Abstract

We describe a Raman-lidar-based approach to acquiring profiles of the relative humidity of air. For this purpose we combined in one instrument the Raman-lidar techniques that are used for the profiling of water vapor and temperature. This approach enabled us to acquire, for the first time to our knowledge, vertical profiles of relative humidity through the entire troposphere exclusively from Raman-lidar data. The methods applied to determining the water-vapor mixing ratio, temperature, and relative humidity and the corresponding uncertainties caused by systematic errors and signal noise are presented. The lidar-derived profiles are compared with profiles measured with radiosondes. Radiosonde observations are also used to calibrate the Raman lidar. Close agreement of the profiles of relative humidity measured with lidar and those measured with radiosonde demonstrates the potential of this novel approach.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2002

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2002GL014721 (2002).

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Heilman Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, T. P. Tooman, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37–50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

D. Nagel, U. Leiterer, H. Dier, A. Kats, J. Reichardt, A. Behrendt, “High accuracy humidity measurements using the standardized frequency method with a research upper-air sounding system,” Meteorol. Z. 10, 395–405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Miloshevich, H. Vömel, A. Paukkunen, A. J. Heymsfield, S. J. Oltmans, “Characterization and correction of relative humidity measurements from Vaisala RS80-A radiosondes at cold temperatures,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 135–156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, F. Wagner, “One-year observations of particle lidar ratio over the tropical Indian Ocean with Raman lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4559–4562 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Bruneau, P. Quaglia, C. Flamant, J. Pelon, “Airborne lidar LEANDRE II for water-vapor profiling in the troposphere. II. First results,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3462–3475 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Behrendt, J. Reichardt, “Atmospheric temperature profiling in the presence of clouds with a pure rotational Raman lidar by use of an interference-filter-based polychromator,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1372–1378 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Physical properties of the Indian aerosol plume derived from six-wavelength lidar observations on 25 March 1999 of the Indian Ocean Experiment,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1403–1406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, W. F. Feltz, R. A. Ferrare, “Continuous water vapor profiles from operational ground-based active and passive remote sensors,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 1301–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Görsdorf, V. Lehmann, “Enhanced accuracy of RASS-measured temperatures due to an improved range correction,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 17, 406–416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Twenty-four-hour Raman lidar measurements during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program’s 1996 and 1997 water vapor intensive observation periods,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1062–1076 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR–NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, “Use of a Fabry–Perot interferometer to isolate pure rotational Raman spectra of diatomic molecules,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4635–4638 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Sherlock, A. Hauchecorne, J. Lenoble, “Methodology for the independent calibration of Raman backscatter water-vapor lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5816–5837 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Sherlock, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, “Implementation and validation of a Raman lidar measurement of middle and upper tropospheric water vapor,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5838–5850 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

V. Wulfmeyer, J. Bösenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water vapor profiling: assessment of accuracy, resolution, and meteorological applications,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3825–3844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. M. Goldsmith, F. H. Blair, S. E. Bisson, D. D. Turner, “Turn-key Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4979–4990 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. B. Grant, “Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements from air and space,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 399–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,663–19,672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,673–19,690 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, H. M. Woolf, H. Ben Howell, “Meteorological applications of temperature and water vapor retrievals from the ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 37, 857–875 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, F. Wagner, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, “Evolution of the Pinatubo aerosol: Raman lidar observations of particle optical depth, effective radius, mass, and surface area over central Europe at 53.4° N,” J. Atmos. Sci. 54, 2630–2641 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Leiterer, H. Dier, T. Naebert, “Improvements in radiosonde humidity profiles using RS80/RS90 radiosondes of Vaisala,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 70, 319–336 (1997).

1996

1995

U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, “Determination of stratospheric-aerosol microphysical properties from independent extinction and backscattering measurements with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8315–8329 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Starr, “A comparison of water vapor measurements made by Raman lidar and radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 12, 1177–1195 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. Nedeljkovic, A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Rotational Raman lidar to measure the atmospheric temperature from ground to 30 km,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 90–101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Theopold, J. Bösenberg, “Differential absorption lidar measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles: theory and experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 165–179 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Vaughan, D. P. Wareing, S. J. Pepler, L. Thomas, V. M. Mitev, “Atmospheric temperature measurements made by rotational Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2758–2764 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Whiteman, W. F. Murphy, N. W. Walsh, K. D. Evans, “Temperature sensitivity of an atmospheric Raman lidar system based on a XeF excimer laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 247–249 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar systems for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

1989

S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, R. A. Ferrare, “Observation of atmospheric fronts using Raman lidar moisture measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 789–806 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

D. Renaut, R. Capitini, “Boundary-layer water vapor probing with a solar-blind Raman lidar: validations, meteorological observations and prospect,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 5, 585–601 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Vaughan, D. P. Wareing, L. Thomas, V. Mitev, “Humidity measurements in the free troposphere using Raman backscatter,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 114, 1471–1484 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985

1983

1982

C. L. Korb, C. Y. Weng, “A theoretical study of a two-wavelength lidar technique for the measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1346–1355 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

1979

R. Gill, K. Geller, J. Farina, J. Cooney, A. Cohen, “Measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles using Raman lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 225–226 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Pourny, D. Renaut, A. Orszag, “Raman-lidar humidity sounding of the observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1141–1148 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976

G. Hänel, “An attempt to interpret the humidity dependencies of the aerosol extinction and scattering coefficients,” Atmos. Environ. 15, 403–406 (1976).

1972

J. Cooney, “Measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles by Raman backscatter,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 108–112 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. Strauch, V. Derr, R. Cupp, “Atmospheric water vapor measurement by Raman lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 2, 101–108 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970

J. A. Cooney, “Remote measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles using the Raman component of laser backscatter,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 9, 182–184 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 40–42 (1969).

