Abstract

Routine observations of atmospheric NO2 at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 parts per billion are needed for air quality monitoring and for the evaluation of photochemical models. We have designed, constructed, and field tested a relatively inexpensive and specific NO2 sensor using laser-induced fluorescence. The instrument combines a commercial cw external-cavity tunable diode laser (640 nm) and a continuous supersonic expansion. The total package is completely automated, has a modest size of 0.5 m3 and 118 kg, and could be manufactured at competitive prices with the current generation of instruments. The sensitivity of the instrument is 145 parts per trillion by volume min-1 (signal-to-noise ratio of 2), which is more than adequate for monitoring purposes.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  2. W. A. McClenny, E. J. Williams, R. C. Cohen, J. Stutz, “Preparing to measure the effects of the NOx SIP call—methods for ambient air monitoring of NO, NO2, NOy and individual NOz species,” J. Air. Waste Manage. 52, 542–562 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, R. C. Cohen, M. Martinez, H. Harder, W. H. Brune, E. J. Williams, J. M. Roberts, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Hall, R. E. Shetter, B. P. Wert, A. Fried, “Ozone production rates as a function of NOx abundances and HOx production rates in the Nashville urban plume,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000932 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. D. A. Day, P. J. Wooldridge, M. B. Dillon, J. A. Thornton, R. C. Cohen, “A thermal dissociation laser-induced fluorescence instrument for in situ detection of NO2, peroxy nitrates, alkyl nitrates, and HNO3,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.129/2001JD000779 (2002).

2002 (3)

W. A. McClenny, E. J. Williams, R. C. Cohen, J. Stutz, “Preparing to measure the effects of the NOx SIP call—methods for ambient air monitoring of NO, NO2, NOy and individual NOz species,” J. Air. Waste Manage. 52, 542–562 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, R. C. Cohen, M. Martinez, H. Harder, W. H. Brune, E. J. Williams, J. M. Roberts, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Hall, R. E. Shetter, B. P. Wert, A. Fried, “Ozone production rates as a function of NOx abundances and HOx production rates in the Nashville urban plume,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000932 (2002).

D. A. Day, P. J. Wooldridge, M. B. Dillon, J. A. Thornton, R. C. Cohen, “A thermal dissociation laser-induced fluorescence instrument for in situ detection of NO2, peroxy nitrates, alkyl nitrates, and HNO3,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.129/2001JD000779 (2002).

2001 (4)

Y. Matsumi, S. Murakami, M. Kono, K. Takahashi, M. Koike, Y. Kondo, “High-sensitivity instrument for measuring atmospheric NO2,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5485–5493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Matsumoto, J. Hirokawa, H. Akimoto, Y. Kajii, “Direct measurement of NO2 in the marine atmosphere by laser-induced fluorescence technique,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 2803–2814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Perkins, T. F. Hanisco, R. C. Cohen, L. C. Koch, R. M. Stimpfle, P. B. Voss, G. P. Bonne, E. J. Lanzendorf, J. G. Anderson, P. O. Wennberg, R. S. Gao, L. A. Del Negro, R. J. Salawitch, C. T. McElroy, E. J. Hintsa, M. Loewenstein, T. P. Bui, “The NOx-HNO3 system in the lower stratosphere: insights from in situ measurements and implications of the J(HNO3)-[OH] relationship,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 1521–1534 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Delon, R. Jost, M. Jacon, “Laser induced dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy of 107 vibronic levels of NO2 ranging from 12000 to 17600 cm-1,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 331–344 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, R. C. Cohen, “Atmospheric NO2: in situ laser-induced fluorescence detection at parts per trillion mixing ratios,” Anal. Chem. 72, 528–539 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Ryerson, E. J. Williams, F. C. Fehsenfeld, “An efficient photolysis system for fast-response NO2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26447–26461 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Tonnesen, R. L. Dennis, “Analysis of radical propagation efficiency to assess ozone sensitivity to hydrocarbons and NOx. 1. Local indicators of instantaneous odd oxygen production sensitivity,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9213–9225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jimenez, G. J. McRae, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, C. E. Kolb, “Remote sensing of NO and NO2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks using tunable diode lasers,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 34, 2380–2387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Bradshaw, D. Davis, J. Crawford, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Muller, G. Gregory, G. Sachse, D. Blake, B. Heikes, H. Singh, J. Mastromarino, S. Sandholm, “Photofragmentation two-photon laser-induced fluorescence detection of NO2 and NO: comparison of measurements with model results based on airborne observations during PEM-Tropics A,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 471–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. P. Burrows, A. Dehn, B. Deters, S. Himmelmann, A. Richter, S. Voigt, J. Orphal, “Atmospheric remote-sensing reference data from GOME: Part I. Temperature-dependent absorption cross-sections of NO2 in the 231–794 nm range,” J. Quan. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer 60, 1025–1031 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. Fong, W. H. Brune, “A laser induced fluorescence instrument for measuring tropospheric NO2,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4253–4262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

R. S. Gao, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, S. J. Ciciora, M. H. Proffitt, T. L. Thompson, R. J. McLaughlin, D. W. Fahey, “New photolysis system for NO2 measurements in the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20673–20681 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. C. D. Brand, K. J. Cross, A. R. Hoy, “Resonance fluorescence intensities and vibrational assignments in the A2B2 state of NO2,” Can. J. Phys. 60, 1081–1087 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

R. E. Smalley, L. Wharton, D. H. Levy, “Fluorescence excitation spectrum of rotationally cooled NO2,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 4977–4989 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

Akimoto, H.

