Abstract

Concurrent measurements of sea-surface retroreflectance and associated wind velocity acquired with an airborne CO2 Doppler lidar are described. These observations provide further insight into thermal infrared optical phenomenology of air-sea interface processes, contribute to a greater understanding of radiation transfer between the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, and enable improved models of wind-driven ocean-surface stress applicable to other remote sensing applications. In particular, we present lidar measurements of azimuthally anisotropic reflectance behavior and discuss the implications to current understanding of sea-surface optical properties.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J.-M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Spectral reflectance of oceanic whitecaps in the visible and near infrared: aircraft measurements over open ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4445–4448 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. W. Salisbury, D. M. D’Aria, F. F. Sabins, “Thermal infrared remote sensing of crude oil slicks,” Remote Sens. Environ. 45, 225–231 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  35. R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, J. D. Spinhirne, D. L. Hlavka, “Aerosol layers over the Pacific Ocean: vertical distributions and optical properties as observed by multi-wavelength airborne lidars,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.129/2001JD001196 (2002).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  38. R. W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 1293–1316 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

2002

D. R. Cutten, J. Rothermel, M. A. Jarzembski, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, D. M. Tratt, V. Srivastava, “Radiometric calibration of an airborne CO2 pulsed Doppler lidar with a natural Earth surface,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3530–3537 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, J. D. Spinhirne, D. L. Hlavka, “Aerosol layers over the Pacific Ocean: vertical distributions and optical properties as observed by multi-wavelength airborne lidars,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.129/2001JD001196 (2002).

2001

J. R. V. Zaneveld, E. Boss, P. A. Hwang, “The influence of coherent waves on the remotely sensed reflectance,” Opt. Exp. 9, 260–266 (2001); http://www.opticsexpress.org .

J.-M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Spectral reflectance of oceanic whitecaps in the visible and near infrared: aircraft measurements over open ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4445–4448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. H. Yueh, R. West, F. K. Li, W.-Y. Tsai, R. Lay, “Dual-polarized Ku-band backscatter signatures of hurricane ocean winds,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 73–88 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. Flamant, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, J. Pelon, “Wind speed dependence of atmospheric boundary layer optical properties and ocean surface reflectance as observed by airborne backscatter lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25137–25158 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, W. H. Hunt, “Lidar In-space Technology Experiment measurements of sea surface directional reflectance and the link to surface wind speed,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5550–5559 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Rothermel, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, D. R. Cutten, S. C. Johnson, R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Remote sensing of multi-level wind fields with high-energy airborne scanning coherent Doppler lidar,” Opt. Exp. 2, 40–50 (1998); http://www.opticsexpress.org .

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, “Scanning-laser glint measurements of sea-surface slope statistics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4202–4213 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Kunkee, A. J. Gasiewski, “Simulation of passive microwave wind direction signatures over the ocean using an asymmetric-wave geometrical optics model,” Radio Sci. 32, 59–78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yueh, “Modeling of wind direction signals in polarimetric sea surface brightness temperatures,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1400–1418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. R. Carswell, S. C. Carson, R. E. McIntosh, F. K. Li, G. Neumann, D. J. McLaughlin, J. C. Wilkerson, P. G. Black, S. V. Nghiem, “Airborne scatterometers: investigating ocean backscatter under low- and high-winds conditions,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1835–1860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yueh, R. Kwok, F. K. Li, S. V. Nghiem, W. J. Wilson, J. A. Kong, “Polarimetric passive remote-sensing of ocean wind vectors,” Radio Sci. 29, 799–814 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. W. Salisbury, D. M. D’Aria, F. F. Sabins, “Thermal infrared remote sensing of crude oil slicks,” Remote Sens. Environ. 45, 225–231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. C. Newell, V. E. Zakharov, “Rough sea foam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1149–1151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Wentz, “Measurement of oceanic wind vector using satellite microwave radiometers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 960–972 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

1989

R. T. Menzies, R. M. Hardesty, “Coherent Doppler lidar for measurements of wind fields,” Proc. IEEE 77, 449–462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

I. L. Thomas, P. J. Minnett, “An introductory review of the measurement of ocean surface wind vectors with a satellite radar scatterometer,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 7, 309–323 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Haimbach, J. Wu, “Directional slope distributions of wind-disturbed water surface,” Radio Sci. 21, 73–79 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 1293–1316 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

