Abstract

Nondestructive methods were used to evaluate marketed fiber-optic endoscopes (intended for simple viewing) for fluorescence recording. Our application is for optical recording from the heart. For one angioscope, we measured a focal length of 0.33 mm, a field of view of 45°, an aperture of 0.26 mm, and an efficiency of 43%. We calculated that the angioscope would give a signal-to-noise ratio of 1.0 for a cardiac action potential, if its field of view were divided into a nine-pixel array (for safe continuous illumination). Our methods are useful in designing and evaluating fluorescence fiber-optic systems with superior signal quality and spatial resolution.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. B. Cohen, S. Lesher, “Optical monitoring of membrane potential: methods of multisite optical measurement,” Soc. Gen. Physiol. Ser. 40, 71–99 (1986).
    [PubMed]
  2. B.-R. Choi, G. Salama, “Simultaneous maps of optical action potentials and calcium transients in guinea-pig hearts: mechanisms underlying concordant alterans,” J. Physiol. (London) 529, 171–188 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. A. Bowmaster, C. C. Davis, V. Krauthamer, “Excitation and detection of action potential induced fluorescence changes through a single monomode optical fiber,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1091, 9–14 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. Krauthamer, H. J. Bryant, C. C. Davis, T. W. Athey, “Action potential-induced fluorescence changes resolved with an optical fiber carrying excitation light,” J. Fluoresc. 1, 207–213 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. V. Krauthamer, “Apparatus for fluorescent excitation and detection from potentiometric dyes with a single-ended optical fiber,” U.S. patent5,239,998 (31August1993).
  6. V. Krauthamer, J. L. Jones, “Calcium dynamics in cultured heart cells exposed to high-voltage electric shocks,” Life Sci. 60, 1977–1985 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Ntzachristos, B. Chance, “Probing physiology and molecular function using optical imaging: applications to breast cancer,” Breast Can. Res. 3, 41–46 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. A. Combs, R. S. Balaban, “Direct imaging of dehydrogenase activity within living cells using enzyme-dependent fluorescence recovery after photobleaching,” Biophys. J. 80, 2018–2028 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Bassen, V. Krauthamer, “Apparatus and method of in situ detection of areas of cardiac electrical activity,” U.S. patent5,678,550 (21October1997).
  10. E. Fluhler, V. G. Burnaham, L. M. Loew, “Spectra, membrane binding, and potentiometric responses of new charge shift probes,” Biochemistry 24, 5749–5755 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. H. Hopkins, “Physics of the fiberoptic endoscope,” in Endoscopy, G. Berci, ed. (Appleton-Century-Croft, New York, 1976), pp. 27–63.
  12. V. Krauthamer, C. C. Davis, E.-T. Gan, “Two-point electrical-fluorescence recording from myocardium with optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 41, 1191–1193 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

V. Ntzachristos, B. Chance, “Probing physiology and molecular function using optical imaging: applications to breast cancer,” Breast Can. Res. 3, 41–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Combs, R. S. Balaban, “Direct imaging of dehydrogenase activity within living cells using enzyme-dependent fluorescence recovery after photobleaching,” Biophys. J. 80, 2018–2028 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

B.-R. Choi, G. Salama, “Simultaneous maps of optical action potentials and calcium transients in guinea-pig hearts: mechanisms underlying concordant alterans,” J. Physiol. (London) 529, 171–188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

V. Krauthamer, J. L. Jones, “Calcium dynamics in cultured heart cells exposed to high-voltage electric shocks,” Life Sci. 60, 1977–1985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

V. Krauthamer, C. C. Davis, E.-T. Gan, “Two-point electrical-fluorescence recording from myocardium with optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 41, 1191–1193 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

T. A. Bowmaster, C. C. Davis, V. Krauthamer, “Excitation and detection of action potential induced fluorescence changes through a single monomode optical fiber,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1091, 9–14 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Krauthamer, H. J. Bryant, C. C. Davis, T. W. Athey, “Action potential-induced fluorescence changes resolved with an optical fiber carrying excitation light,” J. Fluoresc. 1, 207–213 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

L. B. Cohen, S. Lesher, “Optical monitoring of membrane potential: methods of multisite optical measurement,” Soc. Gen. Physiol. Ser. 40, 71–99 (1986).
[PubMed]

1985 (1)

E. Fluhler, V. G. Burnaham, L. M. Loew, “Spectra, membrane binding, and potentiometric responses of new charge shift probes,” Biochemistry 24, 5749–5755 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Athey, T. W.

