Abstract

Current methods for the atmospheric correction of ocean-color imagery rely on the computation of optical properties of a mixture of chemically different aerosol particles through combination of the mixture with it into an effective, single-particle component that has an average refractive index. However, a multi-component approach in which each particle type independently grows and changes its refractive index with increasing humidity is more realistic. Computations based on Mie theory and radiative transfer are used to show that the two approaches result in top-of-the-atmosphere radiances that differ more than the water-leaving radiance. Thus, proper atmospheric correction requires a multicomponent approach for the computation of realistic aerosol optical properties.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. D. Mobley, “Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, California, 1994).
  2. J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U. Press, 1994), 2nd ed.
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observation System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. R. Gordon, T. Du, T. Zhang, “Remote sensing of ocean color and aerosol properties: resolving the issue of aerosol absorption,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8670–8684 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Antoine, A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensing ocean color (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Schwindling, P. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24919–24935 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on their Optical Properties (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb AFB, Mass., 1979).
  9. J. Heintzenberg, “Light scattering parameters of internal and external mixtures of soot and non-absorbing material in atmospheric aerosols,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere, Berkeley, Calif., March 20–22, 1978, T. Novakov, ed. (National Science Foundation/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1978).
  10. P. Chylek, J. Wong, “Effect of absorbing aerosol on global radiation budget,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 929–931 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Hanel, “The properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as functions of the relative humidity at thermodynamic equilibrium with the surrounding moist air,” in Advances in Geophysics, H. E. Landsberg, J. Van Mieghem, eds. (Academic, New York) 19, 73–188 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. Wulfmeyer, G. Feingold, “On the relationship between relative humidity and particle backscattering coefficient in the marine boundary layer determined with differential absorption lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4729–4741 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E.-N. Yeh, C. R. McClain, “Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17107–17118 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B.-C. Gao, M. J. Montes, Z. Ahmad, C. O. Davis, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing of ocean color from space,” Appl. Opt. 39, 887–896 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S.-C. Tsay, G. L. Stephens, A Physical/Optical Model for Atmospheric Aerosols with Application to Visibility Problems (Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo., 1990).
  16. G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols: Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (A. Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1991).
  17. D. M. Murphy, J. R. Anderson, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Mcinnes, F. J. Brechtel, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. M. Middlebrook, M. Posfai, D. S. Thomson, P. R. Buseck, “Influence of sea-salt on aerosol radiative properties in the southern ocean marine boundary layer,” Nature 392, 62–65 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Chen, K. Stamnes, B. Yan, Ø. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, “Water-leaving radiance in the NIR spectral region and its effects on atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery,” J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Tech. Soci. 4, 329–338 (1998).
  19. D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. J. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Z. Jin, K. Stamnes, “Radiative transfer in nonuniformly refracting layered media: atmosphere-ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 431–442 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. G. E. Thomas, K. Stamnes, “Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. W. Fenn, “Aerosol-Verteilungen und atmospharisches Streulicht,” Beitr. Physik Atmos. 37, 69–104 (1964).
  24. K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, “The aerosol size distribution of Los Angles smog,” J. Colloid Sci. 39, 177–204 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, G. M. Sverdrup, G. J. Sem, K. Willeke, B. Y. H. Liu, D. Y. H. Pui, “Characterization of California aerosols: I. Size distributions of Freeway aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. 9, 463–482 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. Willeke, K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, “Size distributions of Denver aerosols: A comparison of two sites,” Atmos. Environ. 8, 609–633 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. T. Twitty, R. J. Parent, J. A. Weinman, E. W. Eloranta, “Aerosol size distributions: Remote determination from airborne measurements of the solar aureole,” Appl. Opt. 15, 980–989 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. F. S. Harris, M. P. McCormick, “Mie scattering by three polydispersions,” J. Colloid Sci. 39, 536–545 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. N. Davies, “Size distribution of atmospheric particles,” J. Aerosol Sci. 5, 293–300 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. T. Whitby, B. Cantrell, “Atmospheric aerosols—characteristics and measurements,” in The International Conference on Environmental Sensing and Assessment, Las Vegas, Nevada, September 14–19, 1975 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1975), paper 29-1.
  31. G. Hanel, M. Lehmann, “Equilibrium size of aerosol particles and relative humidity: new experimental data from various aerosol types and their treatment for cloud physics application,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 54, 57–71 (1981).
  32. P. V. N. Nair, K. G. Vohra, “Growth of aqueous sulfuric acid droplets as function of relative humidity,” J. Aerosol Sci. 6, 265–271 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  33. E. E. Gard, M. J. Kleeman, D. S. Gross, L. S. Hughes, J. O. Allen, B. D. Morrical, D. P. Fergenson, T. Dienes, M. E. Galli, R. J. Johnson, G. R. Cass, K. A. Prather, “Direct observation of heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere,” Science 279, 1184–1187 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. E. Swietlicki, J. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, F. Stratmann, “Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the north-eastern Atlantic during ACE-2,” Tellus B 52, 201–227 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  35. Y. Sasano, E. V. Browell, “Light scattering characteristics of various aerosol types derived from multiple wavelength lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1670–1679 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. K. D. Perry, T. A. Cahill, R. A. Eldred, D. D. Dutcher, T. E. Gill, “Long-range transport of North African dust to the eastern United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 11225–11238 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. Uematsu, R. A. Duce, J. M. Prospero, L. Chen, J. T. Merrill, R. L. McDonald, “Transport of mineral aerosol from Asia over the north Pacific ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5343–5352 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  38. A. D. Clarke, “Atmospheric nuclei in the Pacific midtroposphere: their nature, concentration, and evolution,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20633–20647 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  39. M. Ikemagi, K. Okada, Y. Zaizen, Y. Makino, “Aerosol particles in the middle troposphere over the northwestern Pacific,” J. Met. Soc. Jap. 71, 517–527 (1993).
  40. Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, L. Remer, E. Vermote, A. Chu, B. N. Holben, “Remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol from EOS-MODIS over the land using dark targets and dynamic aerosol models,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17051–17067 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  41. G. K. Yue, J. Lu, V. A. Mohnen, P.-H. Wang, V. K. Saxena, J. Anderson, “Retrieving aerosol optical properties from moments of the particle size distribution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 651–654 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  42. I. Chiapello, G. Bergametti, B. Chatenet, F. Dulac, I. Jankowiak, C. Liousse, E. S. Soares, “Contribution of the different aerosol species to the aerosol mass load and optical depth over the northeastern tropical Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 4025–4035 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2000