S. P. Haimbach, J. Wu, “Field trials of an optical scanner for studying sea-surface fine structures,” IEEE J. Ocean Eng. OE-10, 451–453 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Amirault, C. A. DiMarzio, “Precision pointing using a dual-wedge scanner,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1302–1308 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Durden, J. F. Vesecky, “A physical radar cross-section model for a wind-driven sea with swell,” IEEE J. Ocean Eng. OE-10, 445–451 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

F. E. Hoge, W. B. Krabill, R. N. Swift, “The reflection of airborne UV laser pulses from the ocean,” Mar. Geod. 8, 313–344 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. Koepke, “Effective reflectance of oceanic whitecaps,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1816–1824 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

1977

M. R. Querry, W. E. Holland, R. C. Waring, L. M. Earls, M. D. Querry, “Relative reflectance and complex refractive index in the infrared for saline environmental waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 1425–1433 (1977).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Petri, “Laser radar reflectance of Chesapeake Bay waters as a function of wind speed,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-15, 87–96 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975

1972

J. Wu, “Sea-surface slope and equilibrium wind-wave spectra,” Phys. Fluids 13, 741–747 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968

D. E. Barrick, “Rough surface scattering based on the specular point theory,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-16, 449–454 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1954

Amirault, C. T.

Banta, R. M.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Rothermel, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, D. R. Cutten, S. C. Johnson, R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Remote sensing of multi-level wind fields with high-energy airborne scanning coherent Doppler lidar,” Opt. Exp. 2, 40–50 (1998); http://www.opticsexpress.org .

Barrick, D. E.

D. E. Barrick, “Rough surface scattering based on the specular point theory,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-16, 449–454 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Black, P. G.

J. R. Carswell, S. C. Carson, R. E. McIntosh, F. K. Li, G. Neumann, D. J. McLaughlin, J. C. Wilkerson, P. G. Black, S. V. Nghiem, “Airborne scatterometers: investigating ocean backscatter under low- and high-winds conditions,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1835–1860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, E. Boss, P. A. Hwang, “The influence of coherent waves on the remotely sensed reflectance,” Opt. Exp. 9, 260–266 (2001); http://www.opticsexpress.org .

Brown, J.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bufton, J. L.

Carson, S. C.

J. R. Carswell, S. C. Carson, R. E. McIntosh, F. K. Li, G. Neumann, D. J. McLaughlin, J. C. Wilkerson, P. G. Black, S. V. Nghiem, “Airborne scatterometers: investigating ocean backscatter under low- and high-winds conditions,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1835–1860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Carswell, J. R.

J. R. Carswell, S. C. Carson, R. E. McIntosh, F. K. Li, G. Neumann, D. J. McLaughlin, J. C. Wilkerson, P. G. Black, S. V. Nghiem, “Airborne scatterometers: investigating ocean backscatter under low- and high-winds conditions,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1835–1860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chazette, P.

C. Flamant, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, J. Pelon, “Wind speed dependence of atmospheric boundary layer optical properties and ocean surface reflectance as observed by airborne backscatter lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25137–25158 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Churnside, J. H.

Cox, C.

Cupp, R. E.

Cutten, D. R.

D. R. Cutten, J. Rothermel, M. A. Jarzembski, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, D. M. Tratt, V. Srivastava, “Radiometric calibration of an airborne CO2 pulsed Doppler lidar with a natural Earth surface,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3530–3537 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Rothermel, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, D. R. Cutten, S. C. Johnson, R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Remote sensing of multi-level wind fields with high-energy airborne scanning coherent Doppler lidar,” Opt. Exp. 2, 40–50 (1998); http://www.opticsexpress.org .

D’Aria, D. M.

J. W. Salisbury, D. M. D’Aria, F. F. Sabins, “Thermal infrared remote sensing of crude oil slicks,” Remote Sens. Environ. 45, 225–231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Deschamps, P.-Y.

J.-M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Spectral reflectance of oceanic whitecaps in the visible and near infrared: aircraft measurements over open ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4445–4448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DiMarzio, C. A.

Duntley, S. Q.

Durden, S. L.