J. Matsumoto, J. Hirokawa, H. Akimoto, Y. Kajii, “Direct measurement of NO2 in the marine atmosphere by laser-induced fluorescence technique,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 2803–2814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. G.

K. K. Perkins, T. F. Hanisco, R. C. Cohen, L. C. Koch, R. M. Stimpfle, P. B. Voss, G. P. Bonne, E. J. Lanzendorf, J. G. Anderson, P. O. Wennberg, R. S. Gao, L. A. Del Negro, R. J. Salawitch, C. T. McElroy, E. J. Hintsa, M. Loewenstein, T. P. Bui, “The NOx-HNO3 system in the lower stratosphere: insights from in situ measurements and implications of the J(HNO3)-[OH] relationship,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 1521–1534 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Blake, D.

J. Bradshaw, D. Davis, J. Crawford, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Muller, G. Gregory, G. Sachse, D. Blake, B. Heikes, H. Singh, J. Mastromarino, S. Sandholm, “Photofragmentation two-photon laser-induced fluorescence detection of NO2 and NO: comparison of measurements with model results based on airborne observations during PEM-Tropics A,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 471–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bonne, G. P.

K. K. Perkins, T. F. Hanisco, R. C. Cohen, L. C. Koch, R. M. Stimpfle, P. B. Voss, G. P. Bonne, E. J. Lanzendorf, J. G. Anderson, P. O. Wennberg, R. S. Gao, L. A. Del Negro, R. J. Salawitch, C. T. McElroy, E. J. Hintsa, M. Loewenstein, T. P. Bui, “The NOx-HNO3 system in the lower stratosphere: insights from in situ measurements and implications of the J(HNO3)-[OH] relationship,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 1521–1534 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bradshaw, J.

J. Bradshaw, D. Davis, J. Crawford, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Muller, G. Gregory, G. Sachse, D. Blake, B. Heikes, H. Singh, J. Mastromarino, S. Sandholm, “Photofragmentation two-photon laser-induced fluorescence detection of NO2 and NO: comparison of measurements with model results based on airborne observations during PEM-Tropics A,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 471–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brand, J. C. D.

J. C. D. Brand, K. J. Cross, A. R. Hoy, “Resonance fluorescence intensities and vibrational assignments in the A2B2 state of NO2,” Can. J. Phys. 60, 1081–1087 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Brune, W. H.

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, R. C. Cohen, M. Martinez, H. Harder, W. H. Brune, E. J. Williams, J. M. Roberts, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Hall, R. E. Shetter, B. P. Wert, A. Fried, “Ozone production rates as a function of NOx abundances and HOx production rates in the Nashville urban plume,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000932 (2002).

C. Fong, W. H. Brune, “A laser induced fluorescence instrument for measuring tropospheric NO2,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4253–4262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bui, T. P.

K. K. Perkins, T. F. Hanisco, R. C. Cohen, L. C. Koch, R. M. Stimpfle, P. B. Voss, G. P. Bonne, E. J. Lanzendorf, J. G. Anderson, P. O. Wennberg, R. S. Gao, L. A. Del Negro, R. J. Salawitch, C. T. McElroy, E. J. Hintsa, M. Loewenstein, T. P. Bui, “The NOx-HNO3 system in the lower stratosphere: insights from in situ measurements and implications of the J(HNO3)-[OH] relationship,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 1521–1534 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, J. P.

J. P. Burrows, A. Dehn, B. Deters, S. Himmelmann, A. Richter, S. Voigt, J. Orphal, “Atmospheric remote-sensing reference data from GOME: Part I. Temperature-dependent absorption cross-sections of NO2 in the 231–794 nm range,” J. Quan. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer 60, 1025–1031 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

J. Bradshaw, D. Davis, J. Crawford, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Muller, G. Gregory, G. Sachse, D. Blake, B. Heikes, H. Singh, J. Mastromarino, S. Sandholm, “Photofragmentation two-photon laser-induced fluorescence detection of NO2 and NO: comparison of measurements with model results based on airborne observations during PEM-Tropics A,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 471–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ciciora, S. J.

R. S. Gao, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, S. J. Ciciora, M. H. Proffitt, T. L. Thompson, R. J. McLaughlin, D. W. Fahey, “New photolysis system for NO2 measurements in the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20673–20681 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R. C.

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, R. C. Cohen, M. Martinez, H. Harder, W. H. Brune, E. J. Williams, J. M. Roberts, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Hall, R. E. Shetter, B. P. Wert, A. Fried, “Ozone production rates as a function of NOx abundances and HOx production rates in the Nashville urban plume,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000932 (2002).

D. A. Day, P. J. Wooldridge, M. B. Dillon, J. A. Thornton, R. C. Cohen, “A thermal dissociation laser-induced fluorescence instrument for in situ detection of NO2, peroxy nitrates, alkyl nitrates, and HNO3,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.129/2001JD000779 (2002).