V. Krauthamer, H. J. Bryant, C. C. Davis, T. W. Athey, “Action potential-induced fluorescence changes resolved with an optical fiber carrying excitation light,” J. Fluoresc. 1, 207–213 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balaban, R. S.

C. A. Combs, R. S. Balaban, “Direct imaging of dehydrogenase activity within living cells using enzyme-dependent fluorescence recovery after photobleaching,” Biophys. J. 80, 2018–2028 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bassen, H.

H. Bassen, V. Krauthamer, “Apparatus and method of in situ detection of areas of cardiac electrical activity,” U.S. patent5,678,550 (21October1997).

Bowmaster, T. A.

T. A. Bowmaster, C. C. Davis, V. Krauthamer, “Excitation and detection of action potential induced fluorescence changes through a single monomode optical fiber,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1091, 9–14 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, H. J.

V. Krauthamer, H. J. Bryant, C. C. Davis, T. W. Athey, “Action potential-induced fluorescence changes resolved with an optical fiber carrying excitation light,” J. Fluoresc. 1, 207–213 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnaham, V. G.

E. Fluhler, V. G. Burnaham, L. M. Loew, “Spectra, membrane binding, and potentiometric responses of new charge shift probes,” Biochemistry 24, 5749–5755 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

V. Ntzachristos, B. Chance, “Probing physiology and molecular function using optical imaging: applications to breast cancer,” Breast Can. Res. 3, 41–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B.-R.

B.-R. Choi, G. Salama, “Simultaneous maps of optical action potentials and calcium transients in guinea-pig hearts: mechanisms underlying concordant alterans,” J. Physiol. (London) 529, 171–188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, L. B.

L. B. Cohen, S. Lesher, “Optical monitoring of membrane potential: methods of multisite optical measurement,” Soc. Gen. Physiol. Ser. 40, 71–99 (1986).
[PubMed]

Combs, C. A.

C. A. Combs, R. S. Balaban, “Direct imaging of dehydrogenase activity within living cells using enzyme-dependent fluorescence recovery after photobleaching,” Biophys. J. 80, 2018–2028 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, C. C.

V. Krauthamer, C. C. Davis, E.-T. Gan, “Two-point electrical-fluorescence recording from myocardium with optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 41, 1191–1193 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Krauthamer, H. J. Bryant, C. C. Davis, T. W. Athey, “Action potential-induced fluorescence changes resolved with an optical fiber carrying excitation light,” J. Fluoresc. 1, 207–213 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Bowmaster, C. C. Davis, V. Krauthamer, “Excitation and detection of action potential induced fluorescence changes through a single monomode optical fiber,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1091, 9–14 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fluhler, E.

E. Fluhler, V. G. Burnaham, L. M. Loew, “Spectra, membrane binding, and potentiometric responses of new charge shift probes,” Biochemistry 24, 5749–5755 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gan, E.-T.

V. Krauthamer, C. C. Davis, E.-T. Gan, “Two-point electrical-fluorescence recording from myocardium with optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 41, 1191–1193 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hopkins, H. H.

H. H. Hopkins, “Physics of the fiberoptic endoscope,” in Endoscopy, G. Berci, ed. (Appleton-Century-Croft, New York, 1976), pp. 27–63.

Jones, J. L.

V. Krauthamer, J. L. Jones, “Calcium dynamics in cultured heart cells exposed to high-voltage electric shocks,” Life Sci. 60, 1977–1985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krauthamer, V.

V. Krauthamer, J. L. Jones, “Calcium dynamics in cultured heart cells exposed to high-voltage electric shocks,” Life Sci. 60, 1977–1985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Krauthamer, C. C. Davis, E.-T. Gan, “Two-point electrical-fluorescence recording from myocardium with optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 41, 1191–1193 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Krauthamer, H. J. Bryant, C. C. Davis, T. W. Athey, “Action potential-induced fluorescence changes resolved with an optical fiber carrying excitation light,” J. Fluoresc. 1, 207–213 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Bowmaster, C. C. Davis, V. Krauthamer, “Excitation and detection of action potential induced fluorescence changes through a single monomode optical fiber,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1091, 9–14 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Krauthamer, “Apparatus for fluorescent excitation and detection from potentiometric dyes with a single-ended optical fiber,” U.S. patent5,239,998 (31August1993).

H. Bassen, V. Krauthamer, “Apparatus and method of in situ detection of areas of cardiac electrical activity,” U.S. patent5,678,550 (21October1997).

Lesher, S.

L. B. Cohen, S. Lesher, “Optical monitoring of membrane potential: methods of multisite optical measurement,” Soc. Gen. Physiol. Ser. 40, 71–99 (1986).
[PubMed]

Loew, L. M.