V. Wulfmeyer, G. Feingold, “On the relationship between relative humidity and particle backscattering coefficient in the marine boundary layer determined with differential absorption lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4729–4741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Swietlicki, J. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, F. Stratmann, “Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the north-eastern Atlantic during ACE-2,” Tellus B 52, 201–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B.-C. Gao, M. J. Montes, Z. Ahmad, C. O. Davis, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing of ocean color from space,” Appl. Opt. 39, 887–896 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

I. Chiapello, G. Bergametti, B. Chatenet, F. Dulac, I. Jankowiak, C. Liousse, E. S. Soares, “Contribution of the different aerosol species to the aerosol mass load and optical depth over the northeastern tropical Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 4025–4035 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine, A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensing ocean color (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Schwindling, P. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24919–24935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Murphy, J. R. Anderson, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Mcinnes, F. J. Brechtel, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. M. Middlebrook, M. Posfai, D. S. Thomson, P. R. Buseck, “Influence of sea-salt on aerosol radiative properties in the southern ocean marine boundary layer,” Nature 392, 62–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Chen, K. Stamnes, B. Yan, Ø. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, “Water-leaving radiance in the NIR spectral region and its effects on atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery,” J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Tech. Soci. 4, 329–338 (1998).

E. E. Gard, M. J. Kleeman, D. S. Gross, L. S. Hughes, J. O. Allen, B. D. Morrical, D. P. Fergenson, T. Dienes, M. E. Galli, R. J. Johnson, G. R. Cass, K. A. Prather, “Direct observation of heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere,” Science 279, 1184–1187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, L. Remer, E. Vermote, A. Chu, B. N. Holben, “Remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol from EOS-MODIS over the land using dark targets and dynamic aerosol models,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17051–17067 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, J. Lu, V. A. Mohnen, P.-H. Wang, V. K. Saxena, J. Anderson, “Retrieving aerosol optical properties from moments of the particle size distribution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 651–654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, T. Zhang, “Remote sensing of ocean color and aerosol properties: resolving the issue of aerosol absorption,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8670–8684 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E.-N. Yeh, C. R. McClain, “Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17107–17118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observation System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Perry, T. A. Cahill, R. A. Eldred, D. D. Dutcher, T. E. Gill, “Long-range transport of North African dust to the eastern United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 11225–11238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. Chylek, J. Wong, “Effect of absorbing aerosol on global radiation budget,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 929–931 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

A. D. Clarke, “Atmospheric nuclei in the Pacific midtroposphere: their nature, concentration, and evolution,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20633–20647 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Ikemagi, K. Okada, Y. Zaizen, Y. Makino, “Aerosol particles in the middle troposphere over the northwestern Pacific,” J. Met. Soc. Jap. 71, 517–527 (1993).

1989

1988

1983

M. Uematsu, R. A. Duce, J. M. Prospero, L. Chen, J. T. Merrill, R. L. McDonald, “Transport of mineral aerosol from Asia over the north Pacific ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5343–5352 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

G. Hanel, M. Lehmann, “Equilibrium size of aerosol particles and relative humidity: new experimental data from various aerosol types and their treatment for cloud physics application,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 54, 57–71 (1981).

1976

1975

P. V. N. Nair, K. G. Vohra, “Growth of aqueous sulfuric acid droplets as function of relative humidity,” J. Aerosol Sci. 6, 265–271 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, G. M. Sverdrup, G. J. Sem, K. Willeke, B. Y. H. Liu, D. Y. H. Pui, “Characterization of California aerosols: I. Size distributions of Freeway aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. 9, 463–482 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

K. Willeke, K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, “Size distributions of Denver aerosols: A comparison of two sites,” Atmos. Environ. 8, 609–633 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. N. Davies, “Size distribution of atmospheric particles,” J. Aerosol Sci. 5, 293–300 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972

K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, “The aerosol size distribution of Los Angles smog,” J. Colloid Sci. 39, 177–204 (1972).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Harris, M. P. McCormick, “Mie scattering by three polydispersions,” J. Colloid Sci. 39, 536–545 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1964

R. W. Fenn, “Aerosol-Verteilungen und atmospharisches Streulicht,” Beitr. Physik Atmos. 37, 69–104 (1964).

Aalto, P.

E. Swietlicki, J. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, F. Stratmann, “Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the north-eastern Atlantic during ACE-2,” Tellus B 52, 201–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, Z.

Allen, J. O.

E. E. Gard, M. J. Kleeman, D. S. Gross, L. S. Hughes, J. O. Allen, B. D. Morrical, D. P. Fergenson, T. Dienes, M. E. Galli, R. J. Johnson, G. R. Cass, K. A. Prather, “Direct observation of heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere,” Science 279, 1184–1187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, J.

G. K. Yue, J. Lu, V. A. Mohnen, P.-H. Wang, V. K. Saxena, J. Anderson, “Retrieving aerosol optical properties from moments of the particle size distribution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 651–654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. R.