S. L. Durden, J. F. Vesecky, “A physical radar cross-section model for a wind-driven sea with swell,” IEEE J. Ocean Eng. OE-10, 445–451 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Earls, L. M.

M. R. Querry, W. E. Holland, R. C. Waring, L. M. Earls, M. D. Querry, “Relative reflectance and complex refractive index in the infrared for saline environmental waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 1425–1433 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Feltz, W.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, C.

C. Flamant, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, J. Pelon, “Wind speed dependence of atmospheric boundary layer optical properties and ocean surface reflectance as observed by airborne backscatter lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25137–25158 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

J.-M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Spectral reflectance of oceanic whitecaps in the visible and near infrared: aircraft measurements over open ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4445–4448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gasiewski, A. J.

D. B. Kunkee, A. J. Gasiewski, “Simulation of passive microwave wind direction signatures over the ocean using an asymmetric-wave geometrical optics model,” Radio Sci. 32, 59–78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guinn, J. A.

Haimbach, S. P.

S. P. Haimbach, J. Wu, “Directional slope distributions of wind-disturbed water surface,” Radio Sci. 21, 73–79 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Haimbach, J. Wu, “Field trials of an optical scanner for studying sea-surface fine structures,” IEEE J. Ocean Eng. OE-10, 451–453 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hardesty, R. M.

D. R. Cutten, J. Rothermel, M. A. Jarzembski, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, D. M. Tratt, V. Srivastava, “Radiometric calibration of an airborne CO2 pulsed Doppler lidar with a natural Earth surface,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3530–3537 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Rothermel, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, D. R. Cutten, S. C. Johnson, R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Remote sensing of multi-level wind fields with high-energy airborne scanning coherent Doppler lidar,” Opt. Exp. 2, 40–50 (1998); http://www.opticsexpress.org .

R. T. Menzies, R. M. Hardesty, “Coherent Doppler lidar for measurements of wind fields,” Proc. IEEE 77, 449–462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hlavka, D. L.

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, J. D. Spinhirne, D. L. Hlavka, “Aerosol layers over the Pacific Ocean: vertical distributions and optical properties as observed by multi-wavelength airborne lidars,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.129/2001JD001196 (2002).

Hoge, F. E.

F. E. Hoge, W. B. Krabill, R. N. Swift, “The reflection of airborne UV laser pulses from the ocean,” Mar. Geod. 8, 313–344 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Bufton, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne measurements of laser backscatter from the ocean surface,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2603–2618 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holland, W. E.

M. R. Querry, W. E. Holland, R. C. Waring, L. M. Earls, M. D. Querry, “Relative reflectance and complex refractive index in the infrared for saline environmental waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 1425–1433 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Howell, H. B.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Howell, J. N.

D. R. Cutten, J. Rothermel, M. A. Jarzembski, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, D. M. Tratt, V. Srivastava, “Radiometric calibration of an airborne CO2 pulsed Doppler lidar with a natural Earth surface,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3530–3537 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Rothermel, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, D. R. Cutten, S. C. Johnson, R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Remote sensing of multi-level wind fields with high-energy airborne scanning coherent Doppler lidar,” Opt. Exp. 2, 40–50 (1998); http://www.opticsexpress.org .

Hunt, W. H.

Hwang, P. A.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, E. Boss, P. A. Hwang, “The influence of coherent waves on the remotely sensed reflectance,” Opt. Exp. 9, 260–266 (2001); http://www.opticsexpress.org .

Jarzembski, M. A.

Johnson, S. C.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Rothermel, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, D. R. Cutten, S. C. Johnson, R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Remote sensing of multi-level wind fields with high-energy airborne scanning coherent Doppler lidar,” Opt. Exp. 2, 40–50 (1998); http://www.opticsexpress.org .

Kattawar, G. W.

Knuteson, R. O.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koepke, P.

Kong, J. A.

S. H. Yueh, R. Kwok, F. K. Li, S. V. Nghiem, W. J. Wilson, J. A. Kong, “Polarimetric passive remote-sensing of ocean wind vectors,” Radio Sci. 29, 799–814 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krabill, W. B.

F. E. Hoge, W. B. Krabill, R. N. Swift, “The reflection of airborne UV laser pulses from the ocean,” Mar. Geod. 8, 313–344 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kunkee, D. B.

