Abstract

The measurement of the strength of atmospheric optical turbulence by use of a modified generalized SCIDAR (scintillation detection and ranging) inversion technique is outlined and demonstrated. This new method for normalizing and inverting scintillation covariances incorporates the geometry specific to generalized SCIDAR. Examples of profiles from two astronomical observation sites are presented.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Tokovinin, M. le Louan, E. Viard, “Optimized modal tomography in AO,” Astron. Astrophys. 378, 710–721 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Berkefeld, A. Glindemann, S. Hippler, “Possibilities and performance of multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” presented at AAS Meeting 194 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, D.C., 1999).
  3. J. Vernin, F. Roddier, “Experimental determination of two-dimensional spatiotemporal power spectra of stellar light scintillation: evidence for a multilayer structure of the air turbulence in the upper troposphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 270–273 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, J. Vernin, “Folding of the vertical atmospheric turbulence profile using an optical technique of movable observing plane,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing III, W. A. Flood, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. SPIE2222, 682–692 (1994).
  5. R. Avila, J. Vernin, E. Masciadri, “Whole atmospheric-turbulence profiling with generalized scidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7898–7905 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. A. Kluckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. A. Adcock, I. Munro, J. C. Dainty, “Profiling of atmospheric turbulence strength and velocity using a generalised scidar technique,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 130, 141–155 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Avila, J. Vernin, L. J. Sanchez, “Atmospheric turbulence and wind profiles monitoring with generalized scidar,” Astron. Astrophys. 369, 364–372 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. http://www.mpia-hd.mpg.de/AO/ATMOSPHERE/SCIDAR/SCIDARIntro.html
  9. F. Roddier, “Effects of atmospheric turbulence in optics astronomy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1981), Vol. 19, pp. 281–376.
  10. R. A. Johnston, R. G. Lane, “Estimating turbulence profiles in the atmosphere,” in Image Reconstruction from Incomplete Data, M. A. Fiddy, R. P. Millane, eds., Proc. SPIE4123, 35–46 (2000).
  11. G. A. Tyler, K. E. Steinhoff, “Scidar: measurement characteristics and noise amplification properties,” tOSC Report TR-755R (Optical Sciences Co., Placentia, Calif., 1987).
  12. R. A. Johnston, T. J. Connolly, R. G. Lane, “An improved method for deconvolving a positive image,” Opt. Commun. 181, 267–278 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. A. Johnston, R. G. Lane, “Results from Mount John SCIDAR experiments,” in Proceedings of Image and Vision Computing New Zealand, IVCNZ’99, D. Pairman, H. North, eds. (University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, 1999), pp. 271–276.

2001

A. Tokovinin, M. le Louan, E. Viard, “Optimized modal tomography in AO,” Astron. Astrophys. 378, 710–721 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, J. Vernin, L. J. Sanchez, “Atmospheric turbulence and wind profiles monitoring with generalized scidar,” Astron. Astrophys. 369, 364–372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. A. Johnston, T. J. Connolly, R. G. Lane, “An improved method for deconvolving a positive image,” Opt. Commun. 181, 267–278 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

V. A. Kluckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. A. Adcock, I. Munro, J. C. Dainty, “Profiling of atmospheric turbulence strength and velocity using a generalised scidar technique,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 130, 141–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1973

Adcock, M. A.

V. A. Kluckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. A. Adcock, I. Munro, J. C. Dainty, “Profiling of atmospheric turbulence strength and velocity using a generalised scidar technique,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 130, 141–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Avila, R.

R. Avila, J. Vernin, L. J. Sanchez, “Atmospheric turbulence and wind profiles monitoring with generalized scidar,” Astron. Astrophys. 369, 364–372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, J. Vernin, E. Masciadri, “Whole atmospheric-turbulence profiling with generalized scidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7898–7905 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Berkefeld, T.

T. Berkefeld, A. Glindemann, S. Hippler, “Possibilities and performance of multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” presented at AAS Meeting 194 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, D.C., 1999).

Connolly, T. J.

R. A. Johnston, T. J. Connolly, R. G. Lane, “An improved method for deconvolving a positive image,” Opt. Commun. 181, 267–278 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, J. C.

V. A. Kluckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. A. Adcock, I. Munro, J. C. Dainty, “Profiling of atmospheric turbulence strength and velocity using a generalised scidar technique,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 130, 141–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, A.

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, J. Vernin, “Folding of the vertical atmospheric turbulence profile using an optical technique of movable observing plane,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing III, W. A. Flood, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. SPIE2222, 682–692 (1994).

Glindemann, A.

T. Berkefeld, A. Glindemann, S. Hippler, “Possibilities and performance of multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” presented at AAS Meeting 194 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, D.C., 1999).

Hippler, S.

T. Berkefeld, A. Glindemann, S. Hippler, “Possibilities and performance of multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” presented at AAS Meeting 194 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, D.C., 1999).

Johnston, R. A.

R. A. Johnston, T. J. Connolly, R. G. Lane, “An improved method for deconvolving a positive image,” Opt. Commun. 181, 267–278 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Johnston, R. G. Lane, “Estimating turbulence profiles in the atmosphere,” in Image Reconstruction from Incomplete Data, M. A. Fiddy, R. P. Millane, eds., Proc. SPIE4123, 35–46 (2000).

R. A. Johnston, R. G. Lane, “Results from Mount John SCIDAR experiments,” in Proceedings of Image and Vision Computing New Zealand, IVCNZ’99, D. Pairman, H. North, eds. (University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, 1999), pp. 271–276.

Kluckers, V. A.

V. A. Kluckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. A. Adcock, I. Munro, J. C. Dainty, “Profiling of atmospheric turbulence strength and velocity using a generalised scidar technique,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 130, 141–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lane, R. G.

R. A. Johnston, T. J. Connolly, R. G. Lane, “An improved method for deconvolving a positive image,” Opt. Commun. 181, 267–278 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Johnston, R. G. Lane, “Estimating turbulence profiles in the atmosphere,” in Image Reconstruction from Incomplete Data, M. A. Fiddy, R. P. Millane, eds., Proc. SPIE4123, 35–46 (2000).

R. A. Johnston, R. G. Lane, “Results from Mount John SCIDAR experiments,” in Proceedings of Image and Vision Computing New Zealand, IVCNZ’99, D. Pairman, H. North, eds. (University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, 1999), pp. 271–276.

le Louan, M.

A. Tokovinin, M. le Louan, E. Viard, “Optimized modal tomography in AO,” Astron. Astrophys. 378, 710–721 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Masciadri, E.

Munro, I.

V. A. Kluckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. A. Adcock, I. Munro, J. C. Dainty, “Profiling of atmospheric turbulence strength and velocity using a generalised scidar technique,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 130, 141–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nicholls, T. W.

V. A. Kluckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. A. Adcock, I. Munro, J. C. Dainty, “Profiling of atmospheric turbulence strength and velocity using a generalised scidar technique,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 130, 141–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

Sanchez, L. J.

R. Avila, J. Vernin, L. J. Sanchez, “Atmospheric turbulence and wind profiles monitoring with generalized scidar,” Astron. Astrophys. 369, 364–372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Steinhoff, K. E.

G. A. Tyler, K. E. Steinhoff, “Scidar: measurement characteristics and noise amplification properties,” tOSC Report TR-755R (Optical Sciences Co., Placentia, Calif., 1987).

Tallon, M.

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, J. Vernin, “Folding of the vertical atmospheric turbulence profile using an optical technique of movable observing plane,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing III, W. A. Flood, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. SPIE2222, 682–692 (1994).

Tokovinin, A.

A. Tokovinin, M. le Louan, E. Viard, “Optimized modal tomography in AO,” Astron. Astrophys. 378, 710–721 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, G. A.

G. A. Tyler, K. E. Steinhoff, “Scidar: measurement characteristics and noise amplification properties,” tOSC Report TR-755R (Optical Sciences Co., Placentia, Calif., 1987).

Vernin, J.

R. Avila, J. Vernin, L. J. Sanchez, “Atmospheric turbulence and wind profiles monitoring with generalized scidar,” Astron. Astrophys. 369, 364–372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Avila, J. Vernin, E. Masciadri, “Whole atmospheric-turbulence profiling with generalized scidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7898–7905 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Vernin, F. Roddier, “Experimental determination of two-dimensional spatiotemporal power spectra of stellar light scintillation: evidence for a multilayer structure of the air turbulence in the upper troposphere,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 270–273 (1973).
[CrossRef]

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, J. Vernin, “Folding of the vertical atmospheric turbulence profile using an optical technique of movable observing plane,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing III, W. A. Flood, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. SPIE2222, 682–692 (1994).