D. M. Murphy, J. R. Anderson, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Mcinnes, F. J. Brechtel, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. M. Middlebrook, M. Posfai, D. S. Thomson, P. R. Buseck, “Influence of sea-salt on aerosol radiative properties in the southern ocean marine boundary layer,” Nature 392, 62–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

D. Antoine, A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensing ocean color (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berg, O. H.

E. Swietlicki, J. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, F. Stratmann, “Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the north-eastern Atlantic during ACE-2,” Tellus B 52, 201–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bergametti, G.

I. Chiapello, G. Bergametti, B. Chatenet, F. Dulac, I. Jankowiak, C. Liousse, E. S. Soares, “Contribution of the different aerosol species to the aerosol mass load and optical depth over the northeastern tropical Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 4025–4035 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brechtel, F. J.

D. M. Murphy, J. R. Anderson, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Mcinnes, F. J. Brechtel, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. M. Middlebrook, M. Posfai, D. S. Thomson, P. R. Buseck, “Influence of sea-salt on aerosol radiative properties in the southern ocean marine boundary layer,” Nature 392, 62–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

Busch, B.

E. Swietlicki, J. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, F. Stratmann, “Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the north-eastern Atlantic during ACE-2,” Tellus B 52, 201–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Buseck, P. R.

D. M. Murphy, J. R. Anderson, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Mcinnes, F. J. Brechtel, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. M. Middlebrook, M. Posfai, D. S. Thomson, P. R. Buseck, “Influence of sea-salt on aerosol radiative properties in the southern ocean marine boundary layer,” Nature 392, 62–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cahill, T. A.

K. D. Perry, T. A. Cahill, R. A. Eldred, D. D. Dutcher, T. E. Gill, “Long-range transport of North African dust to the eastern United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 11225–11238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cantrell, B.

K. T. Whitby, B. Cantrell, “Atmospheric aerosols—characteristics and measurements,” in The International Conference on Environmental Sensing and Assessment, Las Vegas, Nevada, September 14–19, 1975 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1975), paper 29-1.

Cass, G. R.

E. E. Gard, M. J. Kleeman, D. S. Gross, L. S. Hughes, J. O. Allen, B. D. Morrical, D. P. Fergenson, T. Dienes, M. E. Galli, R. J. Johnson, G. R. Cass, K. A. Prather, “Direct observation of heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere,” Science 279, 1184–1187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chatenet, B.

I. Chiapello, G. Bergametti, B. Chatenet, F. Dulac, I. Jankowiak, C. Liousse, E. S. Soares, “Contribution of the different aerosol species to the aerosol mass load and optical depth over the northeastern tropical Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 4025–4035 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

B. Chen, K. Stamnes, B. Yan, Ø. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, “Water-leaving radiance in the NIR spectral region and its effects on atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery,” J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Tech. Soci. 4, 329–338 (1998).

Chen, L.

M. Uematsu, R. A. Duce, J. M. Prospero, L. Chen, J. T. Merrill, R. L. McDonald, “Transport of mineral aerosol from Asia over the north Pacific ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5343–5352 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chiapello, I.

I. Chiapello, G. Bergametti, B. Chatenet, F. Dulac, I. Jankowiak, C. Liousse, E. S. Soares, “Contribution of the different aerosol species to the aerosol mass load and optical depth over the northeastern tropical Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 4025–4035 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chu, A.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, L. Remer, E. Vermote, A. Chu, B. N. Holben, “Remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol from EOS-MODIS over the land using dark targets and dynamic aerosol models,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17051–17067 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chylek, P.

P. Chylek, J. Wong, “Effect of absorbing aerosol on global radiation budget,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 929–931 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Clark, W. E.

K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, G. M. Sverdrup, G. J. Sem, K. Willeke, B. Y. H. Liu, D. Y. H. Pui, “Characterization of California aerosols: I. Size distributions of Freeway aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. 9, 463–482 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. Willeke, K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, “Size distributions of Denver aerosols: A comparison of two sites,” Atmos. Environ. 8, 609–633 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clarke, A. D.

A. D. Clarke, “Atmospheric nuclei in the Pacific midtroposphere: their nature, concentration, and evolution,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20633–20647 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Covert, D. S.

E. Swietlicki, J. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, F. Stratmann, “Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the north-eastern Atlantic during ACE-2,” Tellus B 52, 201–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davies, C. N.

C. N. Davies, “Size distribution of atmospheric particles,” J. Aerosol Sci. 5, 293–300 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

Deschamps, P.

M. Schwindling, P. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24919–24935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dienes, T.

E. E. Gard, M. J. Kleeman, D. S. Gross, L. S. Hughes, J. O. Allen, B. D. Morrical, D. P. Fergenson, T. Dienes, M. E. Galli, R. J. Johnson, G. R. Cass, K. A. Prather, “Direct observation of heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere,” Science 279, 1184–1187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, T.

Duce, R. A.

M. Uematsu, R. A. Duce, J. M. Prospero, L. Chen, J. T. Merrill, R. L. McDonald, “Transport of mineral aerosol from Asia over the north Pacific ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5343–5352 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dulac, F.

I. Chiapello, G. Bergametti, B. Chatenet, F. Dulac, I. Jankowiak, C. Liousse, E. S. Soares, “Contribution of the different aerosol species to the aerosol mass load and optical depth over the northeastern tropical Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 4025–4035 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dusek, U.

E. Swietlicki, J. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, F. Stratmann, “Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the north-eastern Atlantic during ACE-2,” Tellus B 52, 201–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dutcher, D. D.

K. D. Perry, T. A. Cahill, R. A. Eldred, D. D. Dutcher, T. E. Gill, “Long-range transport of North African dust to the eastern United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 11225–11238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eldred, R. A.

K. D. Perry, T. A. Cahill, R. A. Eldred, D. D. Dutcher, T. E. Gill, “Long-range transport of North African dust to the eastern United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 11225–11238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eloranta, E. W.

Feingold, G.

V. Wulfmeyer, G. Feingold, “On the relationship between relative humidity and particle backscattering coefficient in the marine boundary layer determined with differential absorption lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4729–4741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fenn, R. W.

R. W. Fenn, “Aerosol-Verteilungen und atmospharisches Streulicht,” Beitr. Physik Atmos. 37, 69–104 (1964).

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on their Optical Properties (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb AFB, Mass., 1979).

Fergenson, D. P.

E. E. Gard, M. J. Kleeman, D. S. Gross, L. S. Hughes, J. O. Allen, B. D. Morrical, D. P. Fergenson, T. Dienes, M. E. Galli, R. J. Johnson, G. R. Cass, K. A. Prather, “Direct observation of heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere,” Science 279, 1184–1187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frank, G.

E. Swietlicki, J. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, F. Stratmann, “Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the north-eastern Atlantic during ACE-2,” Tellus B 52, 201–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, R. S.

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E.-N. Yeh, C. R. McClain, “Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17107–17118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frette, Ø.

B. Chen, K. Stamnes, B. Yan, Ø. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, “Water-leaving radiance in the NIR spectral region and its effects on atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery,” J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Tech. Soci. 4, 329–338 (1998).

Frouin, R.

M. Schwindling, P. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24919–24935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Galli, M. E.

E. E. Gard, M. J. Kleeman, D. S. Gross, L. S. Hughes, J. O. Allen, B. D. Morrical, D. P. Fergenson, T. Dienes, M. E. Galli, R. J. Johnson, G. R. Cass, K. A. Prather, “Direct observation of heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere,” Science 279, 1184–1187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, B.-C.

Gard, E. E.

E. E. Gard, M. J. Kleeman, D. S. Gross, L. S. Hughes, J. O. Allen, B. D. Morrical, D. P. Fergenson, T. Dienes, M. E. Galli, R. J. Johnson, G. R. Cass, K. A. Prather, “Direct observation of heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere,” Science 279, 1184–1187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gill, T. E.

K. D. Perry, T. A. Cahill, R. A. Eldred, D. D. Dutcher, T. E. Gill, “Long-range transport of North African dust to the eastern United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 11225–11238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

Gross, D. S.

E. E. Gard, M. J. Kleeman, D. S. Gross, L. S. Hughes, J. O. Allen, B. D. Morrical, D. P. Fergenson, T. Dienes, M. E. Galli, R. J. Johnson, G. R. Cass, K. A. Prather, “Direct observation of heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere,” Science 279, 1184–1187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hameri, K.

E. Swietlicki, J. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, F. Stratmann, “Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the north-eastern Atlantic during ACE-2,” Tellus B 52, 201–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hanel, G.

G. Hanel, M. Lehmann, “Equilibrium size of aerosol particles and relative humidity: new experimental data from various aerosol types and their treatment for cloud physics application,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 54, 57–71 (1981).

G. Hanel, “The properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as functions of the relative humidity at thermodynamic equilibrium with the surrounding moist air,” in Advances in Geophysics, H. E. Landsberg, J. Van Mieghem, eds. (Academic, New York) 19, 73–188 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Harris, F. S.

F. S. Harris, M. P. McCormick, “Mie scattering by three polydispersions,” J. Colloid Sci. 39, 536–545 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Heintzenberg, J.

J. Heintzenberg, “Light scattering parameters of internal and external mixtures of soot and non-absorbing material in atmospheric aerosols,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere, Berkeley, Calif., March 20–22, 1978, T. Novakov, ed. (National Science Foundation/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1978).

Holben, B. N.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, L. Remer, E. Vermote, A. Chu, B. N. Holben, “Remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol from EOS-MODIS over the land using dark targets and dynamic aerosol models,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17051–17067 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, L. S.

E. E. Gard, M. J. Kleeman, D. S. Gross, L. S. Hughes, J. O. Allen, B. D. Morrical, D. P. Fergenson, T. Dienes, M. E. Galli, R. J. Johnson, G. R. Cass, K. A. Prather, “Direct observation of heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere,” Science 279, 1184–1187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Husar, R. B.

K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, “The aerosol size distribution of Los Angles smog,” J. Colloid Sci. 39, 177–204 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ikemagi, M.

M. Ikemagi, K. Okada, Y. Zaizen, Y. Makino, “Aerosol particles in the middle troposphere over the northwestern Pacific,” J. Met. Soc. Jap. 71, 517–527 (1993).

Jankowiak, I.

I. Chiapello, G. Bergametti, B. Chatenet, F. Dulac, I. Jankowiak, C. Liousse, E. S. Soares, “Contribution of the different aerosol species to the aerosol mass load and optical depth over the northeastern tropical Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 4025–4035 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jayaweera, K.

Jin, Z.

Johnson, R. J.

E. E. Gard, M. J. Kleeman, D. S. Gross, L. S. Hughes, J. O. Allen, B. D. Morrical, D. P. Fergenson, T. Dienes, M. E. Galli, R. J. Johnson, G. R. Cass, K. A. Prather, “Direct observation of heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere,” Science 279, 1184–1187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaufman, Y. J.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, L. Remer, E. Vermote, A. Chu, B. N. Holben, “Remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol from EOS-MODIS over the land using dark targets and dynamic aerosol models,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17051–17067 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, J. T. O.

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U. Press, 1994), 2nd ed.
[CrossRef]

Kleeman, M. J.

