Abstract

We describe a simple and passive nanosecond-long laser-pulse stretcher using multiple optical ring cavities. We present a model of the pulse-stretching process for an arbitrary number of optical ring cavities. This new model explicitly includes the effects of cavity delay time, beam-splitter reflectivity, total number of optical cavities, and describes the effects of spatial profile sensitivity. Using the model, we optimize the design of a pulse stretcher for use in a spontaneous Raman-scattering excitation system that avoids laser-induced plasma spark problems. From the optimized design, we then experimentally demonstrate and verify the model with a three-cavity pulse-stretcher system that converts a 1000-mJ, 8.4-ns-long input laser pulse into an approximately 75-ns-long (FWHM) output laser pulse with a peak power reduction of 0.10× and an 83% efficiency.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon Breach, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 209–273.
  2. R. S. Barlow, C. D. Carter, “Raman/Rayleigh/LIF measurements of nitric oxide formation in turbulent hydrogen jet flames,” Combust. Flame 97, 261–280 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Single-pulse, simultaneous multipoint multispecies Raman measurements in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames,” Opt. Lett. 19, 414–416 (1994).
    [PubMed]
  4. D. F. Marran, J. H. Frank, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, “Intracavity technique for improved Raman/Rayleigh imaging in flames,” Opt. Lett. 20, 791–793 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. C. Miles, “Raman line imaging for spatially and temporally resolved mole fraction measurements in internal combustion engines,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1714–1732 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. V. Nguyen, R. W. Dibble, C. D. Carter, G. J. Fiechtner, R. S. Barlow, “Raman-LIF measurements of temperature, major species, OH, and NO in a methane-air bunsen flame,” Combust. Flame 105, 499–510 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Rabenstein, A. Leipertz, “Two-dimensional temperature determination in the exhaust region of a laminar flat-flame burner with linear Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6989–6996 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, eds., Laser-Induced Plasma and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989).
  9. Y.-L. Chen, J. W. L. Lewis, “Visualization of laser-induced breakdown and ignition,” Opt. Exp. 9, 360–372 (2001); http.//www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Harigel, C. Baltay, M. Bregman, M. Hibbs, A. Schaffer, H. Bjelkhagen, J. Hawkins, W. Williams, P. Nailor, R. Michaels, H. Akbari, “Pulse stretching in a Q-switched ruby laser for bubble chamber holography,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4102–4110 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Pflüger, M. Sellhorst, V. Sturm, R. Noll, “Fiber-optic transmission of stretched pulses from a Q-switched ruby laser,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5165–5169 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Matsumoto, “Theory of stretched-pulse transmission in dispersion-managed fibers,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1238–1240 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. V. Cautaerts, D. J. Richardson, R. Paschotta, D. C. Hanna, “Stretched pulse Yb3+:silica fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 316–318 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Engelhardt, R. Brinkmann, J. C. Walling, D. F. Heller, “Pulse stretched solid-state laser lithotripter,” U.S. patent5,496,306 (5March1996).
  15. T. J. Anderson, R. D. Woodward, M. Winter, “Oxygen concentration measurements in a high pressure environment using Raman imaging,” paper AIAA-95-0140, presented at the Thirty-Third Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 5–8 Jan. 1995.
  16. B. B. Dally, A. R. Masri, R. S. Barlow, G. J. Fiechtner, “Instantaneous and mean compositional structure of bluff-body stabilized nonpremixed flames,” Combust. Flame 114, 119–148 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Rabensein, J. Egermann, A. Leipertz, N. D’Alfonso, “Vapor-phase structures of Diesel-type fuel sprays: an experimental analysis,” SAE paper 982543 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).
  18. R. S. Barlow, P. C. Miles, “A shutter-based line-imaging system for single-shot Raman scattering measurements of gradients in mixture fraction,” in the Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), Vol. 28, pp. 269–277.
  19. P. A. Nooren, M. Versluis, T. H. van der Meer, R. S. Barlow, J. H. Frank, “Raman-Rayleigh-LIF measurements of temperature and species concentrations in the Delft piloted turbulent jet diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 95–111 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Egermann, W. Koebcke, W. Ipp, A. Leipertz, “Investigation of the mixture formation inside a GDI engine by means of linear Raman spectroscopy,” in the Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), Vol. 28, pp. 1145–1151.
  21. Turbulent Combustion Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, http://www.ca.sandia.gov/CRF/03_facilities/03_FacTDFL.html (2001).
  22. X. T. Phuoc, “Laser spark ignition: experimental determination of laser-induced breakdown thresholds of combustion gases,” Opt. Commun. 175, 419–423 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y.-L. Chen, J. W. L. Lewis, “Visualization of laser-induced breakdown and ignition,” Opt. Exp. 9, 360–372 (2001); http.//www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

