Abstract

In situ time-series measurements of spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring are presented. Averaged diffuse attenuation coefficients of downwelling irradiance, K d, and their elastic and inelastic components are investigated at seven wavelengths. At shorter wavelengths (<510 nm), K d is weakly dependent on the solar zenith angle owing to the prevailing scattering effect and therefore can be considered a quasi-inherent optical property. At longer wavelengths (>510 nm), K d shows a strong dependence on the solar zenith angle. As depth increases, inelastic scattering plays a greater role for the underwater light field at red wavelengths.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  2. N. K. Hojerslev, “Daylight measurements for photosynthetic studies in the Western Mediterranean,” Univ. Copenhagen Inst. Phys. Oceanogr. Rep. 26 (Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 1974).
  3. J. H. Nielsen, E. Aas, “Relation between solar elevation and the vertical attenuation coefficient of irradiance in Oslofjorden,” Univ. of Oslo Rep. 31 (Univ. of Oslo, Oslo, 1977).
  4. K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Quasi-inherent characteristics of the diffuse attenuation coefficient for irradiance,” in Ocean Optics VI, S. Q. Duntley, ed., Proc. SPIE208, 60–63 (1979).
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  7. M. Stramska, D. Frye, “Dependence of apparent optical properties on solar altitude: experimental results based on mooring data collected in the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 15679–15691 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert-Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. T. O. Kirk, “Volume scattering function, average cosine, and the underwater light field,” Limnol. Oceangr. 36, 455–467 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, N. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. H. Stavn, “Raman-scattering effects at the shorter visible wavelengths in clear ocean waters,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 94–100 (1990).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. Mobley, D. Kiefer, “Effects of Raman scattering on the average cosine and diffuse attenuation coefficient of irradiance in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 564–576 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Siegel, T. Dickey, “Characterization of downwelling spectral irradiance fluctuations,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE925, 67–74 (1988).
  16. C. Mobley, L. Sundman, Hydrolight 4.1 Technical Documentation (Sequoia Scientific, Inc., Redmond, Wash., 2000).
  17. T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Dickey, S. Zedler, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, L. Dobeck, X. Yu, T. Gilboy, C. Bravo, S. C. Doney, D. A. Siegel, N. Nelson, “Physical and biogeochemical variability from hours to years at the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site: June 1994–March 1998,” Deep-Sea Res. II 48, 2105–2140 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Zedler, X. Yu, S. Jiang, T. D. Dickey, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, F. Spada, Bermuda Testbed Mooring Data Report for Deployment #12 (Ocean Physics Laboratory, Univ. of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1999).
  20. J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1994).
  21. J. Zaneveld, E. Boss, A. Barnard, “Influence of surface waves on measured and modeled irradiance profiles,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1442–1449 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Stramska, T. Dickey, “Short-term variability of the underwater light field in the oligotrophic ocean in response to surface waves and clouds,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
  23. K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Irradiance transmittance through the air/water interface,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 556–565 (1990).
  24. D. Tanre, M. Herman, P. Y. Deschamps, A. DeLeffe, “Atmospheric modeling for space measurements of ground reflectances, including bidirectional properties,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3587–3594 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).
  26. A. Morel, “Light and marine photosynthesis: a spectral model with geochemical and climatological implications,” Prog. Oceanorgr. 26, 263–306 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. T. O. Kirk, “Dependence of relationship between inherent and apparent optical properties of water on solar altitude,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, 350–356 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. W. Preisendorfer, “Theoretical proof of the existence of characteristic diffuse light in natural waters,” J. Mar. Res. 18, 1–9 (1959).
  29. N. K. Hojerslev, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A theoretical proof of the existence of the submarine asymptotic daylight field,” Univ. Copenhagen Inst. Phys. Oceanogr. Rep. 34 (Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 1977).
  30. B. N. Taylor, C. E. Kuyatt, “Guidelines for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurement results,” NIST Tech. Note 1297 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1994).
  31. M. Lewis, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4J1, Canada, and Satlantic, Inc., 3295 Barrington Street, Halifax, NS B3K 5X8, Canada (personal communication, 2001).

