Abstract

Ultrasound-modulated optical tomography based on the measurement of laser-speckle contrast was investigated. An ultrasonic beam was focused into a biological-tissue sample to modulate the laser light passing through the ultrasonic column inside the tissue. The contrast of the speckle pattern formed by the transmitted light was found to depend on the ultrasonic modulation and could be used for imaging. Variation in the speckle contrast reflected optical inhomogeneity in the tissue. With this technique, two-dimensional images of biological-tissue samples of as much as 25 mm thick were successfully obtained with a low-power laser. The technique was experimentally compared with speckle-contrast-based, purely optical imaging and with parallel-detection imaging techniques, and the advantages over each were demonstrated.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2001

E. Granot, A. Lev, Z. Kotler, B. G. Sfez, “Detection of inhomogeneities with ultrasound tagging of light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1962–1967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Leveque-Fort, J. Selb, L. Pottier, A. C. Boccara, “In situ local tissue characterization and imaging by backscattering acousto-optic imaging,” Opt. Commun. 196, 127–131 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L.-H. V. Wang, “Mechanisms of ultrasonic modulation of multiply scattered coherent light: an analytic model,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, (043093) 1–4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L.-H. V. Wang, “Mechanisms of ultrasonic modulation of multiply scattered coherent light: a Monte Carlo model,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1191–1193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

1998

1997

1995

1994

D. A. Zimnyakov, V. V. Tuchin, S. R. Utts, “A study of statistical properties of partially developed speckle fields as applied to the diagnostics of structural changes in human skin,” Opt. Spectrosc. 76, 838–844 (1994).

1974

G. Parry, “Some effects of temporal coherence on the first order statistics of speckle,” Opt. Acta 21, 763–772 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

S. Leveque-Fort, J. Selb, L. Pottier, A. C. Boccara, “In situ local tissue characterization and imaging by backscattering acousto-optic imaging,” Opt. Commun. 196, 127–131 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Leveque, A. C. Boccara, M. Lebec, H. Saint-Jalmes, “Ultrasonic tagging of photon paths in scattering media: parallel speckle modulation processing,” Opt. Lett. 24, 181–183 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brooksby, G. W.

F. A. Marks, H. W. Tomlinson, G. W. Brooksby, “Comprehensive approach to breast cancer detection using light: photon localization by ultrasonic modulation and tissue characterization by spectral discrimination,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissue, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE1888, 500–510 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dilworth, D.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, “Statistics properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomenon, J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975), pp. 9–75.
[CrossRef]

Granot, E.

Jacques, S. L.

Jiao, S.

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

Kotler, Z.

Ku, G.

Lebec, M.

Leith, E.

Leutz, W.

W. Leutz, G. Maret, “Ultrasonic modulation of multiply scattered light,” Phys. B 204, 14–19 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lev, A.

Leveque, S.

Leveque-Fort, S.

S. Leveque-Fort, J. Selb, L. Pottier, A. C. Boccara, “In situ local tissue characterization and imaging by backscattering acousto-optic imaging,” Opt. Commun. 196, 127–131 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Leveque-Fort, “Three-dimensional acousto-optic imaging in biological tissues with parallel signal processing,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1029–1036 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, J.

Maret, G.

W. Leutz, G. Maret, “Ultrasonic modulation of multiply scattered light,” Phys. B 204, 14–19 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marks, F. A.

F. A. Marks, H. W. Tomlinson, G. W. Brooksby, “Comprehensive approach to breast cancer detection using light: photon localization by ultrasonic modulation and tissue characterization by spectral discrimination,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissue, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE1888, 500–510 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Marquez, G.

McKinney, J. D.

Naulleau, P.

Parry, G.

G. Parry, “Some effects of temporal coherence on the first order statistics of speckle,” Opt. Acta 21, 763–772 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Pottier, L.

S. Leveque-Fort, J. Selb, L. Pottier, A. C. Boccara, “In situ local tissue characterization and imaging by backscattering acousto-optic imaging,” Opt. Commun. 196, 127–131 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Saint-Jalmes, H.

Selb, J.

S. Leveque-Fort, J. Selb, L. Pottier, A. C. Boccara, “In situ local tissue characterization and imaging by backscattering acousto-optic imaging,” Opt. Commun. 196, 127–131 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sfez, B. G.

Thompson, C. A.

Tomlinson, H. W.

F. A. Marks, H. W. Tomlinson, G. W. Brooksby, “Comprehensive approach to breast cancer detection using light: photon localization by ultrasonic modulation and tissue characterization by spectral discrimination,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissue, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE1888, 500–510 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tuchin, V. V.

D. A. Zimnyakov, V. V. Tuchin, S. R. Utts, “A study of statistical properties of partially developed speckle fields as applied to the diagnostics of structural changes in human skin,” Opt. Spectrosc. 76, 838–844 (1994).

Utts, S. R.

D. A. Zimnyakov, V. V. Tuchin, S. R. Utts, “A study of statistical properties of partially developed speckle fields as applied to the diagnostics of structural changes in human skin,” Opt. Spectrosc. 76, 838–844 (1994).