W. A. McClenny, E. J. Williams, R. C. Cohen, J. Stutz, “Preparing to measure the effects of the NOx SIP call—methods for ambient air monitoring of NO, NO2, NOy and individual NOz species,” J. Air. Waste Manage. 52, 542–562 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Perkins, T. F. Hanisco, R. C. Cohen, L. C. Koch, R. M. Stimpfle, P. B. Voss, G. P. Bonne, E. J. Lanzendorf, J. G. Anderson, P. O. Wennberg, R. S. Gao, L. A. Del Negro, R. J. Salawitch, C. T. McElroy, E. J. Hintsa, M. Loewenstein, T. P. Bui, “The NOx-HNO3 system in the lower stratosphere: insights from in situ measurements and implications of the J(HNO3)-[OH] relationship,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 1521–1534 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, R. C. Cohen, “Atmospheric NO2: in situ laser-induced fluorescence detection at parts per trillion mixing ratios,” Anal. Chem. 72, 528–539 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J.

J. Bradshaw, D. Davis, J. Crawford, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Muller, G. Gregory, G. Sachse, D. Blake, B. Heikes, H. Singh, J. Mastromarino, S. Sandholm, “Photofragmentation two-photon laser-induced fluorescence detection of NO2 and NO: comparison of measurements with model results based on airborne observations during PEM-Tropics A,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 471–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cross, K. J.

J. C. D. Brand, K. J. Cross, A. R. Hoy, “Resonance fluorescence intensities and vibrational assignments in the A2B2 state of NO2,” Can. J. Phys. 60, 1081–1087 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Davis, D.

J. Bradshaw, D. Davis, J. Crawford, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Muller, G. Gregory, G. Sachse, D. Blake, B. Heikes, H. Singh, J. Mastromarino, S. Sandholm, “Photofragmentation two-photon laser-induced fluorescence detection of NO2 and NO: comparison of measurements with model results based on airborne observations during PEM-Tropics A,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 471–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Day, D. A.

D. A. Day, P. J. Wooldridge, M. B. Dillon, J. A. Thornton, R. C. Cohen, “A thermal dissociation laser-induced fluorescence instrument for in situ detection of NO2, peroxy nitrates, alkyl nitrates, and HNO3,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.129/2001JD000779 (2002).

Dehn, A.

J. P. Burrows, A. Dehn, B. Deters, S. Himmelmann, A. Richter, S. Voigt, J. Orphal, “Atmospheric remote-sensing reference data from GOME: Part I. Temperature-dependent absorption cross-sections of NO2 in the 231–794 nm range,” J. Quan. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer 60, 1025–1031 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Del Negro, L. A.

K. K. Perkins, T. F. Hanisco, R. C. Cohen, L. C. Koch, R. M. Stimpfle, P. B. Voss, G. P. Bonne, E. J. Lanzendorf, J. G. Anderson, P. O. Wennberg, R. S. Gao, L. A. Del Negro, R. J. Salawitch, C. T. McElroy, E. J. Hintsa, M. Loewenstein, T. P. Bui, “The NOx-HNO3 system in the lower stratosphere: insights from in situ measurements and implications of the J(HNO3)-[OH] relationship,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 1521–1534 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Delon, A.

A. Delon, R. Jost, M. Jacon, “Laser induced dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy of 107 vibronic levels of NO2 ranging from 12000 to 17600 cm-1,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 331–344 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, R. L.

G. S. Tonnesen, R. L. Dennis, “Analysis of radical propagation efficiency to assess ozone sensitivity to hydrocarbons and NOx. 1. Local indicators of instantaneous odd oxygen production sensitivity,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9213–9225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Deters, B.

J. P. Burrows, A. Dehn, B. Deters, S. Himmelmann, A. Richter, S. Voigt, J. Orphal, “Atmospheric remote-sensing reference data from GOME: Part I. Temperature-dependent absorption cross-sections of NO2 in the 231–794 nm range,” J. Quan. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer 60, 1025–1031 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dillon, M. B.

D. A. Day, P. J. Wooldridge, M. B. Dillon, J. A. Thornton, R. C. Cohen, “A thermal dissociation laser-induced fluorescence instrument for in situ detection of NO2, peroxy nitrates, alkyl nitrates, and HNO3,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.129/2001JD000779 (2002).

Fahey, D. W.

R. S. Gao, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, S. J. Ciciora, M. H. Proffitt, T. L. Thompson, R. J. McLaughlin, D. W. Fahey, “New photolysis system for NO2 measurements in the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20673–20681 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fehsenfeld, F. C.

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, R. C. Cohen, M. Martinez, H. Harder, W. H. Brune, E. J. Williams, J. M. Roberts, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Hall, R. E. Shetter, B. P. Wert, A. Fried, “Ozone production rates as a function of NOx abundances and HOx production rates in the Nashville urban plume,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000932 (2002).

T. B. Ryerson, E. J. Williams, F. C. Fehsenfeld, “An efficient photolysis system for fast-response NO2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26447–26461 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fong, C.

C. Fong, W. H. Brune, “A laser induced fluorescence instrument for measuring tropospheric NO2,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4253–4262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fried, A.