P. A. Nooren, M. Versluis, T. H. van der Meer, R. S. Barlow, J. H. Frank, “Raman-Rayleigh-LIF measurements of temperature and species concentrations in the Delft piloted turbulent jet diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 95–111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. T. Phuoc, “Laser spark ignition: experimental determination of laser-induced breakdown thresholds of combustion gases,” Opt. Commun. 175, 419–423 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

B. B. Dally, A. R. Masri, R. S. Barlow, G. J. Fiechtner, “Instantaneous and mean compositional structure of bluff-body stabilized nonpremixed flames,” Combust. Flame 114, 119–148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1996 (2)

Q. V. Nguyen, R. W. Dibble, C. D. Carter, G. J. Fiechtner, R. S. Barlow, “Raman-LIF measurements of temperature, major species, OH, and NO in a methane-air bunsen flame,” Combust. Flame 105, 499–510 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Pflüger, M. Sellhorst, V. Sturm, R. Noll, “Fiber-optic transmission of stretched pulses from a Q-switched ruby laser,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5165–5169 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

R. S. Barlow, C. D. Carter, “Raman/Rayleigh/LIF measurements of nitric oxide formation in turbulent hydrogen jet flames,” Combust. Flame 97, 261–280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Single-pulse, simultaneous multipoint multispecies Raman measurements in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames,” Opt. Lett. 19, 414–416 (1994).
[PubMed]

1986 (1)

Akbari, H.

Anderson, T. J.

T. J. Anderson, R. D. Woodward, M. Winter, “Oxygen concentration measurements in a high pressure environment using Raman imaging,” paper AIAA-95-0140, presented at the Thirty-Third Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 5–8 Jan. 1995.

Baltay, C.

Barlow, R. S.

P. A. Nooren, M. Versluis, T. H. van der Meer, R. S. Barlow, J. H. Frank, “Raman-Rayleigh-LIF measurements of temperature and species concentrations in the Delft piloted turbulent jet diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 95–111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Dally, A. R. Masri, R. S. Barlow, G. J. Fiechtner, “Instantaneous and mean compositional structure of bluff-body stabilized nonpremixed flames,” Combust. Flame 114, 119–148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. V. Nguyen, R. W. Dibble, C. D. Carter, G. J. Fiechtner, R. S. Barlow, “Raman-LIF measurements of temperature, major species, OH, and NO in a methane-air bunsen flame,” Combust. Flame 105, 499–510 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Barlow, C. D. Carter, “Raman/Rayleigh/LIF measurements of nitric oxide formation in turbulent hydrogen jet flames,” Combust. Flame 97, 261–280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Barlow, P. C. Miles, “A shutter-based line-imaging system for single-shot Raman scattering measurements of gradients in mixture fraction,” in the Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), Vol. 28, pp. 269–277.

Bilger, R. W.

Bjelkhagen, H.

Bregman, M.

Brinkmann, R.

R. Engelhardt, R. Brinkmann, J. C. Walling, D. F. Heller, “Pulse stretched solid-state laser lithotripter,” U.S. patent5,496,306 (5March1996).

Brown, T. M.

Carter, C. D.

Q. V. Nguyen, R. W. Dibble, C. D. Carter, G. J. Fiechtner, R. S. Barlow, “Raman-LIF measurements of temperature, major species, OH, and NO in a methane-air bunsen flame,” Combust. Flame 105, 499–510 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Barlow, C. D. Carter, “Raman/Rayleigh/LIF measurements of nitric oxide formation in turbulent hydrogen jet flames,” Combust. Flame 97, 261–280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cautaerts, V.

Chen, Y.-L.

Y.-L. Chen, J. W. L. Lewis, “Visualization of laser-induced breakdown and ignition,” Opt. Exp. 9, 360–372 (2001); http.//www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

D’Alfonso, N.

F. Rabensein, J. Egermann, A. Leipertz, N. D’Alfonso, “Vapor-phase structures of Diesel-type fuel sprays: an experimental analysis,” SAE paper 982543 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).

Dally, B. B.

B. B. Dally, A. R. Masri, R. S. Barlow, G. J. Fiechtner, “Instantaneous and mean compositional structure of bluff-body stabilized nonpremixed flames,” Combust. Flame 114, 119–148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DeBarber, P. A.

Dibble, R. W.