Alpers, M.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Althausen, D.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2002GL014721 (2002).

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, F. Wagner, “One-year observations of particle lidar ratio over the tropical Indian Ocean with Raman lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4559–4562 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Physical properties of the Indian aerosol plume derived from six-wavelength lidar observations on 25 March 1999 of the Indian Ocean Experiment,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1403–1406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, “Routine dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations at Leipzig as part of an aerosol lidar network in Germany,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, G. Schwemmer, U. N. Singh, S. Ismail, eds., NASA Conf. Publ. 1998-207671 (1998), Part 1, pp. 29–32.

S. M. Bobrovnikov, Y. F. Arshinov, I. B. Serikov, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, “Daytime temperature profiling in the troposphere with a pure rotational Raman lidar,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmospheric and Earth Sciences, L. R. Bissonnette, G. Roy, G. Vallee, eds. (Defense Research and Development Canada—Valcartier, Quebec, Canada, 2002), pp. 717–720.

Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, “Spectrally absolute instrumental approach to isolate pure rotational Raman lidar returns from nitrogen molecules of the atmosphere,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 121–124.

I. B. Serikov, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, “Distortion of the temperature profile of the atmosphere acquired with a pure rotational Raman lidar due to sphericity of the Fabry–Perot interferometer plates,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmospheric and Earth Sciences, L. R. Bissonnette, G. Roy, G. Vallee, eds. (Defense Research and Development Canada—Valcartier, Quebec, Canada, 2002), pp. 721–724.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Ansmann, A.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2002GL014721 (2002).

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, F. Wagner, “One-year observations of particle lidar ratio over the tropical Indian Ocean with Raman lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4559–4562 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Physical properties of the Indian aerosol plume derived from six-wavelength lidar observations on 25 March 1999 of the Indian Ocean Experiment,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1403–1406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, F. Wagner, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, “Evolution of the Pinatubo aerosol: Raman lidar observations of particle optical depth, effective radius, mass, and surface area over central Europe at 53.4° N,” J. Atmos. Sci. 54, 2630–2641 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, “Determination of stratospheric-aerosol microphysical properties from independent extinction and backscattering measurements with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8315–8329 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, “Spectrally absolute instrumental approach to isolate pure rotational Raman lidar returns from nitrogen molecules of the atmosphere,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 121–124.

A. Ansmann, Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Mattis, I. Serikov, U. Wandinger, “Double-grating monochromator for a pure rotational Raman lidar,” in Fifth International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, V. E. Zuev, G. G. Matvienko, eds., Proc. SPIE3583, 491–497 (1998).

S. M. Bobrovnikov, Y. F. Arshinov, I. B. Serikov, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, “Daytime temperature profiling in the troposphere with a pure rotational Raman lidar,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmospheric and Earth Sciences, L. R. Bissonnette, G. Roy, G. Vallee, eds. (Defense Research and Development Canada—Valcartier, Quebec, Canada, 2002), pp. 717–720.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, “Tropospheric temperature profiling based on detection of Stokes and anti-Stokes rotational Raman lines at 532 nm,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, G. Schwemmer, U. N. Singh, S. Ismail, eds., NASA Conf. Publ. 1998-207671 (1998), Part 1, pp. 297–300.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Tropospheric water vapor measurement by Raman lidar: atmospheric extinction correction,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Laser Radar Conference, V. E. Zuev, ed. (Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk, Russia, 1990), pp. 256–259.

I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, “Routine dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations at Leipzig as part of an aerosol lidar network in Germany,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, G. Schwemmer, U. N. Singh, S. Ismail, eds., NASA Conf. Publ. 1998-207671 (1998), Part 1, pp. 29–32.

I. Mattis, V. Jaenisch, D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, “Classification of particle extinction profiles derived within the framework of the German aerosol lidar network by the use of cluster analysis of backtrajectories,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 211–214.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Arshinov, Y.

A. Ansmann, Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Mattis, I. Serikov, U. Wandinger, “Double-grating monochromator for a pure rotational Raman lidar,” in Fifth International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, V. E. Zuev, G. G. Matvienko, eds., Proc. SPIE3583, 491–497 (1998).

Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, “Spectrally absolute instrumental approach to isolate pure rotational Raman lidar returns from nitrogen molecules of the atmosphere,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 121–124.

Arshinov, Y. F.

Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, “Use of a Fabry–Perot interferometer to isolate pure rotational Raman spectra of diatomic molecules,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4635–4638 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, V. E. Zuev, V. M. Mitev, “Atmospheric temperature measurements using a pure rotational Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2984–2990 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. B. Serikov, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, “Distortion of the temperature profile of the atmosphere acquired with a pure rotational Raman lidar due to sphericity of the Fabry–Perot interferometer plates,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmospheric and Earth Sciences, L. R. Bissonnette, G. Roy, G. Vallee, eds. (Defense Research and Development Canada—Valcartier, Quebec, Canada, 2002), pp. 721–724.

S. M. Bobrovnikov, Y. F. Arshinov, I. B. Serikov, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, “Daytime temperature profiling in the troposphere with a pure rotational Raman lidar,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmospheric and Earth Sciences, L. R. Bissonnette, G. Roy, G. Vallee, eds. (Defense Research and Development Canada—Valcartier, Quebec, Canada, 2002), pp. 717–720.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, “Tropospheric temperature profiling based on detection of Stokes and anti-Stokes rotational Raman lines at 532 nm,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, G. Schwemmer, U. N. Singh, S. Ismail, eds., NASA Conf. Publ. 1998-207671 (1998), Part 1, pp. 297–300.

Assion, A.

G. Poberaj, A. Assion, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapor measurements in the tropopause region,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 325–328.

Baldasano, J. M.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Balis, D.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Banta, R. M.

T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR–NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Behrendt, A.

