Abstract

Measurements of the contrast value of time-averaged speckle-modulated images of cartilage tissue are used to study tissue thermal modification in the case of laser-light treatment. This modification is related to thermally induced internal stress relaxation in the matrix of the treated tissue. The specific feature of the evolution of time-averaged speckle contrast with a change in the current temperature of modified collagen tissue is the typical looplike form of the contrast-temperature dependencies associated with irreversible changes in tissue structure and correlated with changes in the tissue diffuse transmittance and the tissue internal stress mentioned by other researchers.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. A. Boas, A. G. Yodh, “Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 192–215 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37, 326–330 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. D. Briers, S. Webster, “Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA): a nonscanning, full-field technique for monitoring capillary blood flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 174–179 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Sadhwani, K. T. Schomacker, G. J. Tearney, N. S. Nishioka, “Determination of Teflon thickness with laser speckle. I. Potential for burn depth diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5727–5735 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. L. Jacques, S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Acoustically modulated speckle imaging of biological tissues,” Opt. Lett. 23, 879–881 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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  9. E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omelchenko, V. Bagratashvili, M. Kitai, E. Harding, N. Jones, K. Jumel, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, Y. Ovchinnikov, A. Shekhter, V. Svistuchkin, “Laser reshaping of cartilage,” Biotech Genetic Eng. Rev. 17, 553–577 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. M. S. Wall, X.-H. Deng, P. A. Torzilli, S. B. Doly, S. J. O’Brien, R. F. Warren, “Thermal modification of collagen,” J. Shoulder Elbow Surg. 8, 339–344 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. D. J. Maitland, J. T. Walsh, “Quantitative measurements of linear birefringence during heating of native collagen,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 310–318 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. E. N. Sobol, V. N. Bagratashvili, A. P. Sviridov, A. I. Omel’chenko, Yu. M. Ovchinnikov, A. B. Shekhter, E. Helidonis, “Cartilage shaping under laser radiation,” in Laser Surgery: Advanced Characterizations, Therapeutics, and Systems, IV, R. Anderson, ed., Proc. SPIE2128, 43–47 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. P. Sviridov, E. N. Sobol, N. Jones, J. Lowe, “Effect of holmium laser radiation on stress, temperature, and structure in cartilage,” Lasers Med. Sci. 13, 73–77 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Sobol, A. Omel’chenko, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, “Scanning force microscopy of the fine structure of cartilage irradiated with a CO2 laser,” Lasers Med. Sci. 15, 15–23 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. M. Jamieson, J. Blackwell, H. Reihanian, H. Ohno, R. Gupta, D. A. Carrino, A. I. Caplan, L. H. Tang, L. C. Rosenberg, “Thermal and solvent stability of proteoglycan aggregates by quasi-elastic laser light scattering,” Carbohydrate Res. 160, 329–341 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cerebr. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195–201 (2001).

J. Y. Choi, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. E. Milner, X. V. Dao, J. S. Nelson, E. N. Sobol, B. J. F. Wong, “Thermal, mechanical, optical, and morphologic changes in bovine nucleus pulposus induced by Nd:YAG (λ=1.32-µm) laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 248–254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

E. Sobol, A. Omel’chenko, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, “Scanning force microscopy of the fine structure of cartilage irradiated with a CO2 laser,” Lasers Med. Sci. 15, 15–23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omelchenko, V. Bagratashvili, M. Kitai, E. Harding, N. Jones, K. Jumel, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, Y. Ovchinnikov, A. Shekhter, V. Svistuchkin, “Laser reshaping of cartilage,” Biotech Genetic Eng. Rev. 17, 553–577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. S. Wall, X.-H. Deng, P. A. Torzilli, S. B. Doly, S. J. O’Brien, R. F. Warren, “Thermal modification of collagen,” J. Shoulder Elbow Surg. 8, 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Wong, T. E. Milner, A. Harrington, J. Ro, X. Dao, E. N. Sobol, J. S. Nelson, “Feedback-controlled laser-mediated cartilage reshaping,” Arch. Facial Plast. Surg. 1, 282–287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

S. L. Jacques, S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Acoustically modulated speckle imaging of biological tissues,” Opt. Lett. 23, 879–881 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Sviridov, E. N. Sobol, N. Jones, J. Lowe, “Effect of holmium laser radiation on stress, temperature, and structure in cartilage,” Lasers Med. Sci. 13, 73–77 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Wong, T. E. Milner, H. H. Kim, J. S. Nelson, E. N. Sobol, “Stress relaxation of porcine septal cartilage during Nd:YAG (1.32-µm) laser irradiation: mechanical, optical, and thermal responses,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 409–414 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

