Abstract

An innovative fabrication technique is introduced that is based on multiple-exposure techniques for micro-optics fabrication. This method utilizes various exposure times and combinations of binary and analog photo masks to sculpture complex photoresist profiles. It also demonstrates the fabrication of analog structures from the multilevel structures thus formed by using resist reflow.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Kufner, S. Kufner, Micro-Optics and Lithography (Vubpress, Belgium, 1997).
  2. A. Schilling, Ph. Nussbaum, I. Philipoussis, H. P. Herzig, L. Stauffer, M. Rossi, E. B. Kley, “Micro-optical elements with arbitrary surfaces,” in Diffractive and Micro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 234–236.
  3. A. G. Poleshchuk, “Techniques for formation of the surface profile of diffractive optical elements,” in Optics and Lasers in Engineering (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1998), Vol. 29, pp. 289–306.
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. J. Suleski, B. Baggett, H. Miller, B. Delaney, J. Pagan, “Wafer-scale replication of glass micro-optics for optical communications,” in Diffractive and Micro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 231–233.
  5. E. Pawlowski, H. Engel, “Multilevel diffractive optical elements fabricated with a single amplitude-phase mask,” Pure Appl. Opt. J Part A 6, 655–662 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. V. Volkov, N. L. Kazanskiy, O. Ju. Moiseyev, V. A. Soifer, “A method for the diffractive micro relief formation using the layered photo resist growth,” In Optics and Lasers in Engineering (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1998), Vol. 29, pp. 281–288.
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. B. Stern, “Pattern transfer for diffractive and refractive microoptics,” in Microelectronic Engineering (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1997), Vol. 34, pp. 299–319.
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. LeCompte, X. a. Gao, D. W. Prather, “Photoresist characterization and linearization procedure for the gray-scale fabrication of diffractive optical elements,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5921–5927 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. A. Ekhorutomwen, S. P. Sawan, “Critical review on photo resists,” in Polymers in Optics: Physics, Chemistry and Applications, R. A. Lessard, W. F. Frank, eds., Vol. CR63 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 214–238.
  10. S Martellucci, A. N. Chester, (eds.) Diffractive Optics and Optical Microsystems (Plenum, New York, 1997), pp. 23–33.
  11. J. R. Shents, B. W. Smith, Microlithography, Science and Technology (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1998), pp. 109–152.

2001 (1)

1997 (1)

E. Pawlowski, H. Engel, “Multilevel diffractive optical elements fabricated with a single amplitude-phase mask,” Pure Appl. Opt. J Part A 6, 655–662 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baggett, B.

T. J. Suleski, B. Baggett, H. Miller, B. Delaney, J. Pagan, “Wafer-scale replication of glass micro-optics for optical communications,” in Diffractive and Micro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 231–233.

Delaney, B.

T. J. Suleski, B. Baggett, H. Miller, B. Delaney, J. Pagan, “Wafer-scale replication of glass micro-optics for optical communications,” in Diffractive and Micro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 231–233.

Ekhorutomwen, S. A.

S. A. Ekhorutomwen, S. P. Sawan, “Critical review on photo resists,” in Polymers in Optics: Physics, Chemistry and Applications, R. A. Lessard, W. F. Frank, eds., Vol. CR63 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 214–238.

Engel, H.

E. Pawlowski, H. Engel, “Multilevel diffractive optical elements fabricated with a single amplitude-phase mask,” Pure Appl. Opt. J Part A 6, 655–662 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X. a.

Herzig, H. P.

A. Schilling, Ph. Nussbaum, I. Philipoussis, H. P. Herzig, L. Stauffer, M. Rossi, E. B. Kley, “Micro-optical elements with arbitrary surfaces,” in Diffractive and Micro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 234–236.

Kazanskiy, N. L.

A. V. Volkov, N. L. Kazanskiy, O. Ju. Moiseyev, V. A. Soifer, “A method for the diffractive micro relief formation using the layered photo resist growth,” In Optics and Lasers in Engineering (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1998), Vol. 29, pp. 281–288.
[CrossRef]

Kley, E. B.

A. Schilling, Ph. Nussbaum, I. Philipoussis, H. P. Herzig, L. Stauffer, M. Rossi, E. B. Kley, “Micro-optical elements with arbitrary surfaces,” in Diffractive and Micro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 234–236.

Kufner, M.

M. Kufner, S. Kufner, Micro-Optics and Lithography (Vubpress, Belgium, 1997).

Kufner, S.

M. Kufner, S. Kufner, Micro-Optics and Lithography (Vubpress, Belgium, 1997).

LeCompte, M.

Miller, H.

T. J. Suleski, B. Baggett, H. Miller, B. Delaney, J. Pagan, “Wafer-scale replication of glass micro-optics for optical communications,” in Diffractive and Micro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 231–233.

Moiseyev, O. Ju.

A. V. Volkov, N. L. Kazanskiy, O. Ju. Moiseyev, V. A. Soifer, “A method for the diffractive micro relief formation using the layered photo resist growth,” In Optics and Lasers in Engineering (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1998), Vol. 29, pp. 281–288.
[CrossRef]

Nussbaum, Ph.

A. Schilling, Ph. Nussbaum, I. Philipoussis, H. P. Herzig, L. Stauffer, M. Rossi, E. B. Kley, “Micro-optical elements with arbitrary surfaces,” in Diffractive and Micro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 234–236.

Pagan, J.

T. J. Suleski, B. Baggett, H. Miller, B. Delaney, J. Pagan, “Wafer-scale replication of glass micro-optics for optical communications,” in Diffractive and Micro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 231–233.

Pawlowski, E.

E. Pawlowski, H. Engel, “Multilevel diffractive optical elements fabricated with a single amplitude-phase mask,” Pure Appl. Opt. J Part A 6, 655–662 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Philipoussis, I.