2001 (2)

T. Dickey, S. Zedler, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, L. Dobeck, X. Yu, T. Gilboy, C. Bravo, S. C. Doney, D. A. Siegel, N. Nelson, “Physical and biogeochemical variability from hours to years at the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site: June 1994–March 1998,” Deep-Sea Res. II 48, 2105–2140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Zaneveld, E. Boss, A. Barnard, “Influence of surface waves on measured and modeled irradiance profiles,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1442–1449 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

M. Stramska, T. Dickey, “Short-term variability of the underwater light field in the oligotrophic ocean in response to surface waves and clouds,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. Mobley, D. Kiefer, “Effects of Raman scattering on the average cosine and diffuse attenuation coefficient of irradiance in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 564–576 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Stramska, D. Frye, “Dependence of apparent optical properties on solar altitude: experimental results based on mooring data collected in the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 15679–15691 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

J. T. O. Kirk, “Volume scattering function, average cosine, and the underwater light field,” Limnol. Oceangr. 36, 455–467 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Light and marine photosynthesis: a spectral model with geochemical and climatological implications,” Prog. Oceanorgr. 26, 263–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert-Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, N. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. T. O. Kirk, “Dependence of relationship between inherent and apparent optical properties of water on solar altitude,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, 350–356 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1959 (1)

R. W. Preisendorfer, “Theoretical proof of the existence of characteristic diffuse light in natural waters,” J. Mar. Res. 18, 1–9 (1959).

Aas, E.

J. H. Nielsen, E. Aas, “Relation between solar elevation and the vertical attenuation coefficient of irradiance in Oslofjorden,” Univ. of Oslo Rep. 31 (Univ. of Oslo, Oslo, 1977).

Baker, K. S.

K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Quasi-inherent characteristics of the diffuse attenuation coefficient for irradiance,” in Ocean Optics VI, S. Q. Duntley, ed., Proc. SPIE208, 60–63 (1979).

K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Irradiance transmittance through the air/water interface,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 556–565 (1990).

Barnard, A.

Berwald, J.

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. Mobley, D. Kiefer, “Effects of Raman scattering on the average cosine and diffuse attenuation coefficient of irradiance in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 564–576 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

Boyle, E.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bravo, C.

T. Dickey, S. Zedler, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, L. Dobeck, X. Yu, T. Gilboy, C. Bravo, S. C. Doney, D. A. Siegel, N. Nelson, “Physical and biogeochemical variability from hours to years at the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site: June 1994–March 1998,” Deep-Sea Res. II 48, 2105–2140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DeLeffe, A.

Deschamps, P. Y.

Dickey, T.

T. Dickey, S. Zedler, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, L. Dobeck, X. Yu, T. Gilboy, C. Bravo, S. C. Doney, D. A. Siegel, N. Nelson, “Physical and biogeochemical variability from hours to years at the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site: June 1994–March 1998,” Deep-Sea Res. II 48, 2105–2140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Stramska, T. Dickey, “Short-term variability of the underwater light field in the oligotrophic ocean in response to surface waves and clouds,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Siegel, T. Dickey, “Characterization of downwelling spectral irradiance fluctuations,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE925, 67–74 (1988).

Dickey, T. D.

S. Zedler, X. Yu, S. Jiang, T. D. Dickey, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, F. Spada, Bermuda Testbed Mooring Data Report for Deployment #12 (Ocean Physics Laboratory, Univ. of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1999).

Dobeck, L.

T. Dickey, S. Zedler, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, L. Dobeck, X. Yu, T. Gilboy, C. Bravo, S. C. Doney, D. A. Siegel, N. Nelson, “Physical and biogeochemical variability from hours to years at the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site: June 1994–March 1998,” Deep-Sea Res. II 48, 2105–2140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Doney, S. C.

T. Dickey, S. Zedler, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, L. Dobeck, X. Yu, T. Gilboy, C. Bravo, S. C. Doney, D. A. Siegel, N. Nelson, “Physical and biogeochemical variability from hours to years at the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site: June 1994–March 1998,” Deep-Sea Res. II 48, 2105–2140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frye, D.