Q. V. Nguyen, R. W. Dibble, C. D. Carter, G. J. Fiechtner, R. S. Barlow, “Raman-LIF measurements of temperature, major species, OH, and NO in a methane-air bunsen flame,” Combust. Flame 105, 499–510 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon Breach, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 209–273.

Egermann, J.

J. Egermann, W. Koebcke, W. Ipp, A. Leipertz, “Investigation of the mixture formation inside a GDI engine by means of linear Raman spectroscopy,” in the Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), Vol. 28, pp. 1145–1151.

F. Rabensein, J. Egermann, A. Leipertz, N. D’Alfonso, “Vapor-phase structures of Diesel-type fuel sprays: an experimental analysis,” SAE paper 982543 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).

Engelhardt, R.

R. Engelhardt, R. Brinkmann, J. C. Walling, D. F. Heller, “Pulse stretched solid-state laser lithotripter,” U.S. patent5,496,306 (5March1996).

Fiechtner, G. J.

B. B. Dally, A. R. Masri, R. S. Barlow, G. J. Fiechtner, “Instantaneous and mean compositional structure of bluff-body stabilized nonpremixed flames,” Combust. Flame 114, 119–148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. V. Nguyen, R. W. Dibble, C. D. Carter, G. J. Fiechtner, R. S. Barlow, “Raman-LIF measurements of temperature, major species, OH, and NO in a methane-air bunsen flame,” Combust. Flame 105, 499–510 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Frank, J. H.

P. A. Nooren, M. Versluis, T. H. van der Meer, R. S. Barlow, J. H. Frank, “Raman-Rayleigh-LIF measurements of temperature and species concentrations in the Delft piloted turbulent jet diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 95–111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Marran, J. H. Frank, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, “Intracavity technique for improved Raman/Rayleigh imaging in flames,” Opt. Lett. 20, 791–793 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanna, D. C.

Harigel, G.

Hawkins, J.

Heller, D. F.

R. Engelhardt, R. Brinkmann, J. C. Walling, D. F. Heller, “Pulse stretched solid-state laser lithotripter,” U.S. patent5,496,306 (5March1996).

Hibbs, M.

Ipp, W.

J. Egermann, W. Koebcke, W. Ipp, A. Leipertz, “Investigation of the mixture formation inside a GDI engine by means of linear Raman spectroscopy,” in the Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), Vol. 28, pp. 1145–1151.

Koebcke, W.

J. Egermann, W. Koebcke, W. Ipp, A. Leipertz, “Investigation of the mixture formation inside a GDI engine by means of linear Raman spectroscopy,” in the Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), Vol. 28, pp. 1145–1151.

Leipertz, A.

F. Rabenstein, A. Leipertz, “Two-dimensional temperature determination in the exhaust region of a laminar flat-flame burner with linear Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6989–6996 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Egermann, W. Koebcke, W. Ipp, A. Leipertz, “Investigation of the mixture formation inside a GDI engine by means of linear Raman spectroscopy,” in the Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), Vol. 28, pp. 1145–1151.

F. Rabensein, J. Egermann, A. Leipertz, N. D’Alfonso, “Vapor-phase structures of Diesel-type fuel sprays: an experimental analysis,” SAE paper 982543 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).

Lewis, J. W. L.

Y.-L. Chen, J. W. L. Lewis, “Visualization of laser-induced breakdown and ignition,” Opt. Exp. 9, 360–372 (2001); http.//www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Long, M. B.

Marran, D. F.

Masri, A. R.

B. B. Dally, A. R. Masri, R. S. Barlow, G. J. Fiechtner, “Instantaneous and mean compositional structure of bluff-body stabilized nonpremixed flames,” Combust. Flame 114, 119–148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, M.

Michaels, R.

Miles, P. C.

P. C. Miles, “Raman line imaging for spatially and temporally resolved mole fraction measurements in internal combustion engines,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1714–1732 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Barlow, P. C. Miles, “A shutter-based line-imaging system for single-shot Raman scattering measurements of gradients in mixture fraction,” in the Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), Vol. 28, pp. 269–277.

Nailor, P.

Nandula, S. P.

Nguyen, Q. V.

Q. V. Nguyen, R. W. Dibble, C. D. Carter, G. J. Fiechtner, R. S. Barlow, “Raman-LIF measurements of temperature, major species, OH, and NO in a methane-air bunsen flame,” Combust. Flame 105, 499–510 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Noll, R.

Nooren, P. A.