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, R. C. Cohen, M. Martinez, H. Harder, W. H. Brune, E. J. Williams, J. M. Roberts, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Hall, R. E. Shetter, B. P. Wert, A. Fried, “Ozone production rates as a function of NOx abundances and HOx production rates in the Nashville urban plume,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000932 (2002).

Gao, R. S.

K. K. Perkins, T. F. Hanisco, R. C. Cohen, L. C. Koch, R. M. Stimpfle, P. B. Voss, G. P. Bonne, E. J. Lanzendorf, J. G. Anderson, P. O. Wennberg, R. S. Gao, L. A. Del Negro, R. J. Salawitch, C. T. McElroy, E. J. Hintsa, M. Loewenstein, T. P. Bui, “The NOx-HNO3 system in the lower stratosphere: insights from in situ measurements and implications of the J(HNO3)-[OH] relationship,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 1521–1534 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Gao, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, S. J. Ciciora, M. H. Proffitt, T. L. Thompson, R. J. McLaughlin, D. W. Fahey, “New photolysis system for NO2 measurements in the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20673–20681 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, G.

J. Bradshaw, D. Davis, J. Crawford, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Muller, G. Gregory, G. Sachse, D. Blake, B. Heikes, H. Singh, J. Mastromarino, S. Sandholm, “Photofragmentation two-photon laser-induced fluorescence detection of NO2 and NO: comparison of measurements with model results based on airborne observations during PEM-Tropics A,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 471–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hall, S. R.

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, R. C. Cohen, M. Martinez, H. Harder, W. H. Brune, E. J. Williams, J. M. Roberts, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Hall, R. E. Shetter, B. P. Wert, A. Fried, “Ozone production rates as a function of NOx abundances and HOx production rates in the Nashville urban plume,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000932 (2002).

Hanisco, T. F.

K. K. Perkins, T. F. Hanisco, R. C. Cohen, L. C. Koch, R. M. Stimpfle, P. B. Voss, G. P. Bonne, E. J. Lanzendorf, J. G. Anderson, P. O. Wennberg, R. S. Gao, L. A. Del Negro, R. J. Salawitch, C. T. McElroy, E. J. Hintsa, M. Loewenstein, T. P. Bui, “The NOx-HNO3 system in the lower stratosphere: insights from in situ measurements and implications of the J(HNO3)-[OH] relationship,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 1521–1534 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harder, H.

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, R. C. Cohen, M. Martinez, H. Harder, W. H. Brune, E. J. Williams, J. M. Roberts, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Hall, R. E. Shetter, B. P. Wert, A. Fried, “Ozone production rates as a function of NOx abundances and HOx production rates in the Nashville urban plume,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000932 (2002).

Heikes, B.

J. Bradshaw, D. Davis, J. Crawford, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Muller, G. Gregory, G. Sachse, D. Blake, B. Heikes, H. Singh, J. Mastromarino, S. Sandholm, “Photofragmentation two-photon laser-induced fluorescence detection of NO2 and NO: comparison of measurements with model results based on airborne observations during PEM-Tropics A,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 471–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herriott, D.

Himmelmann, S.

J. P. Burrows, A. Dehn, B. Deters, S. Himmelmann, A. Richter, S. Voigt, J. Orphal, “Atmospheric remote-sensing reference data from GOME: Part I. Temperature-dependent absorption cross-sections of NO2 in the 231–794 nm range,” J. Quan. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer 60, 1025–1031 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hintsa, E. J.

K. K. Perkins, T. F. Hanisco, R. C. Cohen, L. C. Koch, R. M. Stimpfle, P. B. Voss, G. P. Bonne, E. J. Lanzendorf, J. G. Anderson, P. O. Wennberg, R. S. Gao, L. A. Del Negro, R. J. Salawitch, C. T. McElroy, E. J. Hintsa, M. Loewenstein, T. P. Bui, “The NOx-HNO3 system in the lower stratosphere: insights from in situ measurements and implications of the J(HNO3)-[OH] relationship,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 1521–1534 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hirokawa, J.

J. Matsumoto, J. Hirokawa, H. Akimoto, Y. Kajii, “Direct measurement of NO2 in the marine atmosphere by laser-induced fluorescence technique,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 2803–2814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hoy, A. R.

J. C. D. Brand, K. J. Cross, A. R. Hoy, “Resonance fluorescence intensities and vibrational assignments in the A2B2 state of NO2,” Can. J. Phys. 60, 1081–1087 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jacon, M.

A. Delon, R. Jost, M. Jacon, “Laser induced dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy of 107 vibronic levels of NO2 ranging from 12000 to 17600 cm-1,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 331–344 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, J. L.

J. L. Jimenez, G. J. McRae, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, C. E. Kolb, “Remote sensing of NO and NO2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks using tunable diode lasers,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 34, 2380–2387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jost, R.

A. Delon, R. Jost, M. Jacon, “Laser induced dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy of 107 vibronic levels of NO2 ranging from 12000 to 17600 cm-1,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 331–344 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kajii, Y.

J. Matsumoto, J. Hirokawa, H. Akimoto, Y. Kajii, “Direct measurement of NO2 in the marine atmosphere by laser-induced fluorescence technique,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 2803–2814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Keim, E. R.