T. Dickey, S. Zedler, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, L. Dobeck, X. Yu, T. Gilboy, C. Bravo, S. C. Doney, D. A. Siegel, N. Nelson, “Physical and biogeochemical variability from hours to years at the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site: June 1994–March 1998,” Deep-Sea Res. II 48, 2105–2140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Stramska, D. Frye, “Dependence of apparent optical properties on solar altitude: experimental results based on mooring data collected in the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 15679–15691 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gilboy, T.

T. Dickey, S. Zedler, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, L. Dobeck, X. Yu, T. Gilboy, C. Bravo, S. C. Doney, D. A. Siegel, N. Nelson, “Physical and biogeochemical variability from hours to years at the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site: June 1994–March 1998,” Deep-Sea Res. II 48, 2105–2140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert-Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Monte Carlo simulations for interpretation of irradiance measurements from moored instruments: preliminary results,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 366–370 (1992).

Herman, M.

Hojerslev, N. K.

N. K. Hojerslev, “Daylight measurements for photosynthetic studies in the Western Mediterranean,” Univ. Copenhagen Inst. Phys. Oceanogr. Rep. 26 (Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 1974).

N. K. Hojerslev, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A theoretical proof of the existence of the submarine asymptotic daylight field,” Univ. Copenhagen Inst. Phys. Oceanogr. Rep. 34 (Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 1977).

Jannasch, H.

T. Dickey, S. Zedler, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, L. Dobeck, X. Yu, T. Gilboy, C. Bravo, S. C. Doney, D. A. Siegel, N. Nelson, “Physical and biogeochemical variability from hours to years at the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site: June 1994–March 1998,” Deep-Sea Res. II 48, 2105–2140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1976).

Jiang, S.

S. Zedler, X. Yu, S. Jiang, T. D. Dickey, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, F. Spada, Bermuda Testbed Mooring Data Report for Deployment #12 (Ocean Physics Laboratory, Univ. of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1999).

Kiefer, D.

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. Mobley, D. Kiefer, “Effects of Raman scattering on the average cosine and diffuse attenuation coefficient of irradiance in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 564–576 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, J. T. O.

J. T. O. Kirk, “Volume scattering function, average cosine, and the underwater light field,” Limnol. Oceangr. 36, 455–467 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. T. O. Kirk, “Dependence of relationship between inherent and apparent optical properties of water on solar altitude,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, 350–356 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1994).

Kishino, M.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, N. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Knap, A.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuyatt, C. E.

B. N. Taylor, C. E. Kuyatt, “Guidelines for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurement results,” NIST Tech. Note 1297 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1994).

Lewis, M.

M. Lewis, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4J1, Canada, and Satlantic, Inc., 3295 Barrington Street, Halifax, NS B3K 5X8, Canada (personal communication, 2001).

Manov, D.

T. Dickey, S. Zedler, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, L. Dobeck, X. Yu, T. Gilboy, C. Bravo, S. C. Doney, D. A. Siegel, N. Nelson, “Physical and biogeochemical variability from hours to years at the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site: June 1994–March 1998,” Deep-Sea Res. II 48, 2105–2140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Zedler, X. Yu, S. Jiang, T. D. Dickey, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, F. Spada, Bermuda Testbed Mooring Data Report for Deployment #12 (Ocean Physics Laboratory, Univ. of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1999).

McNeil, J.

T. Dickey, S. Zedler, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, L. Dobeck, X. Yu, T. Gilboy, C. Bravo, S. C. Doney, D. A. Siegel, N. Nelson, “Physical and biogeochemical variability from hours to years at the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site: June 1994–March 1998,” Deep-Sea Res. II 48, 2105–2140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Michaels, A.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C.

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. Mobley, D. Kiefer, “Effects of Raman scattering on the average cosine and diffuse attenuation coefficient of irradiance in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 564–576 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Mobley, L. Sundman, Hydrolight 4.1 Technical Documentation (Sequoia Scientific, Inc., Redmond, Wash., 2000).

Mobley, C. D.

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

Morel, A.

A. Morel, “Light and marine photosynthesis: a spectral model with geochemical and climatological implications,” Prog. Oceanorgr. 26, 263–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, N.