D. B. Kunkee, A. J. Gasiewski, “Simulation of passive microwave wind direction signatures over the ocean using an asymmetric-wave geometrical optics model,” Radio Sci. 32, 59–78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, R.

S. H. Yueh, R. Kwok, F. K. Li, S. V. Nghiem, W. J. Wilson, J. A. Kong, “Polarimetric passive remote-sensing of ocean wind vectors,” Radio Sci. 29, 799–814 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lay, R.

S. H. Yueh, R. West, F. K. Li, W.-Y. Tsai, R. Lay, “Dual-polarized Ku-band backscatter signatures of hurricane ocean winds,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 73–88 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, F. K.

S. H. Yueh, R. West, F. K. Li, W.-Y. Tsai, R. Lay, “Dual-polarized Ku-band backscatter signatures of hurricane ocean winds,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 73–88 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yueh, R. Kwok, F. K. Li, S. V. Nghiem, W. J. Wilson, J. A. Kong, “Polarimetric passive remote-sensing of ocean wind vectors,” Radio Sci. 29, 799–814 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Carswell, S. C. Carson, R. E. McIntosh, F. K. Li, G. Neumann, D. J. McLaughlin, J. C. Wilkerson, P. G. Black, S. V. Nghiem, “Airborne scatterometers: investigating ocean backscatter under low- and high-winds conditions,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1835–1860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, R. E.

J. R. Carswell, S. C. Carson, R. E. McIntosh, F. K. Li, G. Neumann, D. J. McLaughlin, J. C. Wilkerson, P. G. Black, S. V. Nghiem, “Airborne scatterometers: investigating ocean backscatter under low- and high-winds conditions,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1835–1860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McKeown, W.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McLaughlin, D. J.

J. R. Carswell, S. C. Carson, R. E. McIntosh, F. K. Li, G. Neumann, D. J. McLaughlin, J. C. Wilkerson, P. G. Black, S. V. Nghiem, “Airborne scatterometers: investigating ocean backscatter under low- and high-winds conditions,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1835–1860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, W. P.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Menzies, R. T.

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, J. D. Spinhirne, D. L. Hlavka, “Aerosol layers over the Pacific Ocean: vertical distributions and optical properties as observed by multi-wavelength airborne lidars,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.129/2001JD001196 (2002).

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Rothermel, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, D. R. Cutten, S. C. Johnson, R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Remote sensing of multi-level wind fields with high-energy airborne scanning coherent Doppler lidar,” Opt. Exp. 2, 40–50 (1998); http://www.opticsexpress.org .

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, W. H. Hunt, “Lidar In-space Technology Experiment measurements of sea surface directional reflectance and the link to surface wind speed,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5550–5559 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, R. M. Hardesty, “Coherent Doppler lidar for measurements of wind fields,” Proc. IEEE 77, 449–462 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Minnett, P.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Minnett, P. J.

I. L. Thomas, P. J. Minnett, “An introductory review of the measurement of ocean surface wind vectors with a satellite radar scatterometer,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 7, 309–323 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

R. W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 1293–1316 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Moore, K. D.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Munk, W.

Nalli, N. R.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, G.

J. R. Carswell, S. C. Carson, R. E. McIntosh, F. K. Li, G. Neumann, D. J. McLaughlin, J. C. Wilkerson, P. G. Black, S. V. Nghiem, “Airborne scatterometers: investigating ocean backscatter under low- and high-winds conditions,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1835–1860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Newell, A. C.

A. C. Newell, V. E. Zakharov, “Rough sea foam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1149–1151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nghiem, S. V.

J. R. Carswell, S. C. Carson, R. E. McIntosh, F. K. Li, G. Neumann, D. J. McLaughlin, J. C. Wilkerson, P. G. Black, S. V. Nghiem, “Airborne scatterometers: investigating ocean backscatter under low- and high-winds conditions,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1835–1860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yueh, R. Kwok, F. K. Li, S. V. Nghiem, W. J. Wilson, J. A. Kong, “Polarimetric passive remote-sensing of ocean wind vectors,” Radio Sci. 29, 799–814 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nicolas, J.-M.

J.-M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Spectral reflectance of oceanic whitecaps in the visible and near infrared: aircraft measurements over open ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4445–4448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, L. D.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Rothermel, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, D. R. Cutten, S. C. Johnson, R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Remote sensing of multi-level wind fields with high-energy airborne scanning coherent Doppler lidar,” Opt. Exp. 2, 40–50 (1998); http://www.opticsexpress.org .

Pelon, J.

C. Flamant, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, J. Pelon, “Wind speed dependence of atmospheric boundary layer optical properties and ocean surface reflectance as observed by airborne backscatter lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25137–25158 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petri, K. J.

K. J. Petri, “Laser radar reflectance of Chesapeake Bay waters as a function of wind speed,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-15, 87–96 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Plass, G. N.

Post, M. J.

Preisendorfer, R. W.

R. W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 1293–1316 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. D.

M. R. Querry, W. E. Holland, R. C. Waring, L. M. Earls, M. D. Querry, “Relative reflectance and complex refractive index in the infrared for saline environmental waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 1425–1433 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

M. R. Querry, W. E. Holland, R. C. Waring, L. M. Earls, M. D. Querry, “Relative reflectance and complex refractive index in the infrared for saline environmental waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 1425–1433 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Revercomb, H. E.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rothermel, J.

D. R. Cutten, J. Rothermel, M. A. Jarzembski, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, D. M. Tratt, V. Srivastava, “Radiometric calibration of an airborne CO2 pulsed Doppler lidar with a natural Earth surface,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3530–3537 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Rothermel, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, D. R. Cutten, S. C. Johnson, R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Remote sensing of multi-level wind fields with high-energy airborne scanning coherent Doppler lidar,” Opt. Exp. 2, 40–50 (1998); http://www.opticsexpress.org .

Sabins, F. F.

J. W. Salisbury, D. M. D’Aria, F. F. Sabins, “Thermal infrared remote sensing of crude oil slicks,” Remote Sens. Environ. 45, 225–231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Salisbury, J. W.

J. W. Salisbury, D. M. D’Aria, F. F. Sabins, “Thermal infrared remote sensing of crude oil slicks,” Remote Sens. Environ. 45, 225–231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schwindling, M.

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, J. A.

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Spinhirne, J. D.

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, J. D. Spinhirne, D. L. Hlavka, “Aerosol layers over the Pacific Ocean: vertical distributions and optical properties as observed by multi-wavelength airborne lidars,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.129/2001JD001196 (2002).

Srivastava, V.

Swift, R. N.

F. E. Hoge, W. B. Krabill, R. N. Swift, “The reflection of airborne UV laser pulses from the ocean,” Mar. Geod. 8, 313–344 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Bufton, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne measurements of laser backscatter from the ocean surface,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2603–2618 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, I. L.

I. L. Thomas, P. J. Minnett, “An introductory review of the measurement of ocean surface wind vectors with a satellite radar scatterometer,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 7, 309–323 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tratt, D. M.

D. R. Cutten, J. Rothermel, M. A. Jarzembski, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, D. M. Tratt, V. Srivastava, “Radiometric calibration of an airborne CO2 pulsed Doppler lidar with a natural Earth surface,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3530–3537 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, J. D. Spinhirne, D. L. Hlavka, “Aerosol layers over the Pacific Ocean: vertical distributions and optical properties as observed by multi-wavelength airborne lidars,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.129/2001JD001196 (2002).

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, W. H. Hunt, “Lidar In-space Technology Experiment measurements of sea surface directional reflectance and the link to surface wind speed,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5550–5559 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Rothermel, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, D. R. Cutten, S. C. Johnson, R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Remote sensing of multi-level wind fields with high-energy airborne scanning coherent Doppler lidar,” Opt. Exp. 2, 40–50 (1998); http://www.opticsexpress.org .

Trouillet, V.

C. Flamant, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, J. Pelon, “Wind speed dependence of atmospheric boundary layer optical properties and ocean surface reflectance as observed by airborne backscatter lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25137–25158 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, W.-Y.

S. H. Yueh, R. West, F. K. Li, W.-Y. Tsai, R. Lay, “Dual-polarized Ku-band backscatter signatures of hurricane ocean winds,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 73–88 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vesecky, J. F.

S. L. Durden, J. F. Vesecky, “A physical radar cross-section model for a wind-driven sea with swell,” IEEE J. Ocean Eng. OE-10, 445–451 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Waring, R. C.