E. E. Gard, M. J. Kleeman, D. S. Gross, L. S. Hughes, J. O. Allen, B. D. Morrical, D. P. Fergenson, T. Dienes, M. E. Galli, R. J. Johnson, G. R. Cass, K. A. Prather, “Direct observation of heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere,” Science 279, 1184–1187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreidenweis, S. M.

D. M. Murphy, J. R. Anderson, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Mcinnes, F. J. Brechtel, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. M. Middlebrook, M. Posfai, D. S. Thomson, P. R. Buseck, “Influence of sea-salt on aerosol radiative properties in the southern ocean marine boundary layer,” Nature 392, 62–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, M.

G. Hanel, M. Lehmann, “Equilibrium size of aerosol particles and relative humidity: new experimental data from various aerosol types and their treatment for cloud physics application,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 54, 57–71 (1981).

Liousse, C.

I. Chiapello, G. Bergametti, B. Chatenet, F. Dulac, I. Jankowiak, C. Liousse, E. S. Soares, “Contribution of the different aerosol species to the aerosol mass load and optical depth over the northeastern tropical Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 4025–4035 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B. Y. H.

K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, G. M. Sverdrup, G. J. Sem, K. Willeke, B. Y. H. Liu, D. Y. H. Pui, “Characterization of California aerosols: I. Size distributions of Freeway aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. 9, 463–482 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, “The aerosol size distribution of Los Angles smog,” J. Colloid Sci. 39, 177–204 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

G. K. Yue, J. Lu, V. A. Mohnen, P.-H. Wang, V. K. Saxena, J. Anderson, “Retrieving aerosol optical properties from moments of the particle size distribution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 651–654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Makela, J.

E. Swietlicki, J. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, F. Stratmann, “Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the north-eastern Atlantic during ACE-2,” Tellus B 52, 201–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Makino, Y.

M. Ikemagi, K. Okada, Y. Zaizen, Y. Makino, “Aerosol particles in the middle troposphere over the northwestern Pacific,” J. Met. Soc. Jap. 71, 517–527 (1993).

Maritorena, S.

Marple, V. A.

K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, G. M. Sverdrup, G. J. Sem, K. Willeke, B. Y. H. Liu, D. Y. H. Pui, “Characterization of California aerosols: I. Size distributions of Freeway aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. 9, 463–482 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. Willeke, K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, “Size distributions of Denver aerosols: A comparison of two sites,” Atmos. Environ. 8, 609–633 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinsson, B. G.

E. Swietlicki, J. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, F. Stratmann, “Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the north-eastern Atlantic during ACE-2,” Tellus B 52, 201–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mattoo, S.

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E.-N. Yeh, C. R. McClain, “Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17107–17118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E.-N. Yeh, C. R. McClain, “Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17107–17118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

F. S. Harris, M. P. McCormick, “Mie scattering by three polydispersions,” J. Colloid Sci. 39, 536–545 (1972).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, R. L.

M. Uematsu, R. A. Duce, J. M. Prospero, L. Chen, J. T. Merrill, R. L. McDonald, “Transport of mineral aerosol from Asia over the north Pacific ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5343–5352 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mcinnes, L. M.

D. M. Murphy, J. R. Anderson, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Mcinnes, F. J. Brechtel, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. M. Middlebrook, M. Posfai, D. S. Thomson, P. R. Buseck, “Influence of sea-salt on aerosol radiative properties in the southern ocean marine boundary layer,” Nature 392, 62–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mentes, B.

E. Swietlicki, J. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, F. Stratmann, “Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the north-eastern Atlantic during ACE-2,” Tellus B 52, 201–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Merrill, J. T.

M. Uematsu, R. A. Duce, J. M. Prospero, L. Chen, J. T. Merrill, R. L. McDonald, “Transport of mineral aerosol from Asia over the north Pacific ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5343–5352 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Middlebrook, A. M.

D. M. Murphy, J. R. Anderson, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Mcinnes, F. J. Brechtel, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. M. Middlebrook, M. Posfai, D. S. Thomson, P. R. Buseck, “Influence of sea-salt on aerosol radiative properties in the southern ocean marine boundary layer,” Nature 392, 62–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

C. D. Mobley, “Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, California, 1994).

Mohnen, V. A.

G. K. Yue, J. Lu, V. A. Mohnen, P.-H. Wang, V. K. Saxena, J. Anderson, “Retrieving aerosol optical properties from moments of the particle size distribution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 651–654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Montes, M. J.

Morel, A.

D. Antoine, A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensing ocean color (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morrical, B. D.

E. E. Gard, M. J. Kleeman, D. S. Gross, L. S. Hughes, J. O. Allen, B. D. Morrical, D. P. Fergenson, T. Dienes, M. E. Galli, R. J. Johnson, G. R. Cass, K. A. Prather, “Direct observation of heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere,” Science 279, 1184–1187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, D. M.

D. M. Murphy, J. R. Anderson, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Mcinnes, F. J. Brechtel, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. M. Middlebrook, M. Posfai, D. S. Thomson, P. R. Buseck, “Influence of sea-salt on aerosol radiative properties in the southern ocean marine boundary layer,” Nature 392, 62–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nair, P. V. N.

P. V. N. Nair, K. G. Vohra, “Growth of aqueous sulfuric acid droplets as function of relative humidity,” J. Aerosol Sci. 6, 265–271 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Okada, K.

M. Ikemagi, K. Okada, Y. Zaizen, Y. Makino, “Aerosol particles in the middle troposphere over the northwestern Pacific,” J. Met. Soc. Jap. 71, 517–527 (1993).

Papaspiropoulos, G.

E. Swietlicki, J. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, F. Stratmann, “Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the north-eastern Atlantic during ACE-2,” Tellus B 52, 201–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Parent, R. J.

Perry, K. D.

K. D. Perry, T. A. Cahill, R. A. Eldred, D. D. Dutcher, T. E. Gill, “Long-range transport of North African dust to the eastern United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 11225–11238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Posfai, M.