D. Nagel, U. Leiterer, H. Dier, A. Kats, J. Reichardt, A. Behrendt, “High accuracy humidity measurements using the standardized frequency method with a research upper-air sounding system,” Meteorol. Z. 10, 395–405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, J. Reichardt, “Atmospheric temperature profiling in the presence of clouds with a pure rotational Raman lidar by use of an interference-filter-based polychromator,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1372–1378 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, T. Nakamura, Y. Sawai, M. Onishi, T. Tsuda, “Rotational vibrational–rotational Raman lidar: design and performance of the RASC Raman lidar at Shigaraki (38.8 °N, 136.1 °E), Japan,” in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring II, U. N. Singh, ed., Proc. SPIE4484, 151–162 (2002).

Ben Howell, H.

W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, H. M. Woolf, H. Ben Howell, “Meteorological applications of temperature and water vapor retrievals from the ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 37, 857–875 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bisson, S. E.

Blair, F. H.

Bobrovnikov, S.

A. Ansmann, Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Mattis, I. Serikov, U. Wandinger, “Double-grating monochromator for a pure rotational Raman lidar,” in Fifth International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, V. E. Zuev, G. G. Matvienko, eds., Proc. SPIE3583, 491–497 (1998).

Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, “Spectrally absolute instrumental approach to isolate pure rotational Raman lidar returns from nitrogen molecules of the atmosphere,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 121–124.

Bobrovnikov, S. M.

Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, “Use of a Fabry–Perot interferometer to isolate pure rotational Raman spectra of diatomic molecules,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4635–4638 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, V. E. Zuev, V. M. Mitev, “Atmospheric temperature measurements using a pure rotational Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2984–2990 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. B. Serikov, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, “Distortion of the temperature profile of the atmosphere acquired with a pure rotational Raman lidar due to sphericity of the Fabry–Perot interferometer plates,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmospheric and Earth Sciences, L. R. Bissonnette, G. Roy, G. Vallee, eds. (Defense Research and Development Canada—Valcartier, Quebec, Canada, 2002), pp. 721–724.

S. M. Bobrovnikov, Y. F. Arshinov, I. B. Serikov, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, “Daytime temperature profiling in the troposphere with a pure rotational Raman lidar,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmospheric and Earth Sciences, L. R. Bissonnette, G. Roy, G. Vallee, eds. (Defense Research and Development Canada—Valcartier, Quebec, Canada, 2002), pp. 717–720.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, “Tropospheric temperature profiling based on detection of Stokes and anti-Stokes rotational Raman lines at 532 nm,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, G. Schwemmer, U. N. Singh, S. Ismail, eds., NASA Conf. Publ. 1998-207671 (1998), Part 1, pp. 297–300.

Böckmann, C.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Bodhaine, B. A.

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bösenberg, J.

V. Wulfmeyer, J. Bösenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water vapor profiling: assessment of accuracy, resolution, and meteorological applications,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3825–3844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Theopold, J. Bösenberg, “Differential absorption lidar measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles: theory and experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 165–179 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Browell, E. V.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. B. Grant, “Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements from air and space,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 399–410 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bruneau, D.

Calpini, B.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Capitini, R.

D. Renaut, R. Capitini, “Boundary-layer water vapor probing with a solar-blind Raman lidar: validations, meteorological observations and prospect,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 5, 585–601 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Renaut, J. C. Pourny, R. Capitini, “Daytime Raman-lidar measurements of water vapor,” Opt. Lett. 5, 233–235 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaikovsky, A.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Chanin, M. L.

D. Nedeljkovic, A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Rotational Raman lidar to measure the atmospheric temperature from ground to 30 km,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 90–101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, A.

R. Gill, K. Geller, J. Farina, J. Cooney, A. Cohen, “Measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles using Raman lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 225–226 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Cooney, J.

R. Gill, K. Geller, J. Farina, J. Cooney, A. Cohen, “Measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles using Raman lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 225–226 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Cooney, “Measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles by Raman backscatter,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 108–112 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cooney, J. A.

J. A. Cooney, K. Petri, A. Salik, “Measurements of high resolution atmospheric water-vapor profiles by use of a solar blind Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 24, 104–108 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Cooney, “Remote measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles using the Raman component of laser backscatter,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 9, 182–184 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Cupp, R.

R. Strauch, V. Derr, R. Cupp, “Atmospheric water vapor measurement by Raman lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 2, 101–108 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Derr, V.

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A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, F. Wagner, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, “Evolution of the Pinatubo aerosol: Raman lidar observations of particle optical depth, effective radius, mass, and surface area over central Europe at 53.4° N,” J. Atmos. Sci. 54, 2630–2641 (1997).
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U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, “Determination of stratospheric-aerosol microphysical properties from independent extinction and backscattering measurements with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8315–8329 (1995).
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Eixmann, R.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

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R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,673–19,690 (1998).
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R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,663–19,672 (1998).
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D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Heilman Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, T. P. Tooman, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37–50 (2002).
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D. D. Turner, W. F. Feltz, R. A. Ferrare, “Continuous water vapor profiles from operational ground-based active and passive remote sensors,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 1301–1317 (2000).
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R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,673–19,690 (1998).
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R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,663–19,672 (1998).
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R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Starr, “A comparison of water vapor measurements made by Raman lidar and radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 12, 1177–1195 (1995).
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D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar systems for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
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S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, R. A. Ferrare, “Observation of atmospheric fronts using Raman lidar moisture measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 789–806 (1989).
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D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Heilman, T. P. Tooman, “A two-year climatology of water vapor and aerosols in the lower troposphere measured by a Raman lidar,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 309–312.

Fix, A.

G. Poberaj, A. Assion, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapor measurements in the tropopause region,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 325–328.

Flamant, C.