R. S. Gao, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, S. J. Ciciora, M. H. Proffitt, T. L. Thompson, R. J. McLaughlin, D. W. Fahey, “New photolysis system for NO2 measurements in the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20673–20681 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koch, L. C.

K. K. Perkins, T. F. Hanisco, R. C. Cohen, L. C. Koch, R. M. Stimpfle, P. B. Voss, G. P. Bonne, E. J. Lanzendorf, J. G. Anderson, P. O. Wennberg, R. S. Gao, L. A. Del Negro, R. J. Salawitch, C. T. McElroy, E. J. Hintsa, M. Loewenstein, T. P. Bui, “The NOx-HNO3 system in the lower stratosphere: insights from in situ measurements and implications of the J(HNO3)-[OH] relationship,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 1521–1534 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

Koike, M.

Y. Matsumi, S. Murakami, M. Kono, K. Takahashi, M. Koike, Y. Kondo, “High-sensitivity instrument for measuring atmospheric NO2,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5485–5493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kolb, C. E.

J. L. Jimenez, G. J. McRae, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, C. E. Kolb, “Remote sensing of NO and NO2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks using tunable diode lasers,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 34, 2380–2387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kompfner, R.

Kondo, Y.

Y. Matsumi, S. Murakami, M. Kono, K. Takahashi, M. Koike, Y. Kondo, “High-sensitivity instrument for measuring atmospheric NO2,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5485–5493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kono, M.

Y. Matsumi, S. Murakami, M. Kono, K. Takahashi, M. Koike, Y. Kondo, “High-sensitivity instrument for measuring atmospheric NO2,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5485–5493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lanzendorf, E. J.

K. K. Perkins, T. F. Hanisco, R. C. Cohen, L. C. Koch, R. M. Stimpfle, P. B. Voss, G. P. Bonne, E. J. Lanzendorf, J. G. Anderson, P. O. Wennberg, R. S. Gao, L. A. Del Negro, R. J. Salawitch, C. T. McElroy, E. J. Hintsa, M. Loewenstein, T. P. Bui, “The NOx-HNO3 system in the lower stratosphere: insights from in situ measurements and implications of the J(HNO3)-[OH] relationship,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 1521–1534 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Levy, D. H.

R. E. Smalley, L. Wharton, D. H. Levy, “Fluorescence excitation spectrum of rotationally cooled NO2,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 4977–4989 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Loewenstein, M.

K. K. Perkins, T. F. Hanisco, R. C. Cohen, L. C. Koch, R. M. Stimpfle, P. B. Voss, G. P. Bonne, E. J. Lanzendorf, J. G. Anderson, P. O. Wennberg, R. S. Gao, L. A. Del Negro, R. J. Salawitch, C. T. McElroy, E. J. Hintsa, M. Loewenstein, T. P. Bui, “The NOx-HNO3 system in the lower stratosphere: insights from in situ measurements and implications of the J(HNO3)-[OH] relationship,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 1521–1534 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, M.

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, R. C. Cohen, M. Martinez, H. Harder, W. H. Brune, E. J. Williams, J. M. Roberts, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Hall, R. E. Shetter, B. P. Wert, A. Fried, “Ozone production rates as a function of NOx abundances and HOx production rates in the Nashville urban plume,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000932 (2002).

Mastromarino, J.

J. Bradshaw, D. Davis, J. Crawford, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Muller, G. Gregory, G. Sachse, D. Blake, B. Heikes, H. Singh, J. Mastromarino, S. Sandholm, “Photofragmentation two-photon laser-induced fluorescence detection of NO2 and NO: comparison of measurements with model results based on airborne observations during PEM-Tropics A,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 471–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsumi, Y.

Y. Matsumi, S. Murakami, M. Kono, K. Takahashi, M. Koike, Y. Kondo, “High-sensitivity instrument for measuring atmospheric NO2,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5485–5493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, J.

J. Matsumoto, J. Hirokawa, H. Akimoto, Y. Kajii, “Direct measurement of NO2 in the marine atmosphere by laser-induced fluorescence technique,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 2803–2814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McClenny, W. A.

W. A. McClenny, E. J. Williams, R. C. Cohen, J. Stutz, “Preparing to measure the effects of the NOx SIP call—methods for ambient air monitoring of NO, NO2, NOy and individual NOz species,” J. Air. Waste Manage. 52, 542–562 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McElroy, C. T.

K. K. Perkins, T. F. Hanisco, R. C. Cohen, L. C. Koch, R. M. Stimpfle, P. B. Voss, G. P. Bonne, E. J. Lanzendorf, J. G. Anderson, P. O. Wennberg, R. S. Gao, L. A. Del Negro, R. J. Salawitch, C. T. McElroy, E. J. Hintsa, M. Loewenstein, T. P. Bui, “The NOx-HNO3 system in the lower stratosphere: insights from in situ measurements and implications of the J(HNO3)-[OH] relationship,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 1521–1534 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McLaughlin, R. J.

R. S. Gao, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, S. J. Ciciora, M. H. Proffitt, T. L. Thompson, R. J. McLaughlin, D. W. Fahey, “New photolysis system for NO2 measurements in the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20673–20681 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McRae, G. J.