M. R. Querry, W. E. Holland, R. C. Waring, L. M. Earls, M. D. Querry, “Relative reflectance and complex refractive index in the infrared for saline environmental waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 1425–1433 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Wentz, F. J.

F. J. Wentz, “Measurement of oceanic wind vector using satellite microwave radiometers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 960–972 (1992).
[CrossRef]

West, R.

S. H. Yueh, R. West, F. K. Li, W.-Y. Tsai, R. Lay, “Dual-polarized Ku-band backscatter signatures of hurricane ocean winds,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 73–88 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wilkerson, J. C.

J. R. Carswell, S. C. Carson, R. E. McIntosh, F. K. Li, G. Neumann, D. J. McLaughlin, J. C. Wilkerson, P. G. Black, S. V. Nghiem, “Airborne scatterometers: investigating ocean backscatter under low- and high-winds conditions,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1835–1860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, W. J.

S. H. Yueh, R. Kwok, F. K. Li, S. V. Nghiem, W. J. Wilson, J. A. Kong, “Polarimetric passive remote-sensing of ocean wind vectors,” Radio Sci. 29, 799–814 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

S. P. Haimbach, J. Wu, “Directional slope distributions of wind-disturbed water surface,” Radio Sci. 21, 73–79 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Haimbach, J. Wu, “Field trials of an optical scanner for studying sea-surface fine structures,” IEEE J. Ocean Eng. OE-10, 451–453 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, “Sea-surface slope and equilibrium wind-wave spectra,” Phys. Fluids 13, 741–747 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Yueh, S. H.

S. H. Yueh, R. West, F. K. Li, W.-Y. Tsai, R. Lay, “Dual-polarized Ku-band backscatter signatures of hurricane ocean winds,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 73–88 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yueh, “Modeling of wind direction signals in polarimetric sea surface brightness temperatures,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1400–1418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yueh, R. Kwok, F. K. Li, S. V. Nghiem, W. J. Wilson, J. A. Kong, “Polarimetric passive remote-sensing of ocean wind vectors,” Radio Sci. 29, 799–814 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zakharov, V. E.

A. C. Newell, V. E. Zakharov, “Rough sea foam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1149–1151 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, E. Boss, P. A. Hwang, “The influence of coherent waves on the remotely sensed reflectance,” Opt. Exp. 9, 260–266 (2001); http://www.opticsexpress.org .

Appl. Opt.

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

J. Rothermel, D. R. Cutten, R. M. Hardesty, R. T. Menzies, J. N. Howell, S. C. Johnson, D. M. Tratt, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, “The Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor, MACAWS,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 581–599 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean—implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

J.-M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Spectral reflectance of oceanic whitecaps in the visible and near infrared: aircraft measurements over open ocean,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4445–4448 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Ocean Eng.

S. L. Durden, J. F. Vesecky, “A physical radar cross-section model for a wind-driven sea with swell,” IEEE J. Ocean Eng. OE-10, 445–451 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Haimbach, J. Wu, “Field trials of an optical scanner for studying sea-surface fine structures,” IEEE J. Ocean Eng. OE-10, 451–453 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

D. E. Barrick, “Rough surface scattering based on the specular point theory,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-16, 449–454 (1968).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron.

K. J. Petri, “Laser radar reflectance of Chesapeake Bay waters as a function of wind speed,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-15, 87–96 (1977).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

S. H. Yueh, R. West, F. K. Li, W.-Y. Tsai, R. Lay, “Dual-polarized Ku-band backscatter signatures of hurricane ocean winds,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38, 73–88 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Wentz, “Measurement of oceanic wind vector using satellite microwave radiometers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 960–972 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yueh, “Modeling of wind direction signals in polarimetric sea surface brightness temperatures,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 1400–1418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens.

I. L. Thomas, P. J. Minnett, “An introductory review of the measurement of ocean surface wind vectors with a satellite radar scatterometer,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 7, 309–323 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.