Flamant, P.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Franke, A.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Franke, K.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, F. Wagner, “One-year observations of particle lidar ratio over the tropical Indian Ocean with Raman lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4559–4562 (2001).
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A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
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I. Mattis, V. Jaenisch, D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, “Classification of particle extinction profiles derived within the framework of the German aerosol lidar network by the use of cluster analysis of backtrajectories,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 211–214.

Freudenthaler, V.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Garnier, A.

Geller, K.

R. Gill, K. Geller, J. Farina, J. Cooney, A. Cohen, “Measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles using Raman lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 225–226 (1979).
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Giehl, H.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Gill, R.

R. Gill, K. Geller, J. Farina, J. Cooney, A. Cohen, “Measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles using Raman lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 225–226 (1979).
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D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Twenty-four-hour Raman lidar measurements during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program’s 1996 and 1997 water vapor intensive observation periods,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1062–1076 (1999).
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J. E. M. Goldsmith, F. H. Blair, S. E. Bisson, D. D. Turner, “Turn-key Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4979–4990 (1998).
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U. Görsdorf, V. Lehmann, “Enhanced accuracy of RASS-measured temperatures due to an improved range correction,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 17, 406–416 (2000).
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E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. B. Grant, “Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements from air and space,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 399–410 (1998).
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Hågård, A.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

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T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR–NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
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Heilman, L. A.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Heilman, T. P. Tooman, “A two-year climatology of water vapor and aerosols in the lower troposphere measured by a Raman lidar,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 309–312.

Heilman Brasseur, L. A.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Heilman Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, T. P. Tooman, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37–50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heintzenberg, J.

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
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L. M. Miloshevich, H. Vömel, A. Paukkunen, A. J. Heymsfield, S. J. Oltmans, “Characterization and correction of relative humidity measurements from Vaisala RS80-A radiosondes at cold temperatures,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 135–156 (2001).
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E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, W. B. Grant, “Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements from air and space,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 399–410 (1998).
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Jaenisch, V.

I. Mattis, V. Jaenisch, D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, “Classification of particle extinction profiles derived within the framework of the German aerosol lidar network by the use of cluster analysis of backtrajectories,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 211–214.

Jäger, H.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Kats, A.

D. Nagel, U. Leiterer, H. Dier, A. Kats, J. Reichardt, A. Behrendt, “High accuracy humidity measurements using the standardized frequency method with a research upper-air sounding system,” Meteorol. Z. 10, 395–405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,673–19,690 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Keckhut, P.

Kiemle, C.

G. Poberaj, A. Assion, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapor measurements in the tropopause region,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 325–328.

Knuteson, R. O.

W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, H. M. Woolf, H. Ben Howell, “Meteorological applications of temperature and water vapor retrievals from the ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 37, 857–875 (1998).
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C. L. Korb, C. Y. Weng, “A theoretical study of a two-wavelength lidar technique for the measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1346–1355 (1982).
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Kreipl, S.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Lahmann, W.

J. Zeyn, W. Lahmann, C. Weitkamp, “Remote daytime measurements of tropospheric temperature profiles with a rotational Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1301–1303 (1996).
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A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
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Lawrence, J. D.

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 40–42 (1969).

Lehmann, V.

U. Görsdorf, V. Lehmann, “Enhanced accuracy of RASS-measured temperatures due to an improved range correction,” J. Atmos. Oceanic. Technol. 17, 406–416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leifer, R.

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,663–19,672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leiterer, U.

D. Nagel, U. Leiterer, H. Dier, A. Kats, J. Reichardt, A. Behrendt, “High accuracy humidity measurements using the standardized frequency method with a research upper-air sounding system,” Meteorol. Z. 10, 395–405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

U. Leiterer, H. Dier, T. Naebert, “Improvements in radiosonde humidity profiles using RS80/RS90 radiosondes of Vaisala,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 70, 319–336 (1997).

Lenoble, J.

Linné, H.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Matthias, V.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Mattis, I.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2002GL014721 (2002).

A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, F. Wagner, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, “Evolution of the Pinatubo aerosol: Raman lidar observations of particle optical depth, effective radius, mass, and surface area over central Europe at 53.4° N,” J. Atmos. Sci. 54, 2630–2641 (1997).
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Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, “Spectrally absolute instrumental approach to isolate pure rotational Raman lidar returns from nitrogen molecules of the atmosphere,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 121–124.

S. M. Bobrovnikov, Y. F. Arshinov, I. B. Serikov, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, “Daytime temperature profiling in the troposphere with a pure rotational Raman lidar,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmospheric and Earth Sciences, L. R. Bissonnette, G. Roy, G. Vallee, eds. (Defense Research and Development Canada—Valcartier, Quebec, Canada, 2002), pp. 717–720.

A. Ansmann, Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Mattis, I. Serikov, U. Wandinger, “Double-grating monochromator for a pure rotational Raman lidar,” in Fifth International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, V. E. Zuev, G. G. Matvienko, eds., Proc. SPIE3583, 491–497 (1998).

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, “Tropospheric temperature profiling based on detection of Stokes and anti-Stokes rotational Raman lines at 532 nm,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, G. Schwemmer, U. N. Singh, S. Ismail, eds., NASA Conf. Publ. 1998-207671 (1998), Part 1, pp. 297–300.

I. Mattis, V. Jaenisch, D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, “Classification of particle extinction profiles derived within the framework of the German aerosol lidar network by the use of cluster analysis of backtrajectories,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 211–214.

I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, “Routine dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations at Leipzig as part of an aerosol lidar network in Germany,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, G. Schwemmer, U. N. Singh, S. Ismail, eds., NASA Conf. Publ. 1998-207671 (1998), Part 1, pp. 29–32.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

I. B. Serikov, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, “Distortion of the temperature profile of the atmosphere acquired with a pure rotational Raman lidar due to sphericity of the Fabry–Perot interferometer plates,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmospheric and Earth Sciences, L. R. Bissonnette, G. Roy, G. Vallee, eds. (Defense Research and Development Canada—Valcartier, Quebec, Canada, 2002), pp. 721–724.