J. L. Jimenez, G. J. McRae, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, C. E. Kolb, “Remote sensing of NO and NO2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks using tunable diode lasers,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 34, 2380–2387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. R.

D. R. Miller, “Free jet sources,” in Atomic and Molecular Beam Methods, G. Scoles, ed. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1988), pp. 14–53.

Muller, M.

J. Bradshaw, D. Davis, J. Crawford, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Muller, G. Gregory, G. Sachse, D. Blake, B. Heikes, H. Singh, J. Mastromarino, S. Sandholm, “Photofragmentation two-photon laser-induced fluorescence detection of NO2 and NO: comparison of measurements with model results based on airborne observations during PEM-Tropics A,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 471–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, S.

Y. Matsumi, S. Murakami, M. Kono, K. Takahashi, M. Koike, Y. Kondo, “High-sensitivity instrument for measuring atmospheric NO2,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5485–5493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D. D.

J. L. Jimenez, G. J. McRae, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, C. E. Kolb, “Remote sensing of NO and NO2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks using tunable diode lasers,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 34, 2380–2387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

J. P. Burrows, A. Dehn, B. Deters, S. Himmelmann, A. Richter, S. Voigt, J. Orphal, “Atmospheric remote-sensing reference data from GOME: Part I. Temperature-dependent absorption cross-sections of NO2 in the 231–794 nm range,” J. Quan. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer 60, 1025–1031 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perkins, K. K.

K. K. Perkins, T. F. Hanisco, R. C. Cohen, L. C. Koch, R. M. Stimpfle, P. B. Voss, G. P. Bonne, E. J. Lanzendorf, J. G. Anderson, P. O. Wennberg, R. S. Gao, L. A. Del Negro, R. J. Salawitch, C. T. McElroy, E. J. Hintsa, M. Loewenstein, T. P. Bui, “The NOx-HNO3 system in the lower stratosphere: insights from in situ measurements and implications of the J(HNO3)-[OH] relationship,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 1521–1534 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proffitt, M. H.

R. S. Gao, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, S. J. Ciciora, M. H. Proffitt, T. L. Thompson, R. J. McLaughlin, D. W. Fahey, “New photolysis system for NO2 measurements in the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20673–20681 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Richter, A.

J. P. Burrows, A. Dehn, B. Deters, S. Himmelmann, A. Richter, S. Voigt, J. Orphal, “Atmospheric remote-sensing reference data from GOME: Part I. Temperature-dependent absorption cross-sections of NO2 in the 231–794 nm range,” J. Quan. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer 60, 1025–1031 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. M.

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, R. C. Cohen, M. Martinez, H. Harder, W. H. Brune, E. J. Williams, J. M. Roberts, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Hall, R. E. Shetter, B. P. Wert, A. Fried, “Ozone production rates as a function of NOx abundances and HOx production rates in the Nashville urban plume,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000932 (2002).

Ryerson, T. B.

T. B. Ryerson, E. J. Williams, F. C. Fehsenfeld, “An efficient photolysis system for fast-response NO2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26447–26461 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sachse, G.

J. Bradshaw, D. Davis, J. Crawford, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Muller, G. Gregory, G. Sachse, D. Blake, B. Heikes, H. Singh, J. Mastromarino, S. Sandholm, “Photofragmentation two-photon laser-induced fluorescence detection of NO2 and NO: comparison of measurements with model results based on airborne observations during PEM-Tropics A,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 471–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salawitch, R. J.

K. K. Perkins, T. F. Hanisco, R. C. Cohen, L. C. Koch, R. M. Stimpfle, P. B. Voss, G. P. Bonne, E. J. Lanzendorf, J. G. Anderson, P. O. Wennberg, R. S. Gao, L. A. Del Negro, R. J. Salawitch, C. T. McElroy, E. J. Hintsa, M. Loewenstein, T. P. Bui, “The NOx-HNO3 system in the lower stratosphere: insights from in situ measurements and implications of the J(HNO3)-[OH] relationship,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 1521–1534 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sandholm, S.

J. Bradshaw, D. Davis, J. Crawford, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Muller, G. Gregory, G. Sachse, D. Blake, B. Heikes, H. Singh, J. Mastromarino, S. Sandholm, “Photofragmentation two-photon laser-induced fluorescence detection of NO2 and NO: comparison of measurements with model results based on airborne observations during PEM-Tropics A,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 471–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shetter, R.

J. Bradshaw, D. Davis, J. Crawford, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Muller, G. Gregory, G. Sachse, D. Blake, B. Heikes, H. Singh, J. Mastromarino, S. Sandholm, “Photofragmentation two-photon laser-induced fluorescence detection of NO2 and NO: comparison of measurements with model results based on airborne observations during PEM-Tropics A,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 471–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shetter, R. E.

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, R. C. Cohen, M. Martinez, H. Harder, W. H. Brune, E. J. Williams, J. M. Roberts, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Hall, R. E. Shetter, B. P. Wert, A. Fried, “Ozone production rates as a function of NOx abundances and HOx production rates in the Nashville urban plume,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000932 (2002).

Singh, H.