T. Dickey, S. Zedler, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, L. Dobeck, X. Yu, T. Gilboy, C. Bravo, S. C. Doney, D. A. Siegel, N. Nelson, “Physical and biogeochemical variability from hours to years at the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site: June 1994–March 1998,” Deep-Sea Res. II 48, 2105–2140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, J. H.

J. H. Nielsen, E. Aas, “Relation between solar elevation and the vertical attenuation coefficient of irradiance in Oslofjorden,” Univ. of Oslo Rep. 31 (Univ. of Oslo, Oslo, 1977).

Okami, N.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, N. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Preisendorfer, R. W.

R. W. Preisendorfer, “Theoretical proof of the existence of characteristic diffuse light in natural waters,” J. Mar. Res. 18, 1–9 (1959).

Siegel, D.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Siegel, T. Dickey, “Characterization of downwelling spectral irradiance fluctuations,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE925, 67–74 (1988).

Siegel, D. A.

T. Dickey, S. Zedler, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, L. Dobeck, X. Yu, T. Gilboy, C. Bravo, S. C. Doney, D. A. Siegel, N. Nelson, “Physical and biogeochemical variability from hours to years at the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site: June 1994–March 1998,” Deep-Sea Res. II 48, 2105–2140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sigurdson, D.

T. Dickey, S. Zedler, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, L. Dobeck, X. Yu, T. Gilboy, C. Bravo, S. C. Doney, D. A. Siegel, N. Nelson, “Physical and biogeochemical variability from hours to years at the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site: June 1994–March 1998,” Deep-Sea Res. II 48, 2105–2140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Zedler, X. Yu, S. Jiang, T. D. Dickey, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, F. Spada, Bermuda Testbed Mooring Data Report for Deployment #12 (Ocean Physics Laboratory, Univ. of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1999).

Smith, R. C.

K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Irradiance transmittance through the air/water interface,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 556–565 (1990).

K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Quasi-inherent characteristics of the diffuse attenuation coefficient for irradiance,” in Ocean Optics VI, S. Q. Duntley, ed., Proc. SPIE208, 60–63 (1979).

Spada, F.

S. Zedler, X. Yu, S. Jiang, T. D. Dickey, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, F. Spada, Bermuda Testbed Mooring Data Report for Deployment #12 (Ocean Physics Laboratory, Univ. of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1999).

Stavn, R. H.

Stramska, M.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Stramska, T. Dickey, “Short-term variability of the underwater light field in the oligotrophic ocean in response to surface waves and clouds,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).

M. Stramska, D. Frye, “Dependence of apparent optical properties on solar altitude: experimental results based on mooring data collected in the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 15679–15691 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. Mobley, D. Kiefer, “Effects of Raman scattering on the average cosine and diffuse attenuation coefficient of irradiance in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 564–576 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sugihara, S.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, N. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sundman, L.

C. Mobley, L. Sundman, Hydrolight 4.1 Technical Documentation (Sequoia Scientific, Inc., Redmond, Wash., 2000).

Tanre, D.

Taylor, B. N.

B. N. Taylor, C. E. Kuyatt, “Guidelines for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurement results,” NIST Tech. Note 1297 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1994).

Weidemann, A. D.

Wilson, W. H.

W. H. Wilson, “Spreading of light beams in ocean water,” in Ocean Optics VI, S. Q. Duntley, ed., Proc. SPIE208, 64–72 (1979).

Wu, J.

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

T. Dickey, S. Zedler, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, L. Dobeck, X. Yu, T. Gilboy, C. Bravo, S. C. Doney, D. A. Siegel, N. Nelson, “Physical and biogeochemical variability from hours to years at the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site: June 1994–March 1998,” Deep-Sea Res. II 48, 2105–2140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Zedler, X. Yu, S. Jiang, T. D. Dickey, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, F. Spada, Bermuda Testbed Mooring Data Report for Deployment #12 (Ocean Physics Laboratory, Univ. of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1999).

Zaneveld, J.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

N. K. Hojerslev, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A theoretical proof of the existence of the submarine asymptotic daylight field,” Univ. Copenhagen Inst. Phys. Oceanogr. Rep. 34 (Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 1977).

Zedler, S.