McCormick, M. P.

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 40–42 (1969).

Melfi, S. H.

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,673–19,690 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,663–19,672 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Starr, “A comparison of water vapor measurements made by Raman lidar and radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 12, 1177–1195 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar systems for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, R. A. Ferrare, “Observation of atmospheric fronts using Raman lidar moisture measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 789–806 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, “Observation of Raman scattering by water vapor in the atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 40–42 (1969).

Michaelis, W.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Tropospheric water vapor measurement by Raman lidar: atmospheric extinction correction,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Laser Radar Conference, V. E. Zuev, ed. (Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk, Russia, 1990), pp. 256–259.

Miloshevich, L. M.

L. M. Miloshevich, H. Vömel, A. Paukkunen, A. J. Heymsfield, S. J. Oltmans, “Characterization and correction of relative humidity measurements from Vaisala RS80-A radiosondes at cold temperatures,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 135–156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mitev, V.

G. Vaughan, D. P. Wareing, L. Thomas, V. Mitev, “Humidity measurements in the free troposphere using Raman backscatter,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 114, 1471–1484 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Mitev, V. M.

Müller, D.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2002GL014721 (2002).

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, F. Wagner, “One-year observations of particle lidar ratio over the tropical Indian Ocean with Raman lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4559–4562 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Physical properties of the Indian aerosol plume derived from six-wavelength lidar observations on 25 March 1999 of the Indian Ocean Experiment,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1403–1406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, “Routine dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations at Leipzig as part of an aerosol lidar network in Germany,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, G. Schwemmer, U. N. Singh, S. Ismail, eds., NASA Conf. Publ. 1998-207671 (1998), Part 1, pp. 29–32.

I. Mattis, V. Jaenisch, D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, “Classification of particle extinction profiles derived within the framework of the German aerosol lidar network by the use of cluster analysis of backtrajectories,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 211–214.

Murphy, W. F.

Naebert, T.

U. Leiterer, H. Dier, T. Naebert, “Improvements in radiosonde humidity profiles using RS80/RS90 radiosondes of Vaisala,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 70, 319–336 (1997).

Nagel, D.

D. Nagel, U. Leiterer, H. Dier, A. Kats, J. Reichardt, A. Behrendt, “High accuracy humidity measurements using the standardized frequency method with a research upper-air sounding system,” Meteorol. Z. 10, 395–405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, T.

A. Behrendt, T. Nakamura, Y. Sawai, M. Onishi, T. Tsuda, “Rotational vibrational–rotational Raman lidar: design and performance of the RASC Raman lidar at Shigaraki (38.8 °N, 136.1 °E), Japan,” in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring II, U. N. Singh, ed., Proc. SPIE4484, 151–162 (2002).

Nedeljkovic, D.

D. Nedeljkovic, A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Rotational Raman lidar to measure the atmospheric temperature from ground to 30 km,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 31, 90–101 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Oltmans, S. J.

L. M. Miloshevich, H. Vömel, A. Paukkunen, A. J. Heymsfield, S. J. Oltmans, “Characterization and correction of relative humidity measurements from Vaisala RS80-A radiosondes at cold temperatures,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 135–156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Onishi, M.

A. Behrendt, T. Nakamura, Y. Sawai, M. Onishi, T. Tsuda, “Rotational vibrational–rotational Raman lidar: design and performance of the RASC Raman lidar at Shigaraki (38.8 °N, 136.1 °E), Japan,” in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring II, U. N. Singh, ed., Proc. SPIE4484, 151–162 (2002).

Orszag, A.

Papayannis, A.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Paukkunen, A.

L. M. Miloshevich, H. Vömel, A. Paukkunen, A. J. Heymsfield, S. J. Oltmans, “Characterization and correction of relative humidity measurements from Vaisala RS80-A radiosondes at cold temperatures,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 135–156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

D. Bruneau, P. Quaglia, C. Flamant, J. Pelon, “Airborne lidar LEANDRE II for water-vapor profiling in the troposphere. II. First results,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3462–3475 (2001).
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J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Pepler, S. J.

Peters, G.

G. Peters, “RASS, present state, prospects and open questions,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling: Needs and Technology, P. T. May, ed. (Australian Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Adelaide, Australia, 2000), pp. 231–233.

Petri, K.

Poberaj, G.

G. Poberaj, A. Assion, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapor measurements in the tropopause region,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 325–328.

Poellot, M.

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,673–19,690 (1998).
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Pourny, J. C.

Quaglia, P.

Reichardt, J.

D. Nagel, U. Leiterer, H. Dier, A. Kats, J. Reichardt, A. Behrendt, “High accuracy humidity measurements using the standardized frequency method with a research upper-air sounding system,” Meteorol. Z. 10, 395–405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Behrendt, J. Reichardt, “Atmospheric temperature profiling in the presence of clouds with a pure rotational Raman lidar by use of an interference-filter-based polychromator,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1372–1378 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, F. Wagner, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, “Evolution of the Pinatubo aerosol: Raman lidar observations of particle optical depth, effective radius, mass, and surface area over central Europe at 53.4° N,” J. Atmos. Sci. 54, 2630–2641 (1997).
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U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, “Determination of stratospheric-aerosol microphysical properties from independent extinction and backscattering measurements with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8315–8329 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renaut, D.

Resendes, D.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Revercomb, H. E.

W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, H. M. Woolf, H. Ben Howell, “Meteorological applications of temperature and water vapor retrievals from the ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 37, 857–875 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Riebesell, M.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Tropospheric water vapor measurement by Raman lidar: atmospheric extinction correction,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Laser Radar Conference, V. E. Zuev, ed. (Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk, Russia, 1990), pp. 256–259.