P. A. Nooren, M. Versluis, T. H. van der Meer, R. S. Barlow, J. H. Frank, “Raman-Rayleigh-LIF measurements of temperature and species concentrations in the Delft piloted turbulent jet diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 95–111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

Pflüger, S.

Phuoc, X. T.

X. T. Phuoc, “Laser spark ignition: experimental determination of laser-induced breakdown thresholds of combustion gases,” Opt. Commun. 175, 419–423 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pitz, R. W.

Rabensein, F.

F. Rabensein, J. Egermann, A. Leipertz, N. D’Alfonso, “Vapor-phase structures of Diesel-type fuel sprays: an experimental analysis,” SAE paper 982543 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).

Rabenstein, F.

Richardson, D. J.

Schaffer, A.

Sellhorst, M.

Stårner, S. H.

Sturm, V.

van der Meer, T. H.

P. A. Nooren, M. Versluis, T. H. van der Meer, R. S. Barlow, J. H. Frank, “Raman-Rayleigh-LIF measurements of temperature and species concentrations in the Delft piloted turbulent jet diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 95–111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Versluis, M.

P. A. Nooren, M. Versluis, T. H. van der Meer, R. S. Barlow, J. H. Frank, “Raman-Rayleigh-LIF measurements of temperature and species concentrations in the Delft piloted turbulent jet diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 95–111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Walling, J. C.

R. Engelhardt, R. Brinkmann, J. C. Walling, D. F. Heller, “Pulse stretched solid-state laser lithotripter,” U.S. patent5,496,306 (5March1996).

Williams, W.

Winter, M.

T. J. Anderson, R. D. Woodward, M. Winter, “Oxygen concentration measurements in a high pressure environment using Raman imaging,” paper AIAA-95-0140, presented at the Thirty-Third Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 5–8 Jan. 1995.

Woodward, R. D.

T. J. Anderson, R. D. Woodward, M. Winter, “Oxygen concentration measurements in a high pressure environment using Raman imaging,” paper AIAA-95-0140, presented at the Thirty-Third Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 5–8 Jan. 1995.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. A. Nooren, M. Versluis, T. H. van der Meer, R. S. Barlow, J. H. Frank, “Raman-Rayleigh-LIF measurements of temperature and species concentrations in the Delft piloted turbulent jet diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 95–111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (3)

B. B. Dally, A. R. Masri, R. S. Barlow, G. J. Fiechtner, “Instantaneous and mean compositional structure of bluff-body stabilized nonpremixed flames,” Combust. Flame 114, 119–148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Barlow, C. D. Carter, “Raman/Rayleigh/LIF measurements of nitric oxide formation in turbulent hydrogen jet flames,” Combust. Flame 97, 261–280 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Q. V. Nguyen, R. W. Dibble, C. D. Carter, G. J. Fiechtner, R. S. Barlow, “Raman-LIF measurements of temperature, major species, OH, and NO in a methane-air bunsen flame,” Combust. Flame 105, 499–510 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. T. Phuoc, “Laser spark ignition: experimental determination of laser-induced breakdown thresholds of combustion gases,” Opt. Commun. 175, 419–423 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Exp. (1)

Y.-L. Chen, J. W. L. Lewis, “Visualization of laser-induced breakdown and ignition,” Opt. Exp. 9, 360–372 (2001); http.//www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (8)

R. Engelhardt, R. Brinkmann, J. C. Walling, D. F. Heller, “Pulse stretched solid-state laser lithotripter,” U.S. patent5,496,306 (5March1996).

T. J. Anderson, R. D. Woodward, M. Winter, “Oxygen concentration measurements in a high pressure environment using Raman imaging,” paper AIAA-95-0140, presented at the Thirty-Third Aerospace Science Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 5–8 Jan. 1995.

L. J. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, eds., Laser-Induced Plasma and Applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1989).

F. Rabensein, J. Egermann, A. Leipertz, N. D’Alfonso, “Vapor-phase structures of Diesel-type fuel sprays: an experimental analysis,” SAE paper 982543 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998).

R. S. Barlow, P. C. Miles, “A shutter-based line-imaging system for single-shot Raman scattering measurements of gradients in mixture fraction,” in the Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), Vol. 28, pp. 269–277.

J. Egermann, W. Koebcke, W. Ipp, A. Leipertz, “Investigation of the mixture formation inside a GDI engine by means of linear Raman spectroscopy,” in the Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), Vol. 28, pp. 1145–1151.

Turbulent Combustion Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, http://www.ca.sandia.gov/CRF/03_facilities/03_FacTDFL.html (2001).

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon Breach, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 209–273.

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