T. Dickey, S. Zedler, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, L. Dobeck, X. Yu, T. Gilboy, C. Bravo, S. C. Doney, D. A. Siegel, N. Nelson, “Physical and biogeochemical variability from hours to years at the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site: June 1994–March 1998,” Deep-Sea Res. II 48, 2105–2140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Zedler, X. Yu, S. Jiang, T. D. Dickey, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, F. Spada, Bermuda Testbed Mooring Data Report for Deployment #12 (Ocean Physics Laboratory, Univ. of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1999).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Deep-Sea Res. I (2)

M. Stramska, T. Dickey, “Short-term variability of the underwater light field in the oligotrophic ocean in response to surface waves and clouds,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).

T. Dickey, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, E. Boyle, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, M. Stramska, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, D. Siegel, G. Chang, J. Wu, A. Knap, “Initial results from the Bermuda Testbed Mooring Program,” Deep-Sea Res. I 45, 771–794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. II (1)

T. Dickey, S. Zedler, D. Frye, H. Jannasch, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, J. McNeil, L. Dobeck, X. Yu, T. Gilboy, C. Bravo, S. C. Doney, D. A. Siegel, N. Nelson, “Physical and biogeochemical variability from hours to years at the Bermuda Testbed Mooring site: June 1994–March 1998,” Deep-Sea Res. II 48, 2105–2140 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

M. Stramska, D. Frye, “Dependence of apparent optical properties on solar altitude: experimental results based on mooring data collected in the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 15679–15691 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res. (1)

R. W. Preisendorfer, “Theoretical proof of the existence of characteristic diffuse light in natural waters,” J. Mar. Res. 18, 1–9 (1959).

J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. (1)

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, N. Okami, “Contribution of Raman scattering to upward irradiance in the sea,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 40, 397–404 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceangr. (1)

J. T. O. Kirk, “Volume scattering function, average cosine, and the underwater light field,” Limnol. Oceangr. 36, 455–467 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (3)

J. T. O. Kirk, “Dependence of relationship between inherent and apparent optical properties of water on solar altitude,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, 350–356 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Can the Lambert-Beer law be applied to the diffuse attenuation coefficient of ocean water?” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1389–1409 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Berwald, D. Stramski, C. Mobley, D. Kiefer, “Effects of Raman scattering on the average cosine and diffuse attenuation coefficient of irradiance in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 564–576 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Oceanorgr. (1)

A. Morel, “Light and marine photosynthesis: a spectral model with geochemical and climatological implications,” Prog. Oceanorgr. 26, 263–306 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

N. K. Hojerslev, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “A theoretical proof of the existence of the submarine asymptotic daylight field,” Univ. Copenhagen Inst. Phys. Oceanogr. Rep. 34 (Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 1977).

B. N. Taylor, C. E. Kuyatt, “Guidelines for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurement results,” NIST Tech. Note 1297 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1994).

M. Lewis, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4J1, Canada, and Satlantic, Inc., 3295 Barrington Street, Halifax, NS B3K 5X8, Canada (personal communication, 2001).

K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Irradiance transmittance through the air/water interface,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 556–565 (1990).

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1994).

D. Siegel, T. Dickey, “Characterization of downwelling spectral irradiance fluctuations,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE925, 67–74 (1988).

C. Mobley, L. Sundman, Hydrolight 4.1 Technical Documentation (Sequoia Scientific, Inc., Redmond, Wash., 2000).

S. Zedler, X. Yu, S. Jiang, T. D. Dickey, D. Manov, D. Sigurdson, F. Spada, Bermuda Testbed Mooring Data Report for Deployment #12 (Ocean Physics Laboratory, Univ. of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1999).

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1994).

R. H. Stavn, “Raman-scattering effects at the shorter visible wavelengths in clear ocean waters,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 94–100 (1990).

N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1976).

N. K. Hojerslev, “Daylight measurements for photosynthetic studies in the Western Mediterranean,” Univ. Copenhagen Inst. Phys. Oceanogr. Rep. 26 (Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 1974).

J. H. Nielsen, E. Aas, “Relation between solar elevation and the vertical attenuation coefficient of irradiance in Oslofjorden,” Univ. of Oslo Rep. 31 (Univ. of Oslo, Oslo, 1977).