Rogers, R. R.

R. R. Rogers, M. K. Yau, A Short Course in Cloud Physics (Pergamon, New York, 1988).

Salik, A.

Sarközi, J.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Sawai, Y.

A. Behrendt, T. Nakamura, Y. Sawai, M. Onishi, T. Tsuda, “Rotational vibrational–rotational Raman lidar: design and performance of the RASC Raman lidar at Shigaraki (38.8 °N, 136.1 °E), Japan,” in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring II, U. N. Singh, ed., Proc. SPIE4484, 151–162 (2002).

Schmidlin, F. J.

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Starr, “A comparison of water vapor measurements made by Raman lidar and radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 12, 1177–1195 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schneidenbach, L.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Schneider, J.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Serikov, I.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, “Tropospheric temperature profiling based on detection of Stokes and anti-Stokes rotational Raman lines at 532 nm,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, G. Schwemmer, U. N. Singh, S. Ismail, eds., NASA Conf. Publ. 1998-207671 (1998), Part 1, pp. 297–300.

Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, “Spectrally absolute instrumental approach to isolate pure rotational Raman lidar returns from nitrogen molecules of the atmosphere,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 121–124.

A. Ansmann, Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Mattis, I. Serikov, U. Wandinger, “Double-grating monochromator for a pure rotational Raman lidar,” in Fifth International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, V. E. Zuev, G. G. Matvienko, eds., Proc. SPIE3583, 491–497 (1998).

Serikov, I. B.

S. M. Bobrovnikov, Y. F. Arshinov, I. B. Serikov, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, “Daytime temperature profiling in the troposphere with a pure rotational Raman lidar,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmospheric and Earth Sciences, L. R. Bissonnette, G. Roy, G. Vallee, eds. (Defense Research and Development Canada—Valcartier, Quebec, Canada, 2002), pp. 717–720.

I. B. Serikov, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, “Distortion of the temperature profile of the atmosphere acquired with a pure rotational Raman lidar due to sphericity of the Fabry–Perot interferometer plates,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmospheric and Earth Sciences, L. R. Bissonnette, G. Roy, G. Vallee, eds. (Defense Research and Development Canada—Valcartier, Quebec, Canada, 2002), pp. 721–724.

Sherlock, V.

Slusser, J. R.

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. L.

W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, H. M. Woolf, H. Ben Howell, “Meteorological applications of temperature and water vapor retrievals from the ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 37, 857–875 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, N.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Starr, D.

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Starr, “A comparison of water vapor measurements made by Raman lidar and radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 12, 1177–1195 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Strauch, R.

R. Strauch, V. Derr, R. Cupp, “Atmospheric water vapor measurement by Raman lidar,” Remote Sens. Environ. 2, 101–108 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Theopold, F. A.

F. A. Theopold, J. Bösenberg, “Differential absorption lidar measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles: theory and experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 10, 165–179 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, L.

G. Vaughan, D. P. Wareing, S. J. Pepler, L. Thomas, V. M. Mitev, “Atmospheric temperature measurements made by rotational Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2758–2764 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Vaughan, D. P. Wareing, L. Thomas, V. Mitev, “Humidity measurements in the free troposphere using Raman backscatter,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 114, 1471–1484 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tooman, T. P.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Heilman Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, T. P. Tooman, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37–50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Heilman, T. P. Tooman, “A two-year climatology of water vapor and aerosols in the lower troposphere measured by a Raman lidar,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 309–312.

Trickl, T.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Tsuda, T.

A. Behrendt, T. Nakamura, Y. Sawai, M. Onishi, T. Tsuda, “Rotational vibrational–rotational Raman lidar: design and performance of the RASC Raman lidar at Shigaraki (38.8 °N, 136.1 °E), Japan,” in Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring II, U. N. Singh, ed., Proc. SPIE4484, 151–162 (2002).

Turner, D. D.

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Heilman Brasseur, W. F. Feltz, T. P. Tooman, “Automated retrievals of water vapor and aerosol profiles from an operational Raman lidar,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 37–50 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, W. F. Feltz, R. A. Ferrare, “Continuous water vapor profiles from operational ground-based active and passive remote sensors,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 1301–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Twenty-four-hour Raman lidar measurements during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program’s 1996 and 1997 water vapor intensive observation periods,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1062–1076 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. M. Goldsmith, F. H. Blair, S. E. Bisson, D. D. Turner, “Turn-key Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4979–4990 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Turner, R. A. Ferrare, L. A. Heilman, T. P. Tooman, “A two-year climatology of water vapor and aerosols in the lower troposphere measured by a Raman lidar,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds., (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 309–312.

Vaughan, G.

G. Vaughan, D. P. Wareing, S. J. Pepler, L. Thomas, V. M. Mitev, “Atmospheric temperature measurements made by rotational Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2758–2764 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Vaughan, D. P. Wareing, L. Thomas, V. Mitev, “Humidity measurements in the free troposphere using Raman backscatter,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 114, 1471–1484 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Visconti, G.

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Vömel, H.

L. M. Miloshevich, H. Vömel, A. Paukkunen, A. J. Heymsfield, S. J. Oltmans, “Characterization and correction of relative humidity measurements from Vaisala RS80-A radiosondes at cold temperatures,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 135–156 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vorobieva, E.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Voss, E.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, F.

K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, F. Wagner, “One-year observations of particle lidar ratio over the tropical Indian Ocean with Raman lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4559–4562 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Physical properties of the Indian aerosol plume derived from six-wavelength lidar observations on 25 March 1999 of the Indian Ocean Experiment,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1403–1406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, F. Wagner, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, “Evolution of the Pinatubo aerosol: Raman lidar observations of particle optical depth, effective radius, mass, and surface area over central Europe at 53.4° N,” J. Atmos. Sci. 54, 2630–2641 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wakimoto, R. M.

