacPs Bdτ+1-εPacPs Bdτ*,
Ym=YX+σ,
δY=YδX,
JX=Ym-YXTE-1Ym-YX+X-X0THX-X0,
Xn+1=Xn+JXn-1JXn,
δXn+1=YnTE-1Yn+H-1YnTE-1δYn+YnδXn,
δXn+1=YnTE-1Yn+γI-1YnTE-1δYn+YnδXn,
YXγ-Ym2=σ2,
γn+1=qnγn,
q0=1.0; if YXn-Ym<σ2, then qn=1.5; if YXn-Ym=σ2, then stop the iteration; if YXn-Ym>σ2, then qn=0.5.

Metrics