Abstract

Modern far-infrared and submillimeter instruments require large-format arrays. We consider the relative performance of filled-array (bare pixel) and feedhorn-coupled architectures for bolometer focal planes. Based on typical array parameters, we quantify the relative observing speeds and comment on the merits of the different architectures. Filled arrays can provide higher mapping speed (by a factor of as much as 3.5) and simpler observing modes at the expense of reduced sensitivity for pointed observations, increased detector numbers, and greater vulnerability to stray light and electromagnetic interference. Taking advantage of the filled-array architecture requires strongly background-limited detectors. At millimeter wavelengths, filled arrays must be surrounded by a sufficiently cold enclosure to minimize the background power from the instrument itself.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. S. Holland, E. I. Robson, W. K. Gear, C. R. Cunningham, J. F. Lightfoot, T. Jenness, R. J. Ivison, J. A. Stevens, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, W. D. Duncan, J. A. Murphy, D. A. Naylor, “SCUBA: a common-user submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 659–672 (1999).
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  2. E. Kreysa, H.-P. Gemund, J. Gromke, C. G. T. Haslam, L. Reichertz, E. E. Haller, J. W. Beeman, V. Hansen, A. Sievers, R. Zylka, “Bolometer development at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 319–325 (1998).
  3. J. Glenn, J. J. Bock, G. Chattopadhyay, S. F. Eddington, A. E. Lange, J. Zmuidzinas, P. D. Mauskopf, B. Rownd, L. Yuen, P. A. R. Ade, “Bolocam: a millimeter wave bolometric camera,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 326–334 (1998).
  4. A. D. Turner, J. J. Bock, H. T. Nguyen, S. Sethuraman, J. W. Beeman, J. Glenn, P. C. Hargrave, A. L. Woodcraft, V. V. Hristov, F. Rahman, S. Srinivasan, A. L. Woodcraft, “Si3N4 micromesh bolometer array for submillimeter astrophysics,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4291–4932 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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  13. A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, N. Geis, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for Herschel,” in The Promise of the Herschel Space Observatory, G. L. Pilbratt, J. Cernicharo, A. M. Heras, T. Prusti, R. A. Harris, eds., ESASP-460, 29–36 (2001).
  14. W. S. Holland, W. D. Duncan, B. D. Kelly, T. Peacocke, E. I. Robson, K. D. Irwin, G. Hilton, S. Rinehart, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, “SCUBA-2: The next generation wide-field imager for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 197, 53.01 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2000).
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    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Oliver, Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QJ, England (personal communication).

2001 (1)

A. D. Turner, J. J. Bock, H. T. Nguyen, S. Sethuraman, J. W. Beeman, J. Glenn, P. C. Hargrave, A. L. Woodcraft, V. V. Hristov, F. Rahman, S. Srinivasan, A. L. Woodcraft, “Si3N4 micromesh bolometer array for submillimeter astrophysics,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4291–4932 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

R. G. Arendt, D. J. Fixsen, S. H. Moseley, “Dithering strategies for efficient self-calibration of imaging arrays,” Ap. J. 536, 500–512 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

W. S. Holland, E. I. Robson, W. K. Gear, C. R. Cunningham, J. F. Lightfoot, T. Jenness, R. J. Ivison, J. A. Stevens, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, W. D. Duncan, J. A. Murphy, D. A. Naylor, “SCUBA: a common-user submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 659–672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Greve, C. Kramer, W. Wild, “The beam pattern of the IRAM 30-m telescope (a reflector with several surface error distributions),” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 133, 271–284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1984 (1)

R. J. Wylde, “Millimeter-wave Gaussian beam-mode optics and corrugated feed horns,” Proc. IEE 131, (Part H), 259–262 (1984).

1982 (1)

Ade, P. A. R.

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

W. S. Holland, E. I. Robson, W. K. Gear, C. R. Cunningham, J. F. Lightfoot, T. Jenness, R. J. Ivison, J. A. Stevens, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, W. D. Duncan, J. A. Murphy, D. A. Naylor, “SCUBA: a common-user submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 659–672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Glenn, J. J. Bock, G. Chattopadhyay, S. F. Eddington, A. E. Lange, J. Zmuidzinas, P. D. Mauskopf, B. Rownd, L. Yuen, P. A. R. Ade, “Bolocam: a millimeter wave bolometric camera,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 326–334 (1998).

W. S. Holland, W. D. Duncan, B. D. Kelly, T. Peacocke, E. I. Robson, K. D. Irwin, G. Hilton, S. Rinehart, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, “SCUBA-2: The next generation wide-field imager for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 197, 53.01 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2000).

Agnese, P.

P. Agnese, L. Rodriguez, L. Vigroux, “Filled bolometer arrays for Herschel/PACS,” in Proceedings of Far-IR, Submillimeter and Millimeter Detector Technology Workshop, J. Wolf, J. Farhoomand, C. R. McCreight, (eds.), NASA/CP-211408, in press (2002).

Allen, C.

N. Wang, T. R. Hunter, D. J. Benford, E. Serabyn, T. G. Phillips, S. H. Moseley, K. Boyce, A. Szymkowiak, C. Allen, B. Mott, J. Gygax, “Characterization of a submillimeter high-angular-resolution camera with a monolithic silicon bolometer array for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6629–6640 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Dowell, W. Collins, M. Gardner, A. Kovacs, D. C. Lis, T. G. Phillips, H. Yoshida, C. Allen, M. Jhabvala, S. H. Moseley, G. Voellmer, “SHARC II, a second generation 350 micron camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 198, 05.09 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2001).