T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR–NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, N. W.

Wandinger, U.

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2002GL014721 (2002).

D. Müller, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Physical properties of the Indian aerosol plume derived from six-wavelength lidar observations on 25 March 1999 of the Indian Ocean Experiment,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1403–1406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, F. Wagner, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, “Evolution of the Pinatubo aerosol: Raman lidar observations of particle optical depth, effective radius, mass, and surface area over central Europe at 53.4° N,” J. Atmos. Sci. 54, 2630–2641 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, A. Ansmann, J. Reichardt, T. Deshler, “Determination of stratospheric-aerosol microphysical properties from independent extinction and backscattering measurements with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8315–8329 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, “Tropospheric temperature profiling based on detection of Stokes and anti-Stokes rotational Raman lines at 532 nm,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, G. Schwemmer, U. N. Singh, S. Ismail, eds., NASA Conf. Publ. 1998-207671 (1998), Part 1, pp. 297–300.

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Tropospheric water vapor measurement by Raman lidar: atmospheric extinction correction,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Laser Radar Conference, V. E. Zuev, ed. (Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk, Russia, 1990), pp. 256–259.

I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, “Routine dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations at Leipzig as part of an aerosol lidar network in Germany,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, G. Schwemmer, U. N. Singh, S. Ismail, eds., NASA Conf. Publ. 1998-207671 (1998), Part 1, pp. 29–32.

Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, “Spectrally absolute instrumental approach to isolate pure rotational Raman lidar returns from nitrogen molecules of the atmosphere,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 121–124.

A. Ansmann, Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Mattis, I. Serikov, U. Wandinger, “Double-grating monochromator for a pure rotational Raman lidar,” in Fifth International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics, V. E. Zuev, G. G. Matvienko, eds., Proc. SPIE3583, 491–497 (1998).

S. M. Bobrovnikov, Y. F. Arshinov, I. B. Serikov, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, “Daytime temperature profiling in the troposphere with a pure rotational Raman lidar,” in Lidar Remote Sensing in Atmospheric and Earth Sciences, L. R. Bissonnette, G. Roy, G. Vallee, eds. (Defense Research and Development Canada—Valcartier, Quebec, Canada, 2002), pp. 717–720.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

Wareing, D. P.

G. Vaughan, D. P. Wareing, S. J. Pepler, L. Thomas, V. M. Mitev, “Atmospheric temperature measurements made by rotational Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2758–2764 (1993).
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G. Vaughan, D. P. Wareing, L. Thomas, V. Mitev, “Humidity measurements in the free troposphere using Raman backscatter,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 114, 1471–1484 (1988).
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Weckwerth, T. M.

T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR–NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
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Weitkamp, C.

J. Zeyn, W. Lahmann, C. Weitkamp, “Remote daytime measurements of tropospheric temperature profiles with a rotational Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1301–1303 (1996).
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A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, E. Voss, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, “Combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for vertical profiling of moisture, aerosol extinction, backscatter, and lidar ratio,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 18–28 (1992).
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A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
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A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Tropospheric water vapor measurement by Raman lidar: atmospheric extinction correction,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Laser Radar Conference, V. E. Zuev, ed. (Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk, Russia, 1990), pp. 256–259.

Weng, C. Y.

C. L. Korb, C. Y. Weng, “A theoretical study of a two-wavelength lidar technique for the measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 21, 1346–1355 (1982).
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Whiteman, D. N.

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, R. Leifer, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 1. Methods and comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,663–19,672 (1998).
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R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, M. Poellot, Y. J. Kaufman, “Raman lidar measurements of aerosol extinction and backscattering. 2. Derivation of aerosol real refractive index, single scattering albedo, and humidification factor using Raman lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 19,673–19,690 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ferrare, S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, K. D. Evans, F. J. Schmidlin, D. Starr, “A comparison of water vapor measurements made by Raman lidar and radiosondes,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 12, 1177–1195 (1995).
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D. N. Whiteman, W. F. Murphy, N. W. Walsh, K. D. Evans, “Temperature sensitivity of an atmospheric Raman lidar system based on a XeF excimer laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 247–249 (1993).
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D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar systems for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
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S. H. Melfi, D. N. Whiteman, R. A. Ferrare, “Observation of atmospheric fronts using Raman lidar moisture measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 28, 789–806 (1989).
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Wiegner, M.

J. Bösenberg, M. Alpers, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, C. Böckmann, R. Eixmann, A. Franke, V. Freudenthaler, H. Giehl, H. Jäger, S. Kreipl, H. Linné, V. Matthias, I. Mattis, D. Müller, J. Sarközi, L. Schneidenbach, J. Schneider, T. Trickl, E. Vorobieva, U. Wandinger, M. Wiegner, “The German aerosol lidar network: methodology, data, analysis,” Rep. 317 (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2001).

J. Bösenberg, A. Ansmann, J. M. Baldasano, D. Balis, C. Böckmann, B. Calpini, A. Chaikovsky, P. Flamant, A. Hågård, V. Mitev, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, D. Resendes, J. Schneider, N. Spinelli, T. Trickl, G. Vaughan, G. Visconti, M. Wiegner, “EARLINET: A European Aerosol Research Lidar Network,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 155–158.

Wilson, J. W.

T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR–NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
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G. Poberaj, A. Assion, A. Fix, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, G. Ehret, “Airborne all-solid-state DIAL for water vapor measurements in the tropopause region,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 325–328.

Wood, N. B.