J. Bradshaw, D. Davis, J. Crawford, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Muller, G. Gregory, G. Sachse, D. Blake, B. Heikes, H. Singh, J. Mastromarino, S. Sandholm, “Photofragmentation two-photon laser-induced fluorescence detection of NO2 and NO: comparison of measurements with model results based on airborne observations during PEM-Tropics A,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 471–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smalley, R. E.

R. E. Smalley, L. Wharton, D. H. Levy, “Fluorescence excitation spectrum of rotationally cooled NO2,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 4977–4989 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Stimpfle, R. M.

K. K. Perkins, T. F. Hanisco, R. C. Cohen, L. C. Koch, R. M. Stimpfle, P. B. Voss, G. P. Bonne, E. J. Lanzendorf, J. G. Anderson, P. O. Wennberg, R. S. Gao, L. A. Del Negro, R. J. Salawitch, C. T. McElroy, E. J. Hintsa, M. Loewenstein, T. P. Bui, “The NOx-HNO3 system in the lower stratosphere: insights from in situ measurements and implications of the J(HNO3)-[OH] relationship,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 1521–1534 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stutz, J.

W. A. McClenny, E. J. Williams, R. C. Cohen, J. Stutz, “Preparing to measure the effects of the NOx SIP call—methods for ambient air monitoring of NO, NO2, NOy and individual NOz species,” J. Air. Waste Manage. 52, 542–562 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

Y. Matsumi, S. Murakami, M. Kono, K. Takahashi, M. Koike, Y. Kondo, “High-sensitivity instrument for measuring atmospheric NO2,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5485–5493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, T. L.

R. S. Gao, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, S. J. Ciciora, M. H. Proffitt, T. L. Thompson, R. J. McLaughlin, D. W. Fahey, “New photolysis system for NO2 measurements in the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20673–20681 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, R. C. Cohen, M. Martinez, H. Harder, W. H. Brune, E. J. Williams, J. M. Roberts, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Hall, R. E. Shetter, B. P. Wert, A. Fried, “Ozone production rates as a function of NOx abundances and HOx production rates in the Nashville urban plume,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000932 (2002).

D. A. Day, P. J. Wooldridge, M. B. Dillon, J. A. Thornton, R. C. Cohen, “A thermal dissociation laser-induced fluorescence instrument for in situ detection of NO2, peroxy nitrates, alkyl nitrates, and HNO3,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.129/2001JD000779 (2002).

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, R. C. Cohen, “Atmospheric NO2: in situ laser-induced fluorescence detection at parts per trillion mixing ratios,” Anal. Chem. 72, 528–539 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Thornton, “Nitrogen dioxide, peroxynitrates and the chemistry of tropospheric ozone production: new insights from in situ measurements,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, Calif., (2002).

Tonnesen, G. S.

G. S. Tonnesen, R. L. Dennis, “Analysis of radical propagation efficiency to assess ozone sensitivity to hydrocarbons and NOx. 1. Local indicators of instantaneous odd oxygen production sensitivity,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9213–9225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Voigt, S.

J. P. Burrows, A. Dehn, B. Deters, S. Himmelmann, A. Richter, S. Voigt, J. Orphal, “Atmospheric remote-sensing reference data from GOME: Part I. Temperature-dependent absorption cross-sections of NO2 in the 231–794 nm range,” J. Quan. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer 60, 1025–1031 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Voss, P. B.

K. K. Perkins, T. F. Hanisco, R. C. Cohen, L. C. Koch, R. M. Stimpfle, P. B. Voss, G. P. Bonne, E. J. Lanzendorf, J. G. Anderson, P. O. Wennberg, R. S. Gao, L. A. Del Negro, R. J. Salawitch, C. T. McElroy, E. J. Hintsa, M. Loewenstein, T. P. Bui, “The NOx-HNO3 system in the lower stratosphere: insights from in situ measurements and implications of the J(HNO3)-[OH] relationship,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 1521–1534 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wennberg, P. O.

K. K. Perkins, T. F. Hanisco, R. C. Cohen, L. C. Koch, R. M. Stimpfle, P. B. Voss, G. P. Bonne, E. J. Lanzendorf, J. G. Anderson, P. O. Wennberg, R. S. Gao, L. A. Del Negro, R. J. Salawitch, C. T. McElroy, E. J. Hintsa, M. Loewenstein, T. P. Bui, “The NOx-HNO3 system in the lower stratosphere: insights from in situ measurements and implications of the J(HNO3)-[OH] relationship,” J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 1521–1534 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wert, B. P.

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, R. C. Cohen, M. Martinez, H. Harder, W. H. Brune, E. J. Williams, J. M. Roberts, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Hall, R. E. Shetter, B. P. Wert, A. Fried, “Ozone production rates as a function of NOx abundances and HOx production rates in the Nashville urban plume,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000932 (2002).

Wharton, L.

R. E. Smalley, L. Wharton, D. H. Levy, “Fluorescence excitation spectrum of rotationally cooled NO2,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 4977–4989 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Williams, E. J.

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, R. C. Cohen, M. Martinez, H. Harder, W. H. Brune, E. J. Williams, J. M. Roberts, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Hall, R. E. Shetter, B. P. Wert, A. Fried, “Ozone production rates as a function of NOx abundances and HOx production rates in the Nashville urban plume,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000932 (2002).

