Abstract

The range-dependent overlap between the laser beam and the receiver field of view of a lidar can be determined experimentally if a pure molecular backscatter signal is measured in addition to the usually observed elastic backscatter signal, which consists of a molecular component and a particle component. Two methods, the direct determination of the overlap profile and an iterative approach, are presented and applied to a lidar measurement. The measured overlap profile accounts for actual system alignment and for all system parameters that are not explicitly known, such as actual laser beam divergence and spatial intensity distribution of the laser light.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Halldórsson, J. Langerholc, “Geometrical form factors for the lidar function,” Appl. Opt. 17, 240–244 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Sassen, G. C. Dodd, “Lidar crossover function and misalignment effects,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3162–3165 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. M. Ancellet, M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, A. M. Brothers, “Lidar telescope overlap function and effects of misalignment for unstable resonator transmitter and coherent receiver,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2886–2890 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Velotta, B. Bartoli, R. Capobianco, N. Spinelli, “Analysis of the receiver response in lidar measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6999–7007 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Sasano, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, M. Okuda, “Geometrical form factor in the laser radar equation: an experimental determination,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3908–3910 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Tomine, C. Hirayama, K. Michimoto, N. Takeuchi, “Experimental determination of the crossover function in the laser radar equation for days with a light mist,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2194–2195 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. W. Dho, Y. J. Park, H. J. Kong, “Experimental determination of a geometrical form factor in a lidar equation for an inhomogeneous atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6009–6010 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “The University of Wisconsin high spectral resolution lidar,” Opt. Eng. 30, 6–12 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 652–653 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: Lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese Coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).
  15. A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: A first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar. 1. Seasonal cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28567–28576 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar. 2. Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28596 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (3)

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: Lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese Coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar. 1. Seasonal cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28567–28576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar. 2. Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28596 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: A first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1992 (2)

1991 (1)

C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “The University of Wisconsin high spectral resolution lidar,” Opt. Eng. 30, 6–12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

Althausen, D.

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: Lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese Coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar. 1. Seasonal cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28567–28576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar. 2. Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28596 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: A first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Ancellet, G. M.

Ansmann, A.

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar. 2. Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28596 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar. 1. Seasonal cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28567–28576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: Lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese Coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: A first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Bartoli, B.

Böckmann, C.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Bösenberg, J.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Brothers, A. M.

Capobianco, R.

Clauder, E.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dho, S. W.

Dodd, G. C.

Eloranta, E. W.

C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “The University of Wisconsin high spectral resolution lidar,” Opt. Eng. 30, 6–12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fernald, F. G.

Ferrare, R. A.

Fiebig, M.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Franke, K.

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar. 1. Seasonal cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28567–28576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar. 2. Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28596 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: A first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grund, C. J.

C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “The University of Wisconsin high spectral resolution lidar,” Opt. Eng. 30, 6–12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Halldórsson, T.

Heintzenberg, J.

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar. 1. Seasonal cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28567–28576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar. 2. Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28596 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: A first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herber, A.

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: Lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese Coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hirayama, C.

Hube, H.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kavaya, M. J.

Kong, H. J.

Langerholc, J.

Matthias, V.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Melfi, S. H.

Menzies, R. T.

Michaelis, W.

Michimoto, K.

Müller, D.

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar. 2. Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28596 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: Lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese Coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar. 1. Seasonal cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28567–28576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: A first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Okuda, M.

Park, Y. J.

Riebesell, M.

Sasano, Y.

Sassen, K.

Shimizu, H.

Spinelli, N.

Stohl, A.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Takeuchi, N.

Tomine, K.

Velotta, R.

Verver, G.

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar. 2. Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28596 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, F.

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar. 2. Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28596 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar. 1. Seasonal cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28567–28576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: Lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese Coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: A first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wandinger, U.

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: Lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese Coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: A first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Weiss, V.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Weitkamp, C.

Wendisch, M.

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Whiteman, D. N.

Zörner, S.

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (10)

T. Halldórsson, J. Langerholc, “Geometrical form factors for the lidar function,” Appl. Opt. 17, 240–244 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sassen, G. C. Dodd, “Lidar crossover function and misalignment effects,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3162–3165 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Ancellet, M. J. Kavaya, R. T. Menzies, A. M. Brothers, “Lidar telescope overlap function and effects of misalignment for unstable resonator transmitter and coherent receiver,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2886–2890 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Velotta, B. Bartoli, R. Capobianco, N. Spinelli, “Analysis of the receiver response in lidar measurements,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6999–7007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, H. Shimizu, N. Takeuchi, M. Okuda, “Geometrical form factor in the laser radar equation: an experimental determination,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3908–3910 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tomine, C. Hirayama, K. Michimoto, N. Takeuchi, “Experimental determination of the crossover function in the laser radar equation for days with a light mist,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2194–2195 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Dho, Y. J. Park, H. J. Kong, “Experimental determination of a geometrical form factor in a lidar equation for an inhomogeneous atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6009–6010 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Fernald, “Analysis of atmospheric lidar observations: some comments,” Appl. Opt. 23, 652–653 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, U. Wandinger, K. Franke, D. Müller, F. Wagner, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of the Indian aerosol plume with six-wavelength lidar during INDOEX: A first case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 963–966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (1)

D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, H. Hube, E. Clauder, S. Zörner, “Scanning six-wavelength eleven-channel aerosol lidar,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1469–1482 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

A. Ansmann, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, D. Müller, A. Herber, U. Wandinger, “European pollution outbreaks during ACE 2: Lofted aerosol plumes observed with Raman lidar at the Portuguese Coast,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20725–20733 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar. 1. Seasonal cycle,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28567–28576 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, K. Franke, F. Wagner, D. Althausen, A. Ansmann, J. Heintzenberg, G. Verver, “Vertical profiling of optical and physical particle properties over the tropical Indian Ocean with six-wavelength lidar. 2. Case studies,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 28577–28596 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “The University of Wisconsin high spectral resolution lidar,” Opt. Eng. 30, 6–12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

U. Wandinger, D. Müller, C. Böckmann, D. Althausen, V. Matthias, J. Bösenberg, V. Weiss, M. Fiebig, M. Wendisch, A. Stohl, A. Ansmann, “Optical and microphysical characterization of biomass-burning and industrial-pollution aerosols from multiwavelength lidar and aircraft measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Klett solution (curve A, overlap effect is ignored) and Raman lidar solution (curve B) for the particle backscatter coefficient. The lidar observation was in clean, maritime air. For the Klett procedure we assumed a lidar ratio of 25 sr, which is typical for maritime aerosols.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Overlap profile that we determined by applying the direct method [Eq. (3)].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Particle extinction coefficient determined from the nitrogen Raman signal profile when we ignored the incomplete overlap (curve A) and when we considered the overlap profile (shown in Fig. 2) in the data analysis (curve B).

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P0z=C0O0zz-2β0,Pz+β0,MzT0z2,
PRz=CRORzz-2βRzT0zTRz,
Oz=PRzz2CRβRzT0zTRz,
P0zOz-1z2  βRamanz+β0,Mz,
P0zz2  βKlettz+β0,Mz.
βRamanz-βKlettzβRamanz+β0,Mz P0zOz-1z2-P0zz2P0zOz-1z2 1-Oz,
ΔOiz=βRamanz-βKlett,izβRamanz+β0,Mz.
P0,i+1z=P0,iz1+ΔOiz.

Metrics