Arendt, R. G.

R. G. Arendt, D. J. Fixsen, S. H. Moseley, “Dithering strategies for efficient self-calibration of imaging arrays,” Ap. J. 536, 500–512 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beeman, J. W.

A. D. Turner, J. J. Bock, H. T. Nguyen, S. Sethuraman, J. W. Beeman, J. Glenn, P. C. Hargrave, A. L. Woodcraft, V. V. Hristov, F. Rahman, S. Srinivasan, A. L. Woodcraft, “Si3N4 micromesh bolometer array for submillimeter astrophysics,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4291–4932 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Kreysa, H.-P. Gemund, J. Gromke, C. G. T. Haslam, L. Reichertz, E. E. Haller, J. W. Beeman, V. Hansen, A. Sievers, R. Zylka, “Bolometer development at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 319–325 (1998).

Benford, D. J.

Benoi^t, A.

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

Bock, J.

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

Bock, J. J.

A. D. Turner, J. J. Bock, H. T. Nguyen, S. Sethuraman, J. W. Beeman, J. Glenn, P. C. Hargrave, A. L. Woodcraft, V. V. Hristov, F. Rahman, S. Srinivasan, A. L. Woodcraft, “Si3N4 micromesh bolometer array for submillimeter astrophysics,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4291–4932 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Glenn, J. J. Bock, G. Chattopadhyay, S. F. Eddington, A. E. Lange, J. Zmuidzinas, P. D. Mauskopf, B. Rownd, L. Yuen, P. A. R. Ade, “Bolocam: a millimeter wave bolometric camera,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 326–334 (1998).

Bouchet, F.

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

Boyce, K.

Bradshaw, T.

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

Casey, S. C.

D. A. Harper, S. H. Moseley, I. Gatley, S. C. Casey, R. Evans, R. Loewenstein, R. J. Pernic, J. Wirth, “HAWC: a far infrared camera for SOFIA,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 1211–1218 (1998).

Charra, J.

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

Chattopadhyay, G.

J. Glenn, J. J. Bock, G. Chattopadhyay, S. F. Eddington, A. E. Lange, J. Zmuidzinas, P. D. Mauskopf, B. Rownd, L. Yuen, P. A. R. Ade, “Bolocam: a millimeter wave bolometric camera,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 326–334 (1998).

Church, S.

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

Collins, W.

C. D. Dowell, W. Collins, M. Gardner, A. Kovacs, D. C. Lis, T. G. Phillips, H. Yoshida, C. Allen, M. Jhabvala, S. H. Moseley, G. Voellmer, “SHARC II, a second generation 350 micron camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 198, 05.09 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2001).

Couchot, F.

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

Cunningham, C. R.

W. S. Holland, E. I. Robson, W. K. Gear, C. R. Cunningham, J. F. Lightfoot, T. Jenness, R. J. Ivison, J. A. Stevens, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, W. D. Duncan, J. A. Murphy, D. A. Naylor, “SCUBA: a common-user submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 659–672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Cunningham, W. K. Gear, “SCUBA—submillimeter common user bolometer array for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy IV, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. SPIE1235, 515–523 (1990).

de Bernardis, P.

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

Delabrouille, J.

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

Dohlen, K.

K. Dohlen, A. Orignéa, D. Pouliquen, B. Swinyard, “FIRST-SPIRE spectrometer: a novel imaging FTS for the submillimeter,” in UV, Optical, and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jakobsen, eds., Proc. SPIE4013, 196–207 (2000).

Dowell, C. D.

C. D. Dowell, W. Collins, M. Gardner, A. Kovacs, D. C. Lis, T. G. Phillips, H. Yoshida, C. Allen, M. Jhabvala, S. H. Moseley, G. Voellmer, “SHARC II, a second generation 350 micron camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 198, 05.09 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2001).

Duncan, W. D.

W. S. Holland, E. I. Robson, W. K. Gear, C. R. Cunningham, J. F. Lightfoot, T. Jenness, R. J. Ivison, J. A. Stevens, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, W. D. Duncan, J. A. Murphy, D. A. Naylor, “SCUBA: a common-user submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 659–672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Holland, W. D. Duncan, B. D. Kelly, T. Peacocke, E. I. Robson, K. D. Irwin, G. Hilton, S. Rinehart, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, “SCUBA-2: The next generation wide-field imager for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 197, 53.01 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2000).

Eddington, S. F.

J. Glenn, J. J. Bock, G. Chattopadhyay, S. F. Eddington, A. E. Lange, J. Zmuidzinas, P. D. Mauskopf, B. Rownd, L. Yuen, P. A. R. Ade, “Bolocam: a millimeter wave bolometric camera,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 326–334 (1998).

Efstathiou, G.

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

Evans, R.

D. A. Harper, S. H. Moseley, I. Gatley, S. C. Casey, R. Evans, R. Loewenstein, R. J. Pernic, J. Wirth, “HAWC: a far infrared camera for SOFIA,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 1211–1218 (1998).

Farhoomand, J.

P. Agnese, L. Rodriguez, L. Vigroux, “Filled bolometer arrays for Herschel/PACS,” in Proceedings of Far-IR, Submillimeter and Millimeter Detector Technology Workshop, J. Wolf, J. Farhoomand, C. R. McCreight, (eds.), NASA/CP-211408, in press (2002).

Fixsen, D. J.

R. G. Arendt, D. J. Fixsen, S. H. Moseley, “Dithering strategies for efficient self-calibration of imaging arrays,” Ap. J. 536, 500–512 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, M.

C. D. Dowell, W. Collins, M. Gardner, A. Kovacs, D. C. Lis, T. G. Phillips, H. Yoshida, C. Allen, M. Jhabvala, S. H. Moseley, G. Voellmer, “SHARC II, a second generation 350 micron camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 198, 05.09 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2001).

Gatley, I.

D. A. Harper, S. H. Moseley, I. Gatley, S. C. Casey, R. Evans, R. Loewenstein, R. J. Pernic, J. Wirth, “HAWC: a far infrared camera for SOFIA,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 1211–1218 (1998).

Gear, W. K.

W. S. Holland, E. I. Robson, W. K. Gear, C. R. Cunningham, J. F. Lightfoot, T. Jenness, R. J. Ivison, J. A. Stevens, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, W. D. Duncan, J. A. Murphy, D. A. Naylor, “SCUBA: a common-user submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 659–672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Cunningham, W. K. Gear, “SCUBA—submillimeter common user bolometer array for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy IV, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. SPIE1235, 515–523 (1990).

Geis, N.

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, N. Geis, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for Herschel,” in The Promise of the Herschel Space Observatory, G. L. Pilbratt, J. Cernicharo, A. M. Heras, T. Prusti, R. A. Harris, eds., ESASP-460, 29–36 (2001).

Gemund, H.-P.

E. Kreysa, H.-P. Gemund, J. Gromke, C. G. T. Haslam, L. Reichertz, E. E. Haller, J. W. Beeman, V. Hansen, A. Sievers, R. Zylka, “Bolometer development at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 319–325 (1998).

Giard, M.

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

Giraud-Héraud, Y.

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

Gispert, R.

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

Glenn, J.

A. D. Turner, J. J. Bock, H. T. Nguyen, S. Sethuraman, J. W. Beeman, J. Glenn, P. C. Hargrave, A. L. Woodcraft, V. V. Hristov, F. Rahman, S. Srinivasan, A. L. Woodcraft, “Si3N4 micromesh bolometer array for submillimeter astrophysics,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4291–4932 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Glenn, J. J. Bock, G. Chattopadhyay, S. F. Eddington, A. E. Lange, J. Zmuidzinas, P. D. Mauskopf, B. Rownd, L. Yuen, P. A. R. Ade, “Bolocam: a millimeter wave bolometric camera,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 326–334 (1998).

Greve, A.

A. Greve, C. Kramer, W. Wild, “The beam pattern of the IRAM 30-m telescope (a reflector with several surface error distributions),” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 133, 271–284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, M.

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

Griffin, M. J.

W. S. Holland, E. I. Robson, W. K. Gear, C. R. Cunningham, J. F. Lightfoot, T. Jenness, R. J. Ivison, J. A. Stevens, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, W. D. Duncan, J. A. Murphy, D. A. Naylor, “SCUBA: a common-user submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 659–672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Griffin, B. M. Swinyard, L. Vigroux, “The SPIRE instrument for Herschel,” in The Promise of the Herschel Space Observatory, G. L. Pilbratt, J. Cernicharo, A. M. Heras, T. Prusti, R. A. Harris, eds., ESASP-460, 37–44 (2001).

W. S. Holland, W. D. Duncan, B. D. Kelly, T. Peacocke, E. I. Robson, K. D. Irwin, G. Hilton, S. Rinehart, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, “SCUBA-2: The next generation wide-field imager for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 197, 53.01 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2000).

Gromke, J.

E. Kreysa, H.-P. Gemund, J. Gromke, C. G. T. Haslam, L. Reichertz, E. E. Haller, J. W. Beeman, V. Hansen, A. Sievers, R. Zylka, “Bolometer development at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 319–325 (1998).

Gygax, J.

Haller, E. E.

E. Kreysa, H.-P. Gemund, J. Gromke, C. G. T. Haslam, L. Reichertz, E. E. Haller, J. W. Beeman, V. Hansen, A. Sievers, R. Zylka, “Bolometer development at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 319–325 (1998).

Hansen, V.

E. Kreysa, H.-P. Gemund, J. Gromke, C. G. T. Haslam, L. Reichertz, E. E. Haller, J. W. Beeman, V. Hansen, A. Sievers, R. Zylka, “Bolometer development at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 319–325 (1998).

Hargrave, P. C.

A. D. Turner, J. J. Bock, H. T. Nguyen, S. Sethuraman, J. W. Beeman, J. Glenn, P. C. Hargrave, A. L. Woodcraft, V. V. Hristov, F. Rahman, S. Srinivasan, A. L. Woodcraft, “Si3N4 micromesh bolometer array for submillimeter astrophysics,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4291–4932 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harper, D. A.

D. A. Harper, S. H. Moseley, I. Gatley, S. C. Casey, R. Evans, R. Loewenstein, R. J. Pernic, J. Wirth, “HAWC: a far infrared camera for SOFIA,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 1211–1218 (1998).

Harris, R. A.

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, N. Geis, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for Herschel,” in The Promise of the Herschel Space Observatory, G. L. Pilbratt, J. Cernicharo, A. M. Heras, T. Prusti, R. A. Harris, eds., ESASP-460, 29–36 (2001).

Haslam, C. G. T.

E. Kreysa, H.-P. Gemund, J. Gromke, C. G. T. Haslam, L. Reichertz, E. E. Haller, J. W. Beeman, V. Hansen, A. Sievers, R. Zylka, “Bolometer development at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 319–325 (1998).

Heras, A. M.

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, N. Geis, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for Herschel,” in The Promise of the Herschel Space Observatory, G. L. Pilbratt, J. Cernicharo, A. M. Heras, T. Prusti, R. A. Harris, eds., ESASP-460, 29–36 (2001).

Hilton, G.

W. S. Holland, W. D. Duncan, B. D. Kelly, T. Peacocke, E. I. Robson, K. D. Irwin, G. Hilton, S. Rinehart, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, “SCUBA-2: The next generation wide-field imager for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 197, 53.01 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2000).

Holland, W. S.

W. S. Holland, E. I. Robson, W. K. Gear, C. R. Cunningham, J. F. Lightfoot, T. Jenness, R. J. Ivison, J. A. Stevens, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, W. D. Duncan, J. A. Murphy, D. A. Naylor, “SCUBA: a common-user submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 659–672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Holland, W. D. Duncan, B. D. Kelly, T. Peacocke, E. I. Robson, K. D. Irwin, G. Hilton, S. Rinehart, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, “SCUBA-2: The next generation wide-field imager for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 197, 53.01 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2000).

Hristov, V. V.

A. D. Turner, J. J. Bock, H. T. Nguyen, S. Sethuraman, J. W. Beeman, J. Glenn, P. C. Hargrave, A. L. Woodcraft, V. V. Hristov, F. Rahman, S. Srinivasan, A. L. Woodcraft, “Si3N4 micromesh bolometer array for submillimeter astrophysics,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4291–4932 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, T. R.

Irwin, K. D.

W. S. Holland, W. D. Duncan, B. D. Kelly, T. Peacocke, E. I. Robson, K. D. Irwin, G. Hilton, S. Rinehart, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, “SCUBA-2: The next generation wide-field imager for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 197, 53.01 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2000).

Ivison, R. J.

W. S. Holland, E. I. Robson, W. K. Gear, C. R. Cunningham, J. F. Lightfoot, T. Jenness, R. J. Ivison, J. A. Stevens, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, W. D. Duncan, J. A. Murphy, D. A. Naylor, “SCUBA: a common-user submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 659–672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jenness, T.

W. S. Holland, E. I. Robson, W. K. Gear, C. R. Cunningham, J. F. Lightfoot, T. Jenness, R. J. Ivison, J. A. Stevens, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, W. D. Duncan, J. A. Murphy, D. A. Naylor, “SCUBA: a common-user submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 659–672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jhabvala, M.

C. D. Dowell, W. Collins, M. Gardner, A. Kovacs, D. C. Lis, T. G. Phillips, H. Yoshida, C. Allen, M. Jhabvala, S. H. Moseley, G. Voellmer, “SHARC II, a second generation 350 micron camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 198, 05.09 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2001).

Kelly, B. D.

W. S. Holland, W. D. Duncan, B. D. Kelly, T. Peacocke, E. I. Robson, K. D. Irwin, G. Hilton, S. Rinehart, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, “SCUBA-2: The next generation wide-field imager for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 197, 53.01 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2000).

Kovacs, A.

C. D. Dowell, W. Collins, M. Gardner, A. Kovacs, D. C. Lis, T. G. Phillips, H. Yoshida, C. Allen, M. Jhabvala, S. H. Moseley, G. Voellmer, “SHARC II, a second generation 350 micron camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 198, 05.09 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2001).

Kramer, C.

A. Greve, C. Kramer, W. Wild, “The beam pattern of the IRAM 30-m telescope (a reflector with several surface error distributions),” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 133, 271–284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kreysa, E.

E. Kreysa, H.-P. Gemund, J. Gromke, C. G. T. Haslam, L. Reichertz, E. E. Haller, J. W. Beeman, V. Hansen, A. Sievers, R. Zylka, “Bolometer development at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 319–325 (1998).

Lamarre, J.-M.

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

Lange, A.

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

Lange, A. E.

J. Glenn, J. J. Bock, G. Chattopadhyay, S. F. Eddington, A. E. Lange, J. Zmuidzinas, P. D. Mauskopf, B. Rownd, L. Yuen, P. A. R. Ade, “Bolocam: a millimeter wave bolometric camera,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 326–334 (1998).

Lightfoot, J. F.

W. S. Holland, E. I. Robson, W. K. Gear, C. R. Cunningham, J. F. Lightfoot, T. Jenness, R. J. Ivison, J. A. Stevens, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, W. D. Duncan, J. A. Murphy, D. A. Naylor, “SCUBA: a common-user submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 659–672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lis, D. C.

C. D. Dowell, W. Collins, M. Gardner, A. Kovacs, D. C. Lis, T. G. Phillips, H. Yoshida, C. Allen, M. Jhabvala, S. H. Moseley, G. Voellmer, “SHARC II, a second generation 350 micron camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 198, 05.09 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2001).

Loewenstein, R.

D. A. Harper, S. H. Moseley, I. Gatley, S. C. Casey, R. Evans, R. Loewenstein, R. J. Pernic, J. Wirth, “HAWC: a far infrared camera for SOFIA,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 1211–1218 (1998).

Mather, J.

Mauskopf, P. D.

J. Glenn, J. J. Bock, G. Chattopadhyay, S. F. Eddington, A. E. Lange, J. Zmuidzinas, P. D. Mauskopf, B. Rownd, L. Yuen, P. A. R. Ade, “Bolocam: a millimeter wave bolometric camera,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 326–334 (1998).

McCreight, C. R.

P. Agnese, L. Rodriguez, L. Vigroux, “Filled bolometer arrays for Herschel/PACS,” in Proceedings of Far-IR, Submillimeter and Millimeter Detector Technology Workshop, J. Wolf, J. Farhoomand, C. R. McCreight, (eds.), NASA/CP-211408, in press (2002).

Moseley, S. H.

R. G. Arendt, D. J. Fixsen, S. H. Moseley, “Dithering strategies for efficient self-calibration of imaging arrays,” Ap. J. 536, 500–512 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Wang, T. R. Hunter, D. J. Benford, E. Serabyn, T. G. Phillips, S. H. Moseley, K. Boyce, A. Szymkowiak, C. Allen, B. Mott, J. Gygax, “Characterization of a submillimeter high-angular-resolution camera with a monolithic silicon bolometer array for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6629–6640 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Harper, S. H. Moseley, I. Gatley, S. C. Casey, R. Evans, R. Loewenstein, R. J. Pernic, J. Wirth, “HAWC: a far infrared camera for SOFIA,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 1211–1218 (1998).

C. D. Dowell, W. Collins, M. Gardner, A. Kovacs, D. C. Lis, T. G. Phillips, H. Yoshida, C. Allen, M. Jhabvala, S. H. Moseley, G. Voellmer, “SHARC II, a second generation 350 micron camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 198, 05.09 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2001).

Mott, B.

Murphy, A.

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

Murphy, J. A.

W. S. Holland, E. I. Robson, W. K. Gear, C. R. Cunningham, J. F. Lightfoot, T. Jenness, R. J. Ivison, J. A. Stevens, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, W. D. Duncan, J. A. Murphy, D. A. Naylor, “SCUBA: a common-user submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 659–672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Murphy, Department of Experimental Physics, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland (personal communication).

Naylor, D. A.

W. S. Holland, E. I. Robson, W. K. Gear, C. R. Cunningham, J. F. Lightfoot, T. Jenness, R. J. Ivison, J. A. Stevens, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, W. D. Duncan, J. A. Murphy, D. A. Naylor, “SCUBA: a common-user submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 659–672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. T.

A. D. Turner, J. J. Bock, H. T. Nguyen, S. Sethuraman, J. W. Beeman, J. Glenn, P. C. Hargrave, A. L. Woodcraft, V. V. Hristov, F. Rahman, S. Srinivasan, A. L. Woodcraft, “Si3N4 micromesh bolometer array for submillimeter astrophysics,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4291–4932 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, S.

S. Oliver, Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QJ, England (personal communication).

Orignéa, A.

K. Dohlen, A. Orignéa, D. Pouliquen, B. Swinyard, “FIRST-SPIRE spectrometer: a novel imaging FTS for the submillimeter,” in UV, Optical, and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jakobsen, eds., Proc. SPIE4013, 196–207 (2000).

Pajot, F.

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

Peacocke, T.

W. S. Holland, W. D. Duncan, B. D. Kelly, T. Peacocke, E. I. Robson, K. D. Irwin, G. Hilton, S. Rinehart, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, “SCUBA-2: The next generation wide-field imager for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 197, 53.01 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2000).

Pernic, R. J.

D. A. Harper, S. H. Moseley, I. Gatley, S. C. Casey, R. Evans, R. Loewenstein, R. J. Pernic, J. Wirth, “HAWC: a far infrared camera for SOFIA,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 1211–1218 (1998).

Phillips, T. G.

N. Wang, T. R. Hunter, D. J. Benford, E. Serabyn, T. G. Phillips, S. H. Moseley, K. Boyce, A. Szymkowiak, C. Allen, B. Mott, J. Gygax, “Characterization of a submillimeter high-angular-resolution camera with a monolithic silicon bolometer array for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6629–6640 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Dowell, W. Collins, M. Gardner, A. Kovacs, D. C. Lis, T. G. Phillips, H. Yoshida, C. Allen, M. Jhabvala, S. H. Moseley, G. Voellmer, “SHARC II, a second generation 350 micron camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 198, 05.09 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2001).

Poglitsch, A.

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, N. Geis, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for Herschel,” in The Promise of the Herschel Space Observatory, G. L. Pilbratt, J. Cernicharo, A. M. Heras, T. Prusti, R. A. Harris, eds., ESASP-460, 29–36 (2001).

Pouliquen, D.

K. Dohlen, A. Orignéa, D. Pouliquen, B. Swinyard, “FIRST-SPIRE spectrometer: a novel imaging FTS for the submillimeter,” in UV, Optical, and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jakobsen, eds., Proc. SPIE4013, 196–207 (2000).

Prusti, T.

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, N. Geis, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for Herschel,” in The Promise of the Herschel Space Observatory, G. L. Pilbratt, J. Cernicharo, A. M. Heras, T. Prusti, R. A. Harris, eds., ESASP-460, 29–36 (2001).

Puget, J.-L.

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

Rahman, F.

A. D. Turner, J. J. Bock, H. T. Nguyen, S. Sethuraman, J. W. Beeman, J. Glenn, P. C. Hargrave, A. L. Woodcraft, V. V. Hristov, F. Rahman, S. Srinivasan, A. L. Woodcraft, “Si3N4 micromesh bolometer array for submillimeter astrophysics,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4291–4932 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reichertz, L.

E. Kreysa, H.-P. Gemund, J. Gromke, C. G. T. Haslam, L. Reichertz, E. E. Haller, J. W. Beeman, V. Hansen, A. Sievers, R. Zylka, “Bolometer development at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 319–325 (1998).

Rinehart, S.

W. S. Holland, W. D. Duncan, B. D. Kelly, T. Peacocke, E. I. Robson, K. D. Irwin, G. Hilton, S. Rinehart, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, “SCUBA-2: The next generation wide-field imager for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 197, 53.01 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2000).

Ristorcelli, I.

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

Robson, E. I.

W. S. Holland, E. I. Robson, W. K. Gear, C. R. Cunningham, J. F. Lightfoot, T. Jenness, R. J. Ivison, J. A. Stevens, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, W. D. Duncan, J. A. Murphy, D. A. Naylor, “SCUBA: a common-user submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 659–672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Holland, W. D. Duncan, B. D. Kelly, T. Peacocke, E. I. Robson, K. D. Irwin, G. Hilton, S. Rinehart, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, “SCUBA-2: The next generation wide-field imager for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 197, 53.01 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2000).

Rodriguez, L.

P. Agnese, L. Rodriguez, L. Vigroux, “Filled bolometer arrays for Herschel/PACS,” in Proceedings of Far-IR, Submillimeter and Millimeter Detector Technology Workshop, J. Wolf, J. Farhoomand, C. R. McCreight, (eds.), NASA/CP-211408, in press (2002).

Rownd, B.

J. Glenn, J. J. Bock, G. Chattopadhyay, S. F. Eddington, A. E. Lange, J. Zmuidzinas, P. D. Mauskopf, B. Rownd, L. Yuen, P. A. R. Ade, “Bolocam: a millimeter wave bolometric camera,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 326–334 (1998).

Serabyn, E.

Sethuraman, S.

A. D. Turner, J. J. Bock, H. T. Nguyen, S. Sethuraman, J. W. Beeman, J. Glenn, P. C. Hargrave, A. L. Woodcraft, V. V. Hristov, F. Rahman, S. Srinivasan, A. L. Woodcraft, “Si3N4 micromesh bolometer array for submillimeter astrophysics,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4291–4932 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sievers, A.

E. Kreysa, H.-P. Gemund, J. Gromke, C. G. T. Haslam, L. Reichertz, E. E. Haller, J. W. Beeman, V. Hansen, A. Sievers, R. Zylka, “Bolometer development at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 319–325 (1998).

Srinivasan, S.

A. D. Turner, J. J. Bock, H. T. Nguyen, S. Sethuraman, J. W. Beeman, J. Glenn, P. C. Hargrave, A. L. Woodcraft, V. V. Hristov, F. Rahman, S. Srinivasan, A. L. Woodcraft, “Si3N4 micromesh bolometer array for submillimeter astrophysics,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4291–4932 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, J. A.

W. S. Holland, E. I. Robson, W. K. Gear, C. R. Cunningham, J. F. Lightfoot, T. Jenness, R. J. Ivison, J. A. Stevens, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, W. D. Duncan, J. A. Murphy, D. A. Naylor, “SCUBA: a common-user submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 659–672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Swinyard, B.

K. Dohlen, A. Orignéa, D. Pouliquen, B. Swinyard, “FIRST-SPIRE spectrometer: a novel imaging FTS for the submillimeter,” in UV, Optical, and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jakobsen, eds., Proc. SPIE4013, 196–207 (2000).

Swinyard, B. M.

M. J. Griffin, B. M. Swinyard, L. Vigroux, “The SPIRE instrument for Herschel,” in The Promise of the Herschel Space Observatory, G. L. Pilbratt, J. Cernicharo, A. M. Heras, T. Prusti, R. A. Harris, eds., ESASP-460, 37–44 (2001).

Szymkowiak, A.

Turner, A. D.

A. D. Turner, J. J. Bock, H. T. Nguyen, S. Sethuraman, J. W. Beeman, J. Glenn, P. C. Hargrave, A. L. Woodcraft, V. V. Hristov, F. Rahman, S. Srinivasan, A. L. Woodcraft, “Si3N4 micromesh bolometer array for submillimeter astrophysics,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4291–4932 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vigroux, L.

M. J. Griffin, B. M. Swinyard, L. Vigroux, “The SPIRE instrument for Herschel,” in The Promise of the Herschel Space Observatory, G. L. Pilbratt, J. Cernicharo, A. M. Heras, T. Prusti, R. A. Harris, eds., ESASP-460, 37–44 (2001).

P. Agnese, L. Rodriguez, L. Vigroux, “Filled bolometer arrays for Herschel/PACS,” in Proceedings of Far-IR, Submillimeter and Millimeter Detector Technology Workshop, J. Wolf, J. Farhoomand, C. R. McCreight, (eds.), NASA/CP-211408, in press (2002).

Voellmer, G.

C. D. Dowell, W. Collins, M. Gardner, A. Kovacs, D. C. Lis, T. G. Phillips, H. Yoshida, C. Allen, M. Jhabvala, S. H. Moseley, G. Voellmer, “SHARC II, a second generation 350 micron camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 198, 05.09 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2001).

Waelkens, C.

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, N. Geis, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for Herschel,” in The Promise of the Herschel Space Observatory, G. L. Pilbratt, J. Cernicharo, A. M. Heras, T. Prusti, R. A. Harris, eds., ESASP-460, 29–36 (2001).

Wang, N.

Wild, W.

A. Greve, C. Kramer, W. Wild, “The beam pattern of the IRAM 30-m telescope (a reflector with several surface error distributions),” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 133, 271–284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wirth, J.

D. A. Harper, S. H. Moseley, I. Gatley, S. C. Casey, R. Evans, R. Loewenstein, R. J. Pernic, J. Wirth, “HAWC: a far infrared camera for SOFIA,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 1211–1218 (1998).

Wolf, J.

P. Agnese, L. Rodriguez, L. Vigroux, “Filled bolometer arrays for Herschel/PACS,” in Proceedings of Far-IR, Submillimeter and Millimeter Detector Technology Workshop, J. Wolf, J. Farhoomand, C. R. McCreight, (eds.), NASA/CP-211408, in press (2002).

Woodcraft, A. L.

A. D. Turner, J. J. Bock, H. T. Nguyen, S. Sethuraman, J. W. Beeman, J. Glenn, P. C. Hargrave, A. L. Woodcraft, V. V. Hristov, F. Rahman, S. Srinivasan, A. L. Woodcraft, “Si3N4 micromesh bolometer array for submillimeter astrophysics,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4291–4932 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Turner, J. J. Bock, H. T. Nguyen, S. Sethuraman, J. W. Beeman, J. Glenn, P. C. Hargrave, A. L. Woodcraft, V. V. Hristov, F. Rahman, S. Srinivasan, A. L. Woodcraft, “Si3N4 micromesh bolometer array for submillimeter astrophysics,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4291–4932 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wylde, R. J.

R. J. Wylde, “Millimeter-wave Gaussian beam-mode optics and corrugated feed horns,” Proc. IEE 131, (Part H), 259–262 (1984).

Yoshida, H.

C. D. Dowell, W. Collins, M. Gardner, A. Kovacs, D. C. Lis, T. G. Phillips, H. Yoshida, C. Allen, M. Jhabvala, S. H. Moseley, G. Voellmer, “SHARC II, a second generation 350 micron camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 198, 05.09 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2001).

Yuen, L.

J. Glenn, J. J. Bock, G. Chattopadhyay, S. F. Eddington, A. E. Lange, J. Zmuidzinas, P. D. Mauskopf, B. Rownd, L. Yuen, P. A. R. Ade, “Bolocam: a millimeter wave bolometric camera,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 326–334 (1998).

Zmuidzinas, J.

J. Glenn, J. J. Bock, G. Chattopadhyay, S. F. Eddington, A. E. Lange, J. Zmuidzinas, P. D. Mauskopf, B. Rownd, L. Yuen, P. A. R. Ade, “Bolocam: a millimeter wave bolometric camera,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 326–334 (1998).

Zylka, R.

E. Kreysa, H.-P. Gemund, J. Gromke, C. G. T. Haslam, L. Reichertz, E. E. Haller, J. W. Beeman, V. Hansen, A. Sievers, R. Zylka, “Bolometer development at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 319–325 (1998).

Ap. J. (1)

R. G. Arendt, D. J. Fixsen, S. H. Moseley, “Dithering strategies for efficient self-calibration of imaging arrays,” Ap. J. 536, 500–512 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (1)

A. Greve, C. Kramer, W. Wild, “The beam pattern of the IRAM 30-m telescope (a reflector with several surface error distributions),” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 133, 271–284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. (1)

J.-M. Lamarre, P. A. R. Ade, A. Benoı̂t, P. de Bernardis, J. Bock, F. Bouchet, T. Bradshaw, J. Charra, S. Church, F. Couchot, J. Delabrouille, G. Efstathiou, M. Giard, Y. Giraud-Héraud, R. Gispert, M. Griffin, A. Lange, A. Murphy, F. Pajot, J.-L. Puget, I. Ristorcelli, “The high frequency instrument of Planck: design and performances,” Astrophys. Lett. and Commun. 37, 161–170 (2000).

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

W. S. Holland, E. I. Robson, W. K. Gear, C. R. Cunningham, J. F. Lightfoot, T. Jenness, R. J. Ivison, J. A. Stevens, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, W. D. Duncan, J. A. Murphy, D. A. Naylor, “SCUBA: a common-user submillimeter camera operating on the James Clerk Maxwell telescope,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 303, 659–672 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEE (1)

R. J. Wylde, “Millimeter-wave Gaussian beam-mode optics and corrugated feed horns,” Proc. IEE 131, (Part H), 259–262 (1984).

Other (12)

S. Oliver, Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QJ, England (personal communication).

E. Kreysa, H.-P. Gemund, J. Gromke, C. G. T. Haslam, L. Reichertz, E. E. Haller, J. W. Beeman, V. Hansen, A. Sievers, R. Zylka, “Bolometer development at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 319–325 (1998).

J. Glenn, J. J. Bock, G. Chattopadhyay, S. F. Eddington, A. E. Lange, J. Zmuidzinas, P. D. Mauskopf, B. Rownd, L. Yuen, P. A. R. Ade, “Bolocam: a millimeter wave bolometric camera,” in Advanced Technology, MMW, Radio, and Terahertz Telescopes, T. G. Phillips, ed., Proc. SPIE3357, 326–334 (1998).

M. J. Griffin, B. M. Swinyard, L. Vigroux, “The SPIRE instrument for Herschel,” in The Promise of the Herschel Space Observatory, G. L. Pilbratt, J. Cernicharo, A. M. Heras, T. Prusti, R. A. Harris, eds., ESASP-460, 37–44 (2001).

P. Agnese, L. Rodriguez, L. Vigroux, “Filled bolometer arrays for Herschel/PACS,” in Proceedings of Far-IR, Submillimeter and Millimeter Detector Technology Workshop, J. Wolf, J. Farhoomand, C. R. McCreight, (eds.), NASA/CP-211408, in press (2002).

C. D. Dowell, W. Collins, M. Gardner, A. Kovacs, D. C. Lis, T. G. Phillips, H. Yoshida, C. Allen, M. Jhabvala, S. H. Moseley, G. Voellmer, “SHARC II, a second generation 350 micron camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 198, 05.09 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2001).

D. A. Harper, S. H. Moseley, I. Gatley, S. C. Casey, R. Evans, R. Loewenstein, R. J. Pernic, J. Wirth, “HAWC: a far infrared camera for SOFIA,” in Infrared Astronomical Instrumentation, A. M. Fowler, ed., Proc. SPIE3354, 1211–1218 (1998).

A. Poglitsch, C. Waelkens, N. Geis, “The photodetector array camera and spectrometer (PACS) for Herschel,” in The Promise of the Herschel Space Observatory, G. L. Pilbratt, J. Cernicharo, A. M. Heras, T. Prusti, R. A. Harris, eds., ESASP-460, 29–36 (2001).

W. S. Holland, W. D. Duncan, B. D. Kelly, T. Peacocke, E. I. Robson, K. D. Irwin, G. Hilton, S. Rinehart, P. A. R. Ade, M. J. Griffin, “SCUBA-2: The next generation wide-field imager for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Proceedings of the American Astronomical Society Meeting 197, 53.01 (American Astronomical Society, Washington, DC, 2000).

K. Dohlen, A. Orignéa, D. Pouliquen, B. Swinyard, “FIRST-SPIRE spectrometer: a novel imaging FTS for the submillimeter,” in UV, Optical, and IR Space Telescopes and Instruments, J. B. Breckinridge, P. Jakobsen, eds., Proc. SPIE4013, 196–207 (2000).

C. R. Cunningham, W. K. Gear, “SCUBA—submillimeter common user bolometer array for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy IV, D. L. Crawford, ed., Proc. SPIE1235, 515–523 (1990).

J. A. Murphy, Department of Experimental Physics, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland (personal communication).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Jiggle pattern needed to achieve a fully sampled map with square-packed 2Fλ feedhorns (in the case of hexagonal close packing the jiggle pattern is slightly different, but 16 steps are still needed).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Filled-array and feedhorn aperture efficiencies versus pixel side (square, filled-array pixel) or horn aperture diameter (smooth-walled conical horn).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Feedhorn spillover efficiency ηs versus Gaussian edge taper of the telescope pupil.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FWHM beam width, in units of λ/D, versus edge taper, in decibels, for a feedhorn-coupled detector (upper plot), and pixel size in units of Fλ for a filled absorber (lower plot).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Observing speed loss versus seven-point angular step (normalized to beam FWHM).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mapping speed versus γ for an extended-source observation, normalized to the 2Fλ feedhorn case (zero instrument background).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Observing speed versus γ for point-source extraction from a map, normalized to the 2Fλ feedhorn case (zero instrument background).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Observing speed for a point source on axis, normalized to the 2Fλ feedhorn case (zero instrument background).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Observing speed versus the ratio of the internal:external brightnesses for purely background-limited observation of an extended source. All curves are normalized to the 2Fλ feedhorn case with B int/B ext = 0.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Internal:external brightness ratio versus cold-box temperature for the ground-based and spaceborne experiments discussed in the text.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Array Parameters for the Four Architecturesa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Relative Observing Speeda

Equations (31)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

AΩ=0.50.95Fλ2π=0.226F2λ2π, for 0.5Fλ pixels with 5% gap,
AΩ=1.00.95Fλ2π=0.903F2λ2π, for 1Fλ pixels with 5% gap.
PT=AΩBνTTΔνεTηsηoηd,
PA=AΩBνTAΔνεA1-εTηsηoηd,
PC=AΩBνTCΔν1-ηsηoηd,
PS=AΩBνTSΔν1-εA1-εTηsηoηd.
Ptot=AΩΔνηsηoηdBext+1-ηsηs Bint,
Bext=εTBνTT+εA1-εTBνTA+1-εA1-εTBνTS
Bint=BνTC
NEPph=2Ptothν1/2.
NEPtot=NEPph2+NEPdet21/2.
NEPtot=NEPph1+γ21/2=NEPdet1+γ21/2γ.
σ=PS2τ1/2NEPtot=AΩBνTSΔν1-εA1-εTηsηoηd2τ1/2NEPtot.
σ=K1ηsAΩτ1/2NEPtot.
σσ0=ηsAΩγηs0AΩ0γ01+γ021+γ21/2.
SpeedSpeed0=NN0σσ02=NN0ηsAΩγηs0AΩ0γ021+γ021+γ2.
γγ02=NEPph0NEPph2=Ptot0Ptot=ηs0AΩ0ηsAΩ,
SpeedSpeed0=NN0ηsAΩηs0AΩ0.
PS=SνAT1-εA1-εTΔνηAηoηd.
σ=SνAT1-εA1-εTΔνηAηoηd2τ1/2NEPtot.
σ=K2ηAτ1/2NEPtot,
SpeedSpeed0=fσσ02=fηAγηA0γ021+γ021+γ2,
1+6 exp-2ln21/2ΔθθFWHM2.
71+6 exp-2ln21/2ΔθθFWHM2.
Si=Sa exp-2ln21/2ΔθiθFWHM2,
Stot=ΣSi=K3Sa,
ΔStot=n1/2ΔS,
σ=K3n1/2 σa=K2K3ηAτ1/2n1/2NEPtot.
SpeedSpeed0=NN0σσ02=NN0ηAγηA0γ021+γ021+γ2,
γγ02=Ptot0Ptot=AΩ0AΩ2ηs0+1+ηs0BintBextηs+1+ηsBintBext.
SpeedSpeed0=NN0ηsηs02AΩAΩ0ηs0+1+ηs0BintBextηs+1+ηsBintBext.

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