K. D. Moore, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps: instrumentation, calibration, and performance in coastal waters,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 496–509 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

M. R. Querry, W. E. Holland, R. C. Waring, L. M. Earls, M. D. Querry, “Relative reflectance and complex refractive index in the infrared for saline environmental waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 1425–1433 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. Flamant, V. Trouillet, P. Chazette, J. Pelon, “Wind speed dependence of atmospheric boundary layer optical properties and ocean surface reflectance as observed by airborne backscatter lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 25137–25158 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Frouin, M. Schwindling, P.-Y. Deschamps, “Spectral reflectance of sea foam in the visible and near-infrared: in situ measurements and remote sensing implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 14361–14371 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, J. D. Spinhirne, D. L. Hlavka, “Aerosol layers over the Pacific Ocean: vertical distributions and optical properties as observed by multi-wavelength airborne lidars,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10.129/2001JD001196 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. Oceanogr.

R. W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 1293–1316 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Geod.

F. E. Hoge, W. B. Krabill, R. N. Swift, “The reflection of airborne UV laser pulses from the ocean,” Mar. Geod. 8, 313–344 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Exp.

J. Rothermel, L. D. Olivier, R. M. Banta, R. M. Hardesty, J. N. Howell, D. R. Cutten, S. C. Johnson, R. T. Menzies, D. M. Tratt, “Remote sensing of multi-level wind fields with high-energy airborne scanning coherent Doppler lidar,” Opt. Exp. 2, 40–50 (1998); http://www.opticsexpress.org .

J. R. V. Zaneveld, E. Boss, P. A. Hwang, “The influence of coherent waves on the remotely sensed reflectance,” Opt. Exp. 9, 260–266 (2001); http://www.opticsexpress.org .

Phys. Fluids

J. Wu, “Sea-surface slope and equilibrium wind-wave spectra,” Phys. Fluids 13, 741–747 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Estimated dependence of lidar beam surface footprint area on flight altitude and nadir angle. The assumed beam diameter and divergence half-angle are 25 cm and 0.3 mrad, respectively, and the contours are labeled in units of square meters. The bold vertical bars denote the experimental conditions prevailing for the 1996 and 1998 case studies.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of aircraft flight track. The smallest radius turn represents the steepest aircraft bank angle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modeled 10.6-µm sea-surface retroreflectance as a function of nadir angle for selected wind speeds. The abrupt change in gradient marks the transition between foam-dominated and capillary-wave-dominated reflectivity regimes. Along-wind viewing is assumed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diagrammatic representation of the velocity components associated with wind-driven sea surfaces where (a) the lidar beam viewing downwind with surface contamination of near-surface wind velocity results in negative frequency bias and (b) the lidar beam viewing upwind with surface contamination of near-surface wind velocity results in positive frequency bias.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Azimuthal dependence of the sea-surface retroreflectance (with U u = 18-m s-1 model results overlain) and MBL LOS velocity retrievals in the horizontal plane (including VAD for the parameters indicated) for case study 1. The dashed line at θ = 30° denotes the alternative model output for slope variances corresponding to a slick surface.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

As for Fig. 5, except for case study 2 and U u = 7 m s-1. Dashed curves denote alternative model output for U u = 6 m s-1 (θ = 27°) and slope variances corresponding to a slick surface (θ = 22°).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Azimuthal dependence of the sea-surface retroreflectance and MBL LOS velocity retrievals in the horizontal plane at a nadir-viewing angle of 37° from case study 2. Two consecutive azimuth cycles are shown, clearly illustrating a consistent upwind/downwind polar asymmetrical retroreflectance signature.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Modeled sea-surface retroreflectance as a function of nadir angle for (a) case study 1, U 12 = 18 m s-1, and (b) case study 2, U 12 = 7 m s-1. The upper and lower bifurcate curves denote the along-wind and crosswind capillary-slope variance limits, respectively. The bold vertical bars denote the range of R(θ, ϕ) observed in the field data at each of the selected nadir-viewing angles.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Lidar System Primary Operating Characteristics

Equations (4)

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Rθ, ϕ=ρ1-Fsec4 θ4πσuσcexp-tan2 θ2σ2ϕ+FRF cos θπ,
σ2ϕ=σu2σc2σc2 cos2 ϕ+σu2 sin2 ϕ,
σu2=3.16×10-3U12, σc2=0.003+1.92×10-3U12,
σu2=0.005+0.78×10-3U12; σc2=0.003+0.84×10-3U12.

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