K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Quasi-inherent characteristics of the diffuse attenuation coefficient for irradiance,” in Ocean Optics VI, S. Q. Duntley, ed., Proc. SPIE208, 60–63 (1979).

H. R. Gordon, “Monte Carlo simulations for interpretation of irradiance measurements from moored instruments: preliminary results,” in Ocean Optics XI, G. D. Gilbert, ed., Proc. SPIE1750, 366–370 (1992).

W. H. Wilson, “Spreading of light beams in ocean water,” in Ocean Optics VI, S. Q. Duntley, ed., Proc. SPIE208, 64–72 (1979).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a MORS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Correlation coefficient between surface irradiance E d (0+) and the cosine of the solar zenith angle. (b) Correlation coefficients between E d (0+) and E d (14 m) and between E d (14 m) and E d (21 m).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Daily profiles of E d for six good Julian days, obtained under favorable sky, surface, and water body conditions. The upper and lower rows of subplots correspond to E d at 490 and 683 nm, respectively. E d is presented in relative units; therefore y-axis tick labels are omitted for clarity. The solid curve represents cos θ a , normalized to the maximum of E d in each day. (b) Daily profiles of E d for six bad Julian days. The plotting configuration is similar to that in (a). JD, Julian days; they are labeled above the plots.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

E d sampled at an interval of 45 s around local noon on Julian day 240 (JD 240), λ = 490 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Instantaneous and averaged E d at 14-m water depth on Julian day 240, λ = 490 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

K d (λ, θ w ) in the upper (0 to 14 m; left panels) and deeper (14 to 21 m; right panels) layers, in units of inverse meters. The horizontal axes represent the refracted solar zenith angle, θ w , in water, starting from sunrise at the left with sunset at the right; noon data are in the center.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Correlation of K d (λ) with 1/μ and its dependence on b/ a (curves with symbols). b/ a is scaled on the right vertical axis (solid curve). K d becomes less correlated with the refracted zenith angle for greater b/ a values.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Hydrolight-simulated K d (in inverse meters) and its elastic and inelastic components in the deeper layer (14 to 21 m) at 665 and 683 nm. At larger θ w , the inelastic component increases faster than the elastic component, which results in a smaller total K d . The plotting configuration is similar to that in Fig. 6.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Ratio of the inelastic component to total E d , η(z), at seven wavelengths. The water column is partitioned into three layers for 665 and 683 nm. (b) The total K d and its inelastic component K d I in the suggested three layers of the Sargasso Sea.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

K d (λ, θ w ) under overcast conditions. The plotting configuration is the same as that in Fig. 6.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

K d (λ) of two layers under sunny sky and with a zenith angle of 14°. K d decreases at the red wavelengths and flattens at the deeper depth; both effects are due to the inelastic scattering.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Average spectral error in E d that is due to short-term wave focusing and defocusing.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Daily time series of water pressure measured at 14 m on Julian day 240.

Equations (14)

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Kd=-1EddEddz,
Kd014 m=ln Ed0--ln Ed14 m/14-0,
Kd1421 m=ln Ed14-ln Ed21 m/21-14,
Ed0+, θa=Edirect0+, θa+Ediffuse0+, θa,
Ed0-, θw=1-ρdirectθaEdirect0+, θa+1-ρdiffuseθaEdiffuse0+, θa+ρwEu0-, θw,
Ed0-, θw=11-ρwR1-ρdirect1-y+1-ρdiffuseyEd0+, θa=11-ρwRtθaEd0+, θa,
Ed=Ede+EdI,
η=EdI/Ed.
Ed=Ede/1-η.
Kd=Kde-KdI.
Kdez1z2; θw=1z2-z1lnEdz1, θwEdz2, θw,
KdIz1z2; θw=1z2-z1ln1-ηz1, θw1-ηz2, θw.
uKd2=KdEdz12u12+KdEdz22u22=1z2-z12u1Edz12+1z2-z12u2Edz22.
Kd=ln 1Ed0z1-ln 2Ed0z2z2-z1=ln Ed0z1-ln Ed0z2z2-z1+ln1/2z2-z1=Kd0+,

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