Viard, E.

A. Tokovinin, M. le Louan, E. Viard, “Optimized modal tomography in AO,” Astron. Astrophys. 378, 710–721 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wooder, N. J.

V. A. Kluckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. A. Adcock, I. Munro, J. C. Dainty, “Profiling of atmospheric turbulence strength and velocity using a generalised scidar technique,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 130, 141–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys.

R. Avila, J. Vernin, L. J. Sanchez, “Atmospheric turbulence and wind profiles monitoring with generalized scidar,” Astron. Astrophys. 369, 364–372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Tokovinin, M. le Louan, E. Viard, “Optimized modal tomography in AO,” Astron. Astrophys. 378, 710–721 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser.

V. A. Kluckers, N. J. Wooder, T. W. Nicholls, M. A. Adcock, I. Munro, J. C. Dainty, “Profiling of atmospheric turbulence strength and velocity using a generalised scidar technique,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 130, 141–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Commun.

R. A. Johnston, T. J. Connolly, R. G. Lane, “An improved method for deconvolving a positive image,” Opt. Commun. 181, 267–278 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. A. Johnston, R. G. Lane, “Results from Mount John SCIDAR experiments,” in Proceedings of Image and Vision Computing New Zealand, IVCNZ’99, D. Pairman, H. North, eds. (University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, 1999), pp. 271–276.

T. Berkefeld, A. Glindemann, S. Hippler, “Possibilities and performance of multi-conjugate adaptive optics,” presented at AAS Meeting 194 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, D.C., 1999).

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, J. Vernin, “Folding of the vertical atmospheric turbulence profile using an optical technique of movable observing plane,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing III, W. A. Flood, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. SPIE2222, 682–692 (1994).

http://www.mpia-hd.mpg.de/AO/ATMOSPHERE/SCIDAR/SCIDARIntro.html

F. Roddier, “Effects of atmospheric turbulence in optics astronomy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1981), Vol. 19, pp. 281–376.

R. A. Johnston, R. G. Lane, “Estimating turbulence profiles in the atmosphere,” in Image Reconstruction from Incomplete Data, M. A. Fiddy, R. P. Millane, eds., Proc. SPIE4123, 35–46 (2000).

G. A. Tyler, K. E. Steinhoff, “Scidar: measurement characteristics and noise amplification properties,” tOSC Report TR-755R (Optical Sciences Co., Placentia, Calif., 1987).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SCIDAR geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Generalized SCIDAR geometry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalization functions for (a) θd = 0, (b) θd > 2D, (c) θd < 2D.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental Setup.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the SCIDAR optical system. When the system is operated in the conventional SCIDAR mode, field lens L2 is selected to produce an image of the desired size at the CCD, fixing l 2′ for operation in both generalized and conventional SCIDAR modes. Operation in the generalized SCIDAR mode simply requires a change of field lens. The location of the virtual measurement plane is then given by use of the thin-lens equation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scintillation covariances from (a) Mount John and (b) Calar Alto.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Consecutive C n 2(h) profiles from (a) Mount John and (b) Calar Alto.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fit (dotted curve) to data (solid curve) for sample profiles from (a) Mount John and (b) Calar Alto.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 r 0 Estimates in Centimeters

Equations (13)

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Sρ=Tρ, hCn2h+nρ,
r0=0.42k2secz  Cn2hdh-3/5,
CBρ, θ=h1+α21+α2 CSρ+α1+α2×CSρ-θh+d+CSρ+θh+d.
WSf=0.039k2f-11/30CN2hsinπλhf2dh.
yρ=mρ+sρ+αmρ+θd+sρ+θd.
CBρ=yρ * yρ-yρ * yρ =yρ * yρ-mρ+αmρ+θd * mρ+αmρ+θd=1+α2sρ * sρ+αsρ * sρ+θd+sρ * sρ-θd,
1+α2mρ * mρ+αmρ * mρ+θd+mρ * mρ-θd.
1+α2α δρ+δρ-θd+δρ+θd
Sρ=Tρ, hCn2h+nρ,
Tρ, h=Tρ, hmρ * mρ,
E=Tρ, hCn2h-Sρ2.
S-Ŝ=S-Ŝ2S2.
Cn2hP=Ĉn2h+βW.

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