The bidirectionality of the upward radiance field in oceanic case 1 waters has been reinvestigated by incorporation of revised parameterizations of inherent optical properties as a function of the chlorophyll concentration (Chl), considering Raman scattering and making the particle phase function shape (β̃p) continuously varying along with the Chl. Internal consistency is thus reached, as the decrease in backscattering probability (for increasing Chl) translates into a correlative change in β̃p. The single particle phase function (previously used) precluded a realistic assessment of bidirectionality for waters with Chl > 1 mg m-3. This limitation is now removed. For low Chl, Raman emissions significantly affect the radiance field. For moderate Chl (0.1–1 mg m-3), new and previous bidirectional parameters remain close. The ocean reflectance anisotropy has implications in ocean color remote-sensing problems, in derivation of coherent water-leaving radiances, in associated calibration–validation activities, and in the merging of data obtained under various geometrical configurations.
© 2002 Optical Society of AmericaPDF Article