D. A. Boas, A. G. Yodh, “Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 192–215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Maitland, J. T. Walsh, “Quantitative measurements of linear birefringence during heating of native collagen,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 310–318 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

J. D. Briers, S. Webster, “Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA): a nonscanning, full-field technique for monitoring capillary blood flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 174–179 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sadhwani, K. T. Schomacker, G. J. Tearney, N. S. Nishioka, “Determination of Teflon thickness with laser speckle. I. Potential for burn depth diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5727–5735 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

T. J. H. Essex, P. O. Byrne, “A laser Doppler scanner for imaging blood flow in skin,” J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189–194 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

A. M. Jamieson, J. Blackwell, H. Reihanian, H. Ohno, R. Gupta, D. A. Carrino, A. I. Caplan, L. H. Tang, L. C. Rosenberg, “Thermal and solvent stability of proteoglycan aggregates by quasi-elastic laser light scattering,” Carbohydrate Res. 160, 329–341 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37, 326–330 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

M. D. Stern, “In vivo evaluation of microcirculation by coherent light scattering,” Nature (London) 254, 56–58 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Bagratashvili, N.

A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Omelchenko, A. Dmitriev, A. Shekhter, Yu. Ovchinnikov, V. Svistushkin, G. Nikiforova, N. Jones, J. Lowe, “Dynamics of optical and mechanical properties of cartilage at laser heating,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics II,J. Albrecht, G. P. Dalacretaz, T. H. Meier, W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, eds., Proc. SPIE2923, 114–117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omel’chenko, V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, V. Popov, “Mechanism of laser-induced stress relaxation in cartilage,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VIII, S.L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2975, 310–315 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, A. Omel’chenko, S. Tsypina, V. Gapontsev, I. Samartsev, F. Feldchtein, R. Kuranov, “Kinetics of water transfer and stress relaxation in cartilage heated with 1.56-µm fiber laser,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction XI: Photochemical, Photothermal, and Photomechanical, D. D. Duncan, J.O. Hollinger, S.L. Jacques, eds., Proc. SPIE3914, 102–107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bagratashvili, V.

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omelchenko, V. Bagratashvili, M. Kitai, E. Harding, N. Jones, K. Jumel, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, Y. Ovchinnikov, A. Shekhter, V. Svistuchkin, “Laser reshaping of cartilage,” Biotech Genetic Eng. Rev. 17, 553–577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Omelchenko, A. Dmitriev, A. Shekhter, Yu. Ovchinnikov, V. Svistushkin, G. Nikiforova, N. Jones, J. Lowe, “Dynamics of optical and mechanical properties of cartilage at laser heating,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics II,J. Albrecht, G. P. Dalacretaz, T. H. Meier, W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, eds., Proc. SPIE2923, 114–117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, A. Omel’chenko, S. Tsypina, V. Gapontsev, I. Samartsev, F. Feldchtein, R. Kuranov, “Kinetics of water transfer and stress relaxation in cartilage heated with 1.56-µm fiber laser,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction XI: Photochemical, Photothermal, and Photomechanical, D. D. Duncan, J.O. Hollinger, S.L. Jacques, eds., Proc. SPIE3914, 102–107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omel’chenko, V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, V. Popov, “Mechanism of laser-induced stress relaxation in cartilage,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VIII, S.L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2975, 310–315 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bagratashvili, V. N.

E. N. Sobol, V. N. Bagratashvili, A. P. Sviridov, A. I. Omel’chenko, Yu. M. Ovchinnikov, A. B. Shekhter, E. Helidonis, “Cartilage shaping under laser radiation,” in Laser Surgery: Advanced Characterizations, Therapeutics, and Systems, IV, R. Anderson, ed., Proc. SPIE2128, 43–47 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blackwell, J.

A. M. Jamieson, J. Blackwell, H. Reihanian, H. Ohno, R. Gupta, D. A. Carrino, A. I. Caplan, L. H. Tang, L. C. Rosenberg, “Thermal and solvent stability of proteoglycan aggregates by quasi-elastic laser light scattering,” Carbohydrate Res. 160, 329–341 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cerebr. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195–201 (2001).

D. A. Boas, A. G. Yodh, “Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 192–215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bolay, H.

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cerebr. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195–201 (2001).

Briers, J. D.

J. D. Briers, S. Webster, “Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA): a nonscanning, full-field technique for monitoring capillary blood flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 174–179 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37, 326–330 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, P. O.

T. J. H. Essex, P. O. Byrne, “A laser Doppler scanner for imaging blood flow in skin,” J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189–194 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caplan, A. I.

A. M. Jamieson, J. Blackwell, H. Reihanian, H. Ohno, R. Gupta, D. A. Carