Abstract

The optical trap detector is based on two, 1 cm × 1 cm silicon photodiodes and a spherical mirror contained in a package that is highly efficient for measuring light diverging from the end of an optical fiber. The mathematical derivation of the coupling efficiency relies on the integral directional response weighted by the angular intensity distribution of an idealized parabolic optical beam. Results of directional-uniformity measurements, acquired with the aid of a six-axis industrial robotic arm, indicate that the trap has a collection efficiency greater than 99.9% for a fiber numerical aperture of 0.24. Spatial uniformity measurements indicate that the variation of detector response as a function of position is less than 0.1%. The detector’s absolute responsivity at 672.3, 851.7, and 986.1 nm is also documented by comparison with other optical detectors and various input conditions and indicates that the design is well suited for laser and optical fiber power measurements.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. H. Lehman, “Calibration service for spectral responsivity of laser and optical-fiber power meters at wavelengths between 0.4 µm and 1.8 µm,” NIST Spec. Publ. 250-53 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1999), pp. 1–39.
  2. J. H. Lehman, X. Li, “A transfer standard for optical fiber power metrology,” Eng. Lab. Notes in Opt. & Photon. News, May1999 [Appl. Opt. 38, pp. 7164–7166 (1999)].
  3. E. M. Kim, D. L. Franzen, “Measurement of far field radiation patterns from optical fibers,” Nat. Bur. Stand (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 637 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1983), Vol. 2, pp. 187–206.
  4. B. N. Taylor, C. E. Kuyatt, “Guidelines for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurement results, NIST Technical Note 1297 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1994), p. 2.
  5. C. A. Hamilton, G. W. Day, R. J. Phelan, “An electrically calibrated pyroelectric radiometer system,” Nat. Bur. Stand (U.S.) Technical Note 678 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1976).
  6. I. Vayshenker, X. Li, D. J. Livigni, T. R. Scott, C. L. Cromer, “NIST measurement services: optical fiber power meter calibrations at NIST,” NIST Spec. Publ. 250-54 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1999) pp. 1–36.
  7. R. L. Gallawa, X. Li, “Calibration of optical fiber power meters: the effect of connectors,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1170–1174 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Eppeldauer, “Optical radiation measurement with selected detectors and matched electronic circuits between 200 nm and 20 µm,” NIST Technical Note 1438 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 2001), pp. 63–68.
  9. E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, T. R. Prior, “A comparison of the performance of infrared detectors for radiometric applications,” in Optical Radiation Measurements III, J. M. Palmer, ed., Proc. SPIE2815, 56–68 (1996).
  10. N. P. Fox, “Improved near-infrared detectors,” Metrologia 30, 321–325 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. H. Lehman, X. Li, “A transfer standard for optical fiber power metrology,” Eng. Lab. Notes in Opt. & Photon. News, May1999 [Appl. Opt. 38, pp. 7164–7166 (1999)].

1993 (1)

N. P. Fox, “Improved near-infrared detectors,” Metrologia 30, 321–325 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Cromer, C. L.

I. Vayshenker, X. Li, D. J. Livigni, T. R. Scott, C. L. Cromer, “NIST measurement services: optical fiber power meter calibrations at NIST,” NIST Spec. Publ. 250-54 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1999) pp. 1–36.

Day, G. W.

C. A. Hamilton, G. W. Day, R. J. Phelan, “An electrically calibrated pyroelectric radiometer system,” Nat. Bur. Stand (U.S.) Technical Note 678 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1976).

Eppeldauer, G.

G. Eppeldauer, “Optical radiation measurement with selected detectors and matched electronic circuits between 200 nm and 20 µm,” NIST Technical Note 1438 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 2001), pp. 63–68.

Fox, N. P.

N. P. Fox, “Improved near-infrared detectors,” Metrologia 30, 321–325 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, T. R. Prior, “A comparison of the performance of infrared detectors for radiometric applications,” in Optical Radiation Measurements III, J. M. Palmer, ed., Proc. SPIE2815, 56–68 (1996).

Franzen, D. L.

E. M. Kim, D. L. Franzen, “Measurement of far field radiation patterns from optical fibers,” Nat. Bur. Stand (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 637 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1983), Vol. 2, pp. 187–206.

Gallawa, R. L.

Hamilton, C. A.

C. A. Hamilton, G. W. Day, R. J. Phelan, “An electrically calibrated pyroelectric radiometer system,” Nat. Bur. Stand (U.S.) Technical Note 678 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1976).

Kim, E. M.

E. M. Kim, D. L. Franzen, “Measurement of far field radiation patterns from optical fibers,” Nat. Bur. Stand (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 637 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1983), Vol. 2, pp. 187–206.

Kuyatt, C. E.

B. N. Taylor, C. E. Kuyatt, “Guidelines for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurement results, NIST Technical Note 1297 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1994), p. 2.

Lehman, J. H.

J. H. Lehman, X. Li, “A transfer standard for optical fiber power metrology,” Eng. Lab. Notes in Opt. & Photon. News, May1999 [Appl. Opt. 38, pp. 7164–7166 (1999)].

J. H. Lehman, “Calibration service for spectral responsivity of laser and optical-fiber power meters at wavelengths between 0.4 µm and 1.8 µm,” NIST Spec. Publ. 250-53 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1999), pp. 1–39.

Li, X.

J. H. Lehman, X. Li, “A transfer standard for optical fiber power metrology,” Eng. Lab. Notes in Opt. & Photon. News, May1999 [Appl. Opt. 38, pp. 7164–7166 (1999)].

R. L. Gallawa, X. Li, “Calibration of optical fiber power meters: the effect of connectors,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1170–1174 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vayshenker, X. Li, D. J. Livigni, T. R. Scott, C. L. Cromer, “NIST measurement services: optical fiber power meter calibrations at NIST,” NIST Spec. Publ. 250-54 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1999) pp. 1–36.

Livigni, D. J.

I. Vayshenker, X. Li, D. J. Livigni, T. R. Scott, C. L. Cromer, “NIST measurement services: optical fiber power meter calibrations at NIST,” NIST Spec. Publ. 250-54 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1999) pp. 1–36.

Phelan, R. J.

C. A. Hamilton, G. W. Day, R. J. Phelan, “An electrically calibrated pyroelectric radiometer system,” Nat. Bur. Stand (U.S.) Technical Note 678 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1976).

Prior, T. R.

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, T. R. Prior, “A comparison of the performance of infrared detectors for radiometric applications,” in Optical Radiation Measurements III, J. M. Palmer, ed., Proc. SPIE2815, 56–68 (1996).

Scott, T. R.

I. Vayshenker, X. Li, D. J. Livigni, T. R. Scott, C. L. Cromer, “NIST measurement services: optical fiber power meter calibrations at NIST,” NIST Spec. Publ. 250-54 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1999) pp. 1–36.

Taylor, B. N.

B. N. Taylor, C. E. Kuyatt, “Guidelines for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurement results, NIST Technical Note 1297 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1994), p. 2.

Theocharous, E.

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, T. R. Prior, “A comparison of the performance of infrared detectors for radiometric applications,” in Optical Radiation Measurements III, J. M. Palmer, ed., Proc. SPIE2815, 56–68 (1996).

Vayshenker, I.

I. Vayshenker, X. Li, D. J. Livigni, T. R. Scott, C. L. Cromer, “NIST measurement services: optical fiber power meter calibrations at NIST,” NIST Spec. Publ. 250-54 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1999) pp. 1–36.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Eng. Lab. Notes in Opt. & Photon. News (1)

J. H. Lehman, X. Li, “A transfer standard for optical fiber power metrology,” Eng. Lab. Notes in Opt. & Photon. News, May1999 [Appl. Opt. 38, pp. 7164–7166 (1999)].

Metrologia (1)

N. P. Fox, “Improved near-infrared detectors,” Metrologia 30, 321–325 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

J. H. Lehman, “Calibration service for spectral responsivity of laser and optical-fiber power meters at wavelengths between 0.4 µm and 1.8 µm,” NIST Spec. Publ. 250-53 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1999), pp. 1–39.

E. M. Kim, D. L. Franzen, “Measurement of far field radiation patterns from optical fibers,” Nat. Bur. Stand (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 637 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1983), Vol. 2, pp. 187–206.

B. N. Taylor, C. E. Kuyatt, “Guidelines for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurement results, NIST Technical Note 1297 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1994), p. 2.

C. A. Hamilton, G. W. Day, R. J. Phelan, “An electrically calibrated pyroelectric radiometer system,” Nat. Bur. Stand (U.S.) Technical Note 678 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1976).

I. Vayshenker, X. Li, D. J. Livigni, T. R. Scott, C. L. Cromer, “NIST measurement services: optical fiber power meter calibrations at NIST,” NIST Spec. Publ. 250-54 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 1999) pp. 1–36.

G. Eppeldauer, “Optical radiation measurement with selected detectors and matched electronic circuits between 200 nm and 20 µm,” NIST Technical Note 1438 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 2001), pp. 63–68.

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, T. R. Prior, “A comparison of the performance of infrared detectors for radiometric applications,” in Optical Radiation Measurements III, J. M. Palmer, ed., Proc. SPIE2815, 56–68 (1996).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Plan view of the diode mounted on a five-sided ceramic carrier with electrical-contact pads.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two Si photodiodes mounted relative to each other (mirror and aperture-bearing case removed).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative orientation of the photodiodes, concave mirror, and diverging input beam depicted in three views.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Geometric relation of the robot’s coordinates, the detector’s aperture plane, and the orientation of the angle of incidence of the probe beam at angle θ.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sample profiles of the normalized beam irradiance at ±2°, ±10°, and ±16°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Directional responsivity measurement results.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Coupling efficiency η of the optical trap detector determined from the normalized beam profile and measurement results shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spatial uniformity of the Si trap detector.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Absolute Spectral Responsivity

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

NA=sinθw.
Pr=1-r/rw21-r/rw40,
r=c tanθ,
rw=c tanθw.
cosθ= cosαcosβ.
η=-π/2π/2-π/2π/2Pα, βRα, βcosαcos2θdαdβ.
1=-π/2π/2-π/2π/2Pα, βcosαcos2θdαdβ.

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