A stochastic inverse technique based on a genetic programming (GP) algorithm was developed to invert oceanic constituents from simulated data for case I and case II water applications. The simulations were carried out with the Ordre Successifs Ocean Atmosphere (OSOA) radiative transfer model. They include the effects of oceanic substances such as algal-related chlorophyll, nonchlorophyllous suspended matter, and dissolved organic matter. The synthetic data set also takes into account the directional effects of particles through a variation of their phase function that makes the simulated data realistic. It is shown that GP can be successfully applied to the inverse problem with acceptable stability in the presence of realistic noise in the data. GP is compared with neural network methodology for case I waters; GP exhibits similar retrieval accuracy, which is greater than for traditional techniques such as band ratio algorithms. The application of GP to real satellite data [a Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS)] was also carried out for case I waters as a validation. Good agreement was obtained when GP results were compared with the SeaWiFS empirical algorithm. For case II waters the accuracy of GP is less than 33%, which remains satisfactory, at the present time, for remote-sensing purposes.
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