V. Wang, L.-H.

L.-H. V. Wang, “Mechanisms of ultrasonic modulation of multiply scattered coherent light: an analytic model,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, (043093) 1–4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.-H.

Wang, L.-H. V.

Webb, K. J.

Webster, M. A.

Weiner, A. M.

Yao, G.

Zhao, X.

Zimnyakov, D. A.

D. A. Zimnyakov, V. V. Tuchin, S. R. Utts, “A study of statistical properties of partially developed speckle fields as applied to the diagnostics of structural changes in human skin,” Opt. Spectrosc. 76, 838–844 (1994).

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Acta

G. Parry, “Some effects of temporal coherence on the first order statistics of speckle,” Opt. Acta 21, 763–772 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. Leveque-Fort, J. Selb, L. Pottier, A. C. Boccara, “In situ local tissue characterization and imaging by backscattering acousto-optic imaging,” Opt. Commun. 196, 127–131 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

L.-H. V. Wang, “Mechanisms of ultrasonic modulation of multiply scattered coherent light: a Monte Carlo model,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1191–1193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jacques, S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Acoustically modulated speckle imaging of biological tissues,” Opt. Lett. 23, 879–881 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Lev, Z. Kotler, B. G. Sfez, “Ultrasound tagged light imaging in turbid media in a reflectance geometry,” Opt. Lett. 25, 378–380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. D. McKinney, M. A. Webster, K. J. Webb, A. M. Weiner, “Characterization and imaging in optically scattering media by use of laser speckle and a variable-coherence source,” Opt. Lett. 25, 4–6 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, D. Dilworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, “Detection of moving objects embedded within scattering media by use of speckle methods,” Opt. Lett. 20, 498–500 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yao, S. Jiao, L.-H. Wang, “Frequency-swept ultrasound-modulated optical tomography in biological tissue by use of parallel detection,” Opt. Lett. 25, 734–736 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L.-H. Wang, G. Ku, “Frequency-swept ultrasound-modulated optical tomography of scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 23, 975–977 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Leveque, A. C. Boccara, M. Lebec, H. Saint-Jalmes, “Ultrasonic tagging of photon paths in scattering media: parallel speckle modulation processing,” Opt. Lett. 24, 181–183 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L.-H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, X. Zhao, “Continuous-wave ultrasonic modulation of scattered laser light to image objects in turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 20, 629–631 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Spectrosc.

D. A. Zimnyakov, V. V. Tuchin, S. R. Utts, “A study of statistical properties of partially developed speckle fields as applied to the diagnostics of structural changes in human skin,” Opt. Spectrosc. 76, 838–844 (1994).

Phys. B

W. Leutz, G. Maret, “Ultrasonic modulation of multiply scattered light,” Phys. B 204, 14–19 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L.-H. V. Wang, “Mechanisms of ultrasonic modulation of multiply scattered coherent light: an analytic model,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, (043093) 1–4 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. A. Marks, H. W. Tomlinson, G. W. Brooksby, “Comprehensive approach to breast cancer detection using light: photon localization by ultrasonic modulation and tissue characterization by spectral discrimination,” in Photon Migration and Imaging in Random Media and Tissue, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE1888, 500–510 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, “Statistics properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomenon, J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975), pp. 9–75.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: S, sample; I, iris; A, analyzer; T, transducer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variations of measured speckle contrasts and light intensities with the iris aperture Di. Results with and without a polarizer are compared.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Speckle patterns measured with the CCD camera. (a) Without ultrasonic modulation, speckle contrast is 0.146. (b) With ultrasonic modulation, speckle contrast is 0.138.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Variation of speckle contrasts with the input power of the transducer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of 1D images of two rubber objects that were obtained from speckle contrasts measured with and without ultrasonic modulation and from the difference of the speckle contrasts.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Two-dimensional images of two rubber objects buried in a 25-mm-thick chicken breast tissue sample: (a) image obtained from the difference of speckle contrasts measured with and without ultrasonic modulation, (b) image obtained from the mean intensity of the speckle pattern, (c) image obtained from the speckle contrast measured without ultrasonic modulation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Two-dimensional images of two gizzard objects buried in a 17-mm-thick chicken breast tissue sample. (b) Comparison of 1D images obtained with speckle-contrast and parallel detection. The signal obtained in the parallel detection is represented by ac/dc.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I=Ib+Im+2IbIm1/2 cosωat+Δϕ,
Ī=Ib+Im+1T0T 2IbIm1/2 cosωat+Δϕdt,
Ī=Ib+Im,
Ī2=Ib2+Im2+2IbIm+2Tωa2IbIm,
σ2=Ī2-Ī2=Ib2-Ib2+Im2-Im2+2Tωa2IbIm,
C=σĪ=Cb2+Cm2M2+2/Tωa2M1/21+M,
Cb=Ib2-Ib21/2Ib,
Cm=Im2-Im21/2Im,
M=ImIb.
CCb1+M,

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