W. A. McClenny, E. J. Williams, R. C. Cohen, J. Stutz, “Preparing to measure the effects of the NOx SIP call—methods for ambient air monitoring of NO, NO2, NOy and individual NOz species,” J. Air. Waste Manage. 52, 542–562 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Ryerson, E. J. Williams, F. C. Fehsenfeld, “An efficient photolysis system for fast-response NO2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26447–26461 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Woodbridge, E. L.

R. S. Gao, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, S. J. Ciciora, M. H. Proffitt, T. L. Thompson, R. J. McLaughlin, D. W. Fahey, “New photolysis system for NO2 measurements in the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20673–20681 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wooldridge, P. J.

D. A. Day, P. J. Wooldridge, M. B. Dillon, J. A. Thornton, R. C. Cohen, “A thermal dissociation laser-induced fluorescence instrument for in situ detection of NO2, peroxy nitrates, alkyl nitrates, and HNO3,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.129/2001JD000779 (2002).

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, R. C. Cohen, M. Martinez, H. Harder, W. H. Brune, E. J. Williams, J. M. Roberts, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Hall, R. E. Shetter, B. P. Wert, A. Fried, “Ozone production rates as a function of NOx abundances and HOx production rates in the Nashville urban plume,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000932 (2002).

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, R. C. Cohen, “Atmospheric NO2: in situ laser-induced fluorescence detection at parts per trillion mixing ratios,” Anal. Chem. 72, 528–539 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zahniser, M. S.

J. L. Jimenez, G. J. McRae, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, C. E. Kolb, “Remote sensing of NO and NO2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks using tunable diode lasers,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 34, 2380–2387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (2)

Y. Matsumi, S. Murakami, M. Kono, K. Takahashi, M. Koike, Y. Kondo, “High-sensitivity instrument for measuring atmospheric NO2,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5485–5493 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, R. C. Cohen, “Atmospheric NO2: in situ laser-induced fluorescence detection at parts per trillion mixing ratios,” Anal. Chem. 72, 528–539 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Atmos. Environ. (1)

J. Matsumoto, J. Hirokawa, H. Akimoto, Y. Kajii, “Direct measurement of NO2 in the marine atmosphere by laser-induced fluorescence technique,” Atmos. Environ. 35, 2803–2814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

J. C. D. Brand, K. J. Cross, A. R. Hoy, “Resonance fluorescence intensities and vibrational assignments in the A2B2 state of NO2,” Can. J. Phys. 60, 1081–1087 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. L. Jimenez, G. J. McRae, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, C. E. Kolb, “Remote sensing of NO and NO2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks using tunable diode lasers,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 34, 2380–2387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

J. Bradshaw, D. Davis, J. Crawford, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Muller, G. Gregory, G. Sachse, D. Blake, B. Heikes, H. Singh, J. Mastromarino, S. Sandholm, “Photofragmentation two-photon laser-induced fluorescence detection of NO2 and NO: comparison of measurements with model results based on airborne observations during PEM-Tropics A,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 471–474 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Air. Waste Manage. (1)

W. A. McClenny, E. J. Williams, R. C. Cohen, J. Stutz, “Preparing to measure the effects of the NOx SIP call—methods for ambient air monitoring of NO, NO2, NOy and individual NOz species,” J. Air. Waste Manage. 52, 542–562 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

R. E. Smalley, L. Wharton, D. H. Levy, “Fluorescence excitation spectrum of rotationally cooled NO2,” J. Chem. Phys. 63, 4977–4989 (1975).
[CrossRef]

A. Delon, R. Jost, M. Jacon, “Laser induced dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy of 107 vibronic levels of NO2 ranging from 12000 to 17600 cm-1,” J. Chem. Phys. 114, 331–344 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

D. A. Day, P. J. Wooldridge, M. B. Dillon, J. A. Thornton, R. C. Cohen, “A thermal dissociation laser-induced fluorescence instrument for in situ detection of NO2, peroxy nitrates, alkyl nitrates, and HNO3,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.129/2001JD000779 (2002).

J. A. Thornton, P. J. Wooldridge, R. C. Cohen, M. Martinez, H. Harder, W. H. Brune, E. J. Williams, J. M. Roberts, F. C. Fehsenfeld, S. R. Hall, R. E. Shetter, B. P. Wert, A. Fried, “Ozone production rates as a function of NOx abundances and HOx production rates in the Nashville urban plume,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.1029/2001JD000932 (2002).

T. B. Ryerson, E. J. Williams, F. C. Fehsenfeld, “An efficient photolysis system for fast-response NO2 measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 26447–26461 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Gao, E. R. Keim, E. L. Woodbridge, S. J. Ciciora, M. H. Proffitt, T. L. Thompson, R. J. McLaughlin, D. W. Fahey, “New photolysis system for NO2 measurements in the lower stratosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 20673–20681 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Tonnesen, R. L. Dennis, “Analysis of radical propagation efficiency to assess ozone sensitivity to hydrocarbons and NOx. 1. Local indicators of instantaneous odd oxygen production sensitivity,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9213–9225 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

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