A. Schilling, Ph. Nussbaum, I. Philipoussis, H. P. Herzig, L. Stauffer, M. Rossi, E. B. Kley, “Micro-optical elements with arbitrary surfaces,” in Diffractive and Micro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 234–236.

Poleshchuk, A. G.

A. G. Poleshchuk, “Techniques for formation of the surface profile of diffractive optical elements,” in Optics and Lasers in Engineering (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1998), Vol. 29, pp. 289–306.
[CrossRef]

Prather, D. W.

Rossi, M.

A. Schilling, Ph. Nussbaum, I. Philipoussis, H. P. Herzig, L. Stauffer, M. Rossi, E. B. Kley, “Micro-optical elements with arbitrary surfaces,” in Diffractive and Micro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 234–236.

Sawan, S. P.

S. A. Ekhorutomwen, S. P. Sawan, “Critical review on photo resists,” in Polymers in Optics: Physics, Chemistry and Applications, R. A. Lessard, W. F. Frank, eds., Vol. CR63 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 214–238.

Schilling, A.

A. Schilling, Ph. Nussbaum, I. Philipoussis, H. P. Herzig, L. Stauffer, M. Rossi, E. B. Kley, “Micro-optical elements with arbitrary surfaces,” in Diffractive and Micro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 234–236.

Shents, J. R.

J. R. Shents, B. W. Smith, Microlithography, Science and Technology (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1998), pp. 109–152.

Smith, B. W.

J. R. Shents, B. W. Smith, Microlithography, Science and Technology (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1998), pp. 109–152.

Soifer, V. A.

A. V. Volkov, N. L. Kazanskiy, O. Ju. Moiseyev, V. A. Soifer, “A method for the diffractive micro relief formation using the layered photo resist growth,” In Optics and Lasers in Engineering (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1998), Vol. 29, pp. 281–288.
[CrossRef]

Stauffer, L.

A. Schilling, Ph. Nussbaum, I. Philipoussis, H. P. Herzig, L. Stauffer, M. Rossi, E. B. Kley, “Micro-optical elements with arbitrary surfaces,” in Diffractive and Micro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 234–236.

Stern, M. B.

M. B. Stern, “Pattern transfer for diffractive and refractive microoptics,” in Microelectronic Engineering (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1997), Vol. 34, pp. 299–319.
[CrossRef]

Suleski, T. J.

T. J. Suleski, B. Baggett, H. Miller, B. Delaney, J. Pagan, “Wafer-scale replication of glass micro-optics for optical communications,” in Diffractive and Micro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 231–233.

Volkov, A. V.

A. V. Volkov, N. L. Kazanskiy, O. Ju. Moiseyev, V. A. Soifer, “A method for the diffractive micro relief formation using the layered photo resist growth,” In Optics and Lasers in Engineering (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1998), Vol. 29, pp. 281–288.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Pure Appl. Opt. J Part A (1)

E. Pawlowski, H. Engel, “Multilevel diffractive optical elements fabricated with a single amplitude-phase mask,” Pure Appl. Opt. J Part A 6, 655–662 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

A. V. Volkov, N. L. Kazanskiy, O. Ju. Moiseyev, V. A. Soifer, “A method for the diffractive micro relief formation using the layered photo resist growth,” In Optics and Lasers in Engineering (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1998), Vol. 29, pp. 281–288.
[CrossRef]

M. B. Stern, “Pattern transfer for diffractive and refractive microoptics,” in Microelectronic Engineering (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1997), Vol. 34, pp. 299–319.
[CrossRef]

S. A. Ekhorutomwen, S. P. Sawan, “Critical review on photo resists,” in Polymers in Optics: Physics, Chemistry and Applications, R. A. Lessard, W. F. Frank, eds., Vol. CR63 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 214–238.

S Martellucci, A. N. Chester, (eds.) Diffractive Optics and Optical Microsystems (Plenum, New York, 1997), pp. 23–33.

J. R. Shents, B. W. Smith, Microlithography, Science and Technology (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1998), pp. 109–152.

M. Kufner, S. Kufner, Micro-Optics and Lithography (Vubpress, Belgium, 1997).

A. Schilling, Ph. Nussbaum, I. Philipoussis, H. P. Herzig, L. Stauffer, M. Rossi, E. B. Kley, “Micro-optical elements with arbitrary surfaces,” in Diffractive and Micro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 234–236.

A. G. Poleshchuk, “Techniques for formation of the surface profile of diffractive optical elements,” in Optics and Lasers in Engineering (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1998), Vol. 29, pp. 289–306.
[CrossRef]

T. J. Suleski, B. Baggett, H. Miller, B. Delaney, J. Pagan, “Wafer-scale replication of glass micro-optics for optical communications,” in Diffractive and Micro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 231–233.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Contrast curve for Shipley PR1813 photoresist exposed on a GCA 6300C stepper.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabricating a 2 N = 8 level structure by use of N = 3 mask sets and a bias exposure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Depth versus exposure time for two sets of data fitted with a linear function.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Eight-level diffractive lens: (a) top View; (b) largest zones at 100× magnification, showing good alignment at the edges; (c) two-dimensional profile from a Zygo interferometer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Profiles of a lens etched onto fused silica with 0.94:1 etch selectivity between the substrate and the resist: (a) three-dimensional profile, (b) two-dimensional profile.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Profile of a reflowed eight-level diffractive lens: (a) two-dimensional profile, (b) three-dimensional profile.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dual exposure: analog gray-scale lens with a binary grating. (a) top view, (b) scanning-electron microscope image of the cross section.

Equations (2)

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γ=1/log10D100/D0,
t=4h-hths+tth,

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