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
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W. F. Feltz, W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, H. M. Woolf, H. Ben Howell, “Meteorological applications of temperature and water vapor retrievals from the ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI),” J. Appl. Meteorol. 37, 857–875 (1998).
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T. M. Weckwerth, V. Wulfmeyer, R. M. Wakimoto, R. M. Hardesty, J. W. Wilson, R. M. Banta, “NCAR–NOAA lower-tropospheric water vapor workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 80, 2339–2357 (1999).
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V. Wulfmeyer, J. Bösenberg, “Ground-based differential absorption lidar for water vapor profiling: assessment of accuracy, resolution, and meteorological applications,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3825–3844 (1998).
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G. Vaughan, D. P. Wareing, S. J. Pepler, L. Thomas, V. M. Mitev, “Atmospheric temperature measurements made by rotational Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2758–2764 (1993).
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Geophys. Res. Lett.

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: a first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
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K. Franke, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, F. Wagner, “One-year observations of particle lidar ratio over the tropical Indian Ocean with Raman lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4559–4562 (2001).
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I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, “Dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations of the extinction-to-backscatter ratio of Saharan dust,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 10.1029/2002GL014721 (2002).

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A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, U. Wandinger, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Tropospheric water vapor measurement by Raman lidar: atmospheric extinction correction,” in Proceedings of the 15th International Laser Radar Conference, V. E. Zuev, ed. (Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Tomsk, Russia, 1990), pp. 256–259.

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I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, “Routine dual-wavelength Raman lidar observations at Leipzig as part of an aerosol lidar network in Germany,” in Proceedings of the 19th International Laser Radar Conference, G. Schwemmer, U. N. Singh, S. Ismail, eds., NASA Conf. Publ. 1998-207671 (1998), Part 1, pp. 29–32.

I. Mattis, V. Jaenisch, D. Müller, K. Franke, A. Ansmann, “Classification of particle extinction profiles derived within the framework of the German aerosol lidar network by the use of cluster analysis of backtrajectories,” in Advances in Laser Remote Sensing, A. Dabais, C. Loth, J. Pelon, eds. (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France, 2001), pp. 211–214.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the Raman lidar. Three laser beams, at 355, 532, and 1064 nm, are transmitted vertically into the atmosphere by way of a mirror (M). The Cassegrain telescope consists of a primary mirror (PM), a secondary mirror (SM), a field stop (B), an achromatic lens (A), and a mirror to direct the backscattered photons to the beam-separation unit. PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic view of the beam-separation unit. The numbers indicate the measurement wavelengths in nanometers. T6 and T12, detectors for the pure rotational Raman signals. 532v and 532h, cross-polarized and parallel-polarized 532-nm signal components, respectively, with respect to the transmitted laser light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Calibration constant C H2O defined as the ratio of the water-vapor mixing ratio measured with the radiosonde and that obtained with an uncalibrated lidar [C H2O = 1 in Eq. (6)]. (b), Mixing ratio measured with radiosonde and determined with a calibrated Raman lidar (C H2O = 0.0087). The lidar signals were smoothed before calculation of the mixing ratio to reduce signal noise. The same smoothing lengths were applied to the radiosonde data. Error bars indicate the standard deviation as a function of ΔC H2O (=0.0006) and signal noise [cf. Eq. (7)].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a, Radiosonde temperature profiles (dashed curves) measured on three days compared with the profiles of T(z) after Eq. (9). b, Ratio of the lidar-derived temperature to the radiosonde temperature [F(z), after Eq. (17)]. c, Logarithm of the ratio of the rotational Raman signals ln(R) [see Eq. (8)]. Horizontal lines indicate the maxima of F and the corresponding minima of ln(R).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Deviation F versus normalized height after signal smoothing below = 1.4 and after the measured deviation profile is replaced by exponential fits for ≥ 1.4. The thick dotted curve shows the resultant mean profile of F; errors bars indicate the standard deviation ΔF.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Logarithm of the ratio of the rotational Raman signals ln(R) versus radiosonde temperature T Sonde. Data are fitted to ln[R Fit(T Sonde)]. The fits and the parameters A T and B T of three individual experiments are presented.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a, Mixing ratio; b, temperature; c, standard deviation of the relative humidity; and d, relative humidity observed with Raman lidar on 23 April 2001, 1930–2132 UTC. All signal profiles were smoothed with the indicated window lengths before we calculated the mixing ratio and temperature. Radiosonde data were smoothed with the same window lengths. The error contributions to the total standard deviation (ΔU) of the relative humidity that resulted from uncertainty in the mixing ratio [ΔUe)] and in the temperature [ΔUe w )] are shown in c as well.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Same as Fig. 7 but for observation on May 1 2001, 1919–2103 UTC.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Same as Fig. 7 but for observation on 24 May 2001, 2003–2158 UTC.

Equations (21)

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Piz=KiOizz2βizΔz×exp-0zαλ0ζ+αλiζdζ.
βH2Oz=NH2OzdσH2OπdΩ,
βN2z=NN2zdσN2πdΩ,
βJ1z=F1Tz,
βJ2z=F2Tz,
mH2Oz=CH2OPH2OzPN2zexp-0zαλN2ζdζexp-0zαλH2Oζdζ,
ΔmH2O=ΔmCH2O2+Δmstat21/2,
RTz=PJ1zPJ2z=βJ1zβJ2zexpATTz+BT,
TzATlnRz-BT.
ΔT=ΔTAT,BT2+ΔTstat21/2.
Uwz=ezewz.
ez=pzmH2Oz0.622+mH2Oz.
ewz=6.107 expMATz-273MB+Tz-273,
ΔUw=UweΔe2+UwewΔew21/2,
Δew=ewTΔT21/2,
Δe=emH2OΔmH2O21/2.
Tz=TlidzFz,
ΔT=ΔTF2+ΔTAT,BT2+ΔTstat21/2.
y=lnRFitTSonde=ATTSonde+BT.
χ2=n=1NlnRn-lnRFitn2wn2
wn=1PJ1z+1PJ2z1/2.

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