D. M. Murphy, J. R. Anderson, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Mcinnes, F. J. Brechtel, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. M. Middlebrook, M. Posfai, D. S. Thomson, P. R. Buseck, “Influence of sea-salt on aerosol radiative properties in the southern ocean marine boundary layer,” Nature 392, 62–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prather, K. A.

E. E. Gard, M. J. Kleeman, D. S. Gross, L. S. Hughes, J. O. Allen, B. D. Morrical, D. P. Fergenson, T. Dienes, M. E. Galli, R. J. Johnson, G. R. Cass, K. A. Prather, “Direct observation of heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere,” Science 279, 1184–1187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prospero, J. M.

M. Uematsu, R. A. Duce, J. M. Prospero, L. Chen, J. T. Merrill, R. L. McDonald, “Transport of mineral aerosol from Asia over the north Pacific ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5343–5352 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pui, D. Y. H.

K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, G. M. Sverdrup, G. J. Sem, K. Willeke, B. Y. H. Liu, D. Y. H. Pui, “Characterization of California aerosols: I. Size distributions of Freeway aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. 9, 463–482 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, P. K.

D. M. Murphy, J. R. Anderson, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Mcinnes, F. J. Brechtel, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. M. Middlebrook, M. Posfai, D. S. Thomson, P. R. Buseck, “Influence of sea-salt on aerosol radiative properties in the southern ocean marine boundary layer,” Nature 392, 62–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Remer, L.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, L. Remer, E. Vermote, A. Chu, B. N. Holben, “Remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol from EOS-MODIS over the land using dark targets and dynamic aerosol models,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17051–17067 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, W.

Sasano, Y.

Saxena, V. K.

G. K. Yue, J. Lu, V. A. Mohnen, P.-H. Wang, V. K. Saxena, J. Anderson, “Retrieving aerosol optical properties from moments of the particle size distribution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 651–654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schwindling, M.

M. Schwindling, P. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24919–24935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sem, G. J.

K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, G. M. Sverdrup, G. J. Sem, K. Willeke, B. Y. H. Liu, D. Y. H. Pui, “Characterization of California aerosols: I. Size distributions of Freeway aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. 9, 463–482 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on their Optical Properties (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb AFB, Mass., 1979).

Siegel, D. A.

Soares, E. S.

I. Chiapello, G. Bergametti, B. Chatenet, F. Dulac, I. Jankowiak, C. Liousse, E. S. Soares, “Contribution of the different aerosol species to the aerosol mass load and optical depth over the northeastern tropical Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 4025–4035 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stamnes, J. J.

B. Chen, K. Stamnes, B. Yan, Ø. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, “Water-leaving radiance in the NIR spectral region and its effects on atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery,” J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Tech. Soci. 4, 329–338 (1998).

Stamnes, K.

B. Chen, K. Stamnes, B. Yan, Ø. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, “Water-leaving radiance in the NIR spectral region and its effects on atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery,” J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Tech. Soci. 4, 329–338 (1998).

Z. Jin, K. Stamnes, “Radiative transfer in nonuniformly refracting layered media: atmosphere-ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 431–442 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. J. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Thomas, K. Stamnes, “Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, G. L.

S.-C. Tsay, G. L. Stephens, A Physical/Optical Model for Atmospheric Aerosols with Application to Visibility Problems (Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo., 1990).

Stratmann, F.

E. Swietlicki, J. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, F. Stratmann, “Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the north-eastern Atlantic during ACE-2,” Tellus B 52, 201–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sverdrup, G. M.

K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, G. M. Sverdrup, G. J. Sem, K. Willeke, B. Y. H. Liu, D. Y. H. Pui, “Characterization of California aerosols: I. Size distributions of Freeway aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. 9, 463–482 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Swietlicki, E.

E. Swietlicki, J. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, F. Stratmann, “Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the north-eastern Atlantic during ACE-2,” Tellus B 52, 201–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tanre, D.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, L. Remer, E. Vermote, A. Chu, B. N. Holben, “Remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol from EOS-MODIS over the land using dark targets and dynamic aerosol models,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17051–17067 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, G. E.

G. E. Thomas, K. Stamnes, “Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. S.

D. M. Murphy, J. R. Anderson, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Mcinnes, F. J. Brechtel, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. M. Middlebrook, M. Posfai, D. S. Thomson, P. R. Buseck, “Influence of sea-salt on aerosol radiative properties in the southern ocean marine boundary layer,” Nature 392, 62–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, S.-C.

K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. J. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-C. Tsay, G. L. Stephens, A Physical/Optical Model for Atmospheric Aerosols with Application to Visibility Problems (Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo., 1990).

Twitty, J. T.

Uematsu, M.

M. Uematsu, R. A. Duce, J. M. Prospero, L. Chen, J. T. Merrill, R. L. McDonald, “Transport of mineral aerosol from Asia over the north Pacific ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5343–5352 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Vakeva, M.

E. Swietlicki, J. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, F. Stratmann, “Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the north-eastern Atlantic during ACE-2,” Tellus B 52, 201–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, L. Remer, E. Vermote, A. Chu, B. N. Holben, “Remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol from EOS-MODIS over the land using dark targets and dynamic aerosol models,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17051–17067 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vohra, K. G.

P. V. N. Nair, K. G. Vohra, “Growth of aqueous sulfuric acid droplets as function of relative humidity,” J. Aerosol Sci. 6, 265–271 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Wang, P.-H.

G. K. Yue, J. Lu, V. A. Mohnen, P.-H. Wang, V. K. Saxena, J. Anderson, “Retrieving aerosol optical properties from moments of the particle size distribution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 651–654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weinman, J. A.

Whitby, K. T.

K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, G. M. Sverdrup, G. J. Sem, K. Willeke, B. Y. H. Liu, D. Y. H. Pui, “Characterization of California aerosols: I. Size distributions of Freeway aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. 9, 463–482 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. Willeke, K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, “Size distributions of Denver aerosols: A comparison of two sites,” Atmos. Environ. 8, 609–633 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, “The aerosol size distribution of Los Angles smog,” J. Colloid Sci. 39, 177–204 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Whitby, B. Cantrell, “Atmospheric aerosols—characteristics and measurements,” in The International Conference on Environmental Sensing and Assessment, Las Vegas, Nevada, September 14–19, 1975 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1975), paper 29-1.

Wiedensohler, A.

E. Swietlicki, J. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, F. Stratmann, “Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the north-eastern Atlantic during ACE-2,” Tellus B 52, 201–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Willeke, K.

K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, G. M. Sverdrup, G. J. Sem, K. Willeke, B. Y. H. Liu, D. Y. H. Pui, “Characterization of California aerosols: I. Size distributions of Freeway aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. 9, 463–482 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. Willeke, K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, “Size distributions of Denver aerosols: A comparison of two sites,” Atmos. Environ. 8, 609–633 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiscombe, W. J.

Wong, J.

P. Chylek, J. Wong, “Effect of absorbing aerosol on global radiation budget,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 929–931 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wulfmeyer, V.

V. Wulfmeyer, G. Feingold, “On the relationship between relative humidity and particle backscattering coefficient in the marine boundary layer determined with differential absorption lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4729–4741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yan, B.

B. Chen, K. Stamnes, B. Yan, Ø. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, “Water-leaving radiance in the NIR spectral region and its effects on atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery,” J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Tech. Soci. 4, 329–338 (1998).

Yeh, E.-N.

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E.-N. Yeh, C. R. McClain, “Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17107–17118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yue, G. K.

G. K. Yue, J. Lu, V. A. Mohnen, P.-H. Wang, V. K. Saxena, J. Anderson, “Retrieving aerosol optical properties from moments of the particle size distribution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 651–654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zaizen, Y.

M. Ikemagi, K. Okada, Y. Zaizen, Y. Makino, “Aerosol particles in the middle troposphere over the northwestern Pacific,” J. Met. Soc. Jap. 71, 517–527 (1993).

Zhang, T.

Zhou, J.

E. Swietlicki, J. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, F. Stratmann, “Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the north-eastern Atlantic during ACE-2,” Tellus B 52, 201–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. T. Twitty, R. J. Parent, J. A. Weinman, E. W. Eloranta, “Aerosol size distributions: Remote determination from airborne measurements of the solar aureole,” Appl. Opt. 15, 980–989 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Stamnes, S.-C. Tsay, W. J. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sasano, E. V. Browell, “Light scattering characteristics of various aerosol types derived from multiple wavelength lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1670–1679 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jin, K. Stamnes, “Radiative transfer in nonuniformly refracting layered media: atmosphere-ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 431–442 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-C. Gao, M. J. Montes, Z. Ahmad, C. O. Davis, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing of ocean color from space,” Appl. Opt. 39, 887–896 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, W. Robinson, “Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3582–3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, T. Du, T. Zhang, “Remote sensing of ocean color and aerosol properties: resolving the issue of aerosol absorption,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8670–8684 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ.

K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, G. M. Sverdrup, G. J. Sem, K. Willeke, B. Y. H. Liu, D. Y. H. Pui, “Characterization of California aerosols: I. Size distributions of Freeway aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. 9, 463–482 (1975).
[CrossRef]

K. Willeke, K. T. Whitby, W. E. Clark, V. A. Marple, “Size distributions of Denver aerosols: A comparison of two sites,” Atmos. Environ. 8, 609–633 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beitr. Physik Atmos.

R. W. Fenn, “Aerosol-Verteilungen und atmospharisches Streulicht,” Beitr. Physik Atmos. 37, 69–104 (1964).

Contr. Atmos. Phys.

G. Hanel, M. Lehmann, “Equilibrium size of aerosol particles and relative humidity: new experimental data from various aerosol types and their treatment for cloud physics application,” Contr. Atmos. Phys. 54, 57–71 (1981).

Geophys. Res. Lett.

P. Chylek, J. Wong, “Effect of absorbing aerosol on global radiation budget,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 929–931 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, J. Lu, V. A. Mohnen, P.-H. Wang, V. K. Saxena, J. Anderson, “Retrieving aerosol optical properties from moments of the particle size distribution,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 651–654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens.

D. Antoine, A. Morel, “A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensing ocean color (MERIS instrument): principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1875–1916 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Tech. Soci.

B. Chen, K. Stamnes, B. Yan, Ø. Frette, J. J. Stamnes, “Water-leaving radiance in the NIR spectral region and its effects on atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery,” J. Adv. Mar. Sci. Tech. Soci. 4, 329–338 (1998).

J. Aerosol Sci.

C. N. Davies, “Size distribution of atmospheric particles,” J. Aerosol Sci. 5, 293–300 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. V. N. Nair, K. G. Vohra, “Growth of aqueous sulfuric acid droplets as function of relative humidity,” J. Aerosol Sci. 6, 265–271 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Sci.

F. S. Harris, M. P. McCormick, “Mie scattering by three polydispersions,” J. Colloid Sci. 39, 536–545 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, “The aerosol size distribution of Los Angles smog,” J. Colloid Sci. 39, 177–204 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, L. Remer, E. Vermote, A. Chu, B. N. Holben, “Remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol from EOS-MODIS over the land using dark targets and dynamic aerosol models,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17051–17067 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Chiapello, G. Bergametti, B. Chatenet, F. Dulac, I. Jankowiak, C. Liousse, E. S. Soares, “Contribution of the different aerosol species to the aerosol mass load and optical depth over the northeastern tropical Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 4025–4035 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observation System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Schwindling, P. Deschamps, R. Frouin, “Verification of aerosol models for satellite ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24919–24935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Wulfmeyer, G. Feingold, “On the relationship between relative humidity and particle backscattering coefficient in the marine boundary layer determined with differential absorption lidar,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4729–4741 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Fraser, S. Mattoo, E.-N. Yeh, C. R. McClain, “Algorithm for atmospheric and glint corrections of satellite measurements of ocean pigment,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17107–17118 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Perry, T. A. Cahill, R. A. Eldred, D. D. Dutcher, T. E. Gill, “Long-range transport of North African dust to the eastern United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 11225–11238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Uematsu, R. A. Duce, J. M. Prospero, L. Chen, J. T. Merrill, R. L. McDonald, “Transport of mineral aerosol from Asia over the north Pacific ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 5343–5352 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Clarke, “Atmospheric nuclei in the Pacific midtroposphere: their nature, concentration, and evolution,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20633–20647 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Met. Soc. Jap.

M. Ikemagi, K. Okada, Y. Zaizen, Y. Makino, “Aerosol particles in the middle troposphere over the northwestern Pacific,” J. Met. Soc. Jap. 71, 517–527 (1993).

Nature

D. M. Murphy, J. R. Anderson, P. K. Quinn, L. M. Mcinnes, F. J. Brechtel, S. M. Kreidenweis, A. M. Middlebrook, M. Posfai, D. S. Thomson, P. R. Buseck, “Influence of sea-salt on aerosol radiative properties in the southern ocean marine boundary layer,” Nature 392, 62–65 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. E. Gard, M. J. Kleeman, D. S. Gross, L. S. Hughes, J. O. Allen, B. D. Morrical, D. P. Fergenson, T. Dienes, M. E. Galli, R. J. Johnson, G. R. Cass, K. A. Prather, “Direct observation of heterogeneous chemistry in the atmosphere,” Science 279, 1184–1187 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tellus B

E. Swietlicki, J. Zhou, D. S. Covert, K. Hameri, B. Busch, M. Vakeva, U. Dusek, O. H. Berg, A. Wiedensohler, P. Aalto, J. Makela, B. G. Martinsson, G. Papaspiropoulos, B. Mentes, G. Frank, F. Stratmann, “Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the north-eastern Atlantic during ACE-2,” Tellus B 52, 201–227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. E. Thomas, K. Stamnes, “Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere and Ocean (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1999).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, “Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, San Diego, California, 1994).

J. T. O. Kirk, Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Ecosystems (Cambridge U. Press, 1994), 2nd ed.
[CrossRef]

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on their Optical Properties (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb AFB, Mass., 1979).

J. Heintzenberg, “Light scattering parameters of internal and external mixtures of soot and non-absorbing material in atmospheric aerosols,” in Proceedings of the Conference on Carbonaceous Particles in the Atmosphere, Berkeley, Calif., March 20–22, 1978, T. Novakov, ed. (National Science Foundation/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif., 1978).

S.-C. Tsay, G. L. Stephens, A Physical/Optical Model for Atmospheric Aerosols with Application to Visibility Problems (Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo., 1990).

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols: Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (A. Deepak Publishing, Hampton, Va., 1991).

G. Hanel, “The properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as functions of the relative humidity at thermodynamic equilibrium with the surrounding moist air,” in Advances in Geophysics, H. E. Landsberg, J. Van Mieghem, eds. (Academic, New York) 19, 73–188 (1976).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Whitby, B. Cantrell, “Atmospheric aerosols—characteristics and measurements,” in The International Conference on Environmental Sensing and Assessment, Las Vegas, Nevada, September 14–19, 1975 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1975), paper 29-1.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of single-scattering albedo SSALB, asymmetry factor g, and optical depth τ(λ) for the Tropospheric aerosol model computed with the MC approach (solid curves) and SC approach (dotted curves) at 443 nm and 865 nm. (a) SSALB at 443 nm, (b) SSALB at 865 nm, (c) g at 443 nm, (d) g at 865 nm, (e) τ(λ)/τ(865) for RH = 90%, and (f) τ(λ)/τ(865) for RH = 99%.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the wavelength dependence of the asymmetry factor obtained with the SC and MC approaches for the Tropospheric aerosol model at RH = 90%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Similar to Fig. 1 but for Urban aerosols.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

TOA reflectance deviation defined by Eq. (5) at 443, 555, 765, and 865 nm for the Tropospheric aerosol model. Solid curve, τ(865) = 0.05; dotted curve, τ(865) = 0.1; dashed curve, τ(865) = 0.3; dotted-dashed curve, τ(865) = 0.8.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Fig. 4 but for the Urban aerosol model.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Deviations of εms(765,865) and γ(765) computed with the SC approach as compared with the MC approach for several optical depths. Solid curve, τ865 = 0.05; dotted curve, τ865 = 0.1; dashed curve, τ865 = 0.3; dotted-dashed curve, τ865 = 0.8. (a) and (b) for the Tropospheric aerosol model; (c) and (d) for the Urban aerosol model.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mode Radius r i (i = 1 or 2) Defined in Eq. (1) for the Tropospheric and Urban Aerosol Models as a Function of Relative Humidity

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

nr=dNrdr=i=12Niln10rσi2π×exp-log r-log ri22σ2,
raw=r01+ρ mwawm01/3,
aw=RH exp-2σVwRw T1raw.
n=nw+n0-nwr0raw3.
ρdev=ρpathλ-ρpathλρpathλ100,
msλ, 865=ρmsλ/ρms865,
γλ=ρpathλ/ρrλ

Metrics