E. Fluhler, V. G. Burnaham, L. M. Loew, “Spectra, membrane binding, and potentiometric responses of new charge shift probes,” Biochemistry 24, 5749–5755 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ntzachristos, V.

V. Ntzachristos, B. Chance, “Probing physiology and molecular function using optical imaging: applications to breast cancer,” Breast Can. Res. 3, 41–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Salama, G.

B.-R. Choi, G. Salama, “Simultaneous maps of optical action potentials and calcium transients in guinea-pig hearts: mechanisms underlying concordant alterans,” J. Physiol. (London) 529, 171–188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biochemistry (1)

E. Fluhler, V. G. Burnaham, L. M. Loew, “Spectra, membrane binding, and potentiometric responses of new charge shift probes,” Biochemistry 24, 5749–5755 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

T. A. Bowmaster, C. C. Davis, V. Krauthamer, “Excitation and detection of action potential induced fluorescence changes through a single monomode optical fiber,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1091, 9–14 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (1)

C. A. Combs, R. S. Balaban, “Direct imaging of dehydrogenase activity within living cells using enzyme-dependent fluorescence recovery after photobleaching,” Biophys. J. 80, 2018–2028 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breast Can. Res. (1)

V. Ntzachristos, B. Chance, “Probing physiology and molecular function using optical imaging: applications to breast cancer,” Breast Can. Res. 3, 41–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

V. Krauthamer, C. C. Davis, E.-T. Gan, “Two-point electrical-fluorescence recording from myocardium with optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 41, 1191–1193 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fluoresc. (1)

V. Krauthamer, H. J. Bryant, C. C. Davis, T. W. Athey, “Action potential-induced fluorescence changes resolved with an optical fiber carrying excitation light,” J. Fluoresc. 1, 207–213 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Physiol. (London) (1)

B.-R. Choi, G. Salama, “Simultaneous maps of optical action potentials and calcium transients in guinea-pig hearts: mechanisms underlying concordant alterans,” J. Physiol. (London) 529, 171–188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Life Sci. (1)

V. Krauthamer, J. L. Jones, “Calcium dynamics in cultured heart cells exposed to high-voltage electric shocks,” Life Sci. 60, 1977–1985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Soc. Gen. Physiol. Ser. (1)

L. B. Cohen, S. Lesher, “Optical monitoring of membrane potential: methods of multisite optical measurement,” Soc. Gen. Physiol. Ser. 40, 71–99 (1986).
[PubMed]

Other (3)

V. Krauthamer, “Apparatus for fluorescent excitation and detection from potentiometric dyes with a single-ended optical fiber,” U.S. patent5,239,998 (31August1993).

H. Bassen, V. Krauthamer, “Apparatus and method of in situ detection of areas of cardiac electrical activity,” U.S. patent5,678,550 (21October1997).

H. H. Hopkins, “Physics of the fiberoptic endoscope,” in Endoscopy, G. Berci, ed. (Appleton-Century-Croft, New York, 1976), pp. 27–63.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Endoscope and three terminations (left) and an example of a barcode as seen through the endoscope (right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simultaneous extracellular electrical (upper trace) and fluorescence recording (lower trace) from a isolated perfused rabbit heart stained with di-4-ANEPPS and treated with 15-mM diacetyl monoxime (to reduce movement). The optical recording was made with a 100-µm-core optical fiber5 during the application of a shock (indicated by arrow) that induced fibrillation. The total fluorescence change for the cardiac action potential was 2%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of endoscope tip. The rectangular object is minified by the objective and imaged onto the face of the coherent bundle. The objective is represented by a thick lens equivalent with principle planes H i and H o and focal length F. The window is at a distance D from the focal point. The object is at a distance x from the focal point.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example of two measurements made to determine the focal length. Although D and F are not known, a, b, and magnification are known.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Setup to measure fluorescence emissions from a standard fluorescent target and stained cardiac monolayers by means of the endoscope’s coherent bundle.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Physical Characteristics of Endoscope Models Tested

Tables Icon

Table 2 Fluorescence Emitted from Objects Excited with Laser Light through Optical Fiber

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

FF=Nπdfiber22πdbundle22,
Efficiency=PoPi100,
M=YiYo=Fx,
M1=FD+a,
M2=FD+b,
Field angle=2 tan-1dbundle/2F,
M=Fx=0.33distance from endoscope to object+D=0.3320+0.33,
M=image sizeobject size=fiber sizesmallest object size=0.004 mmsmallest object sizemm.
S=πz tanα22.
T=IS.
E=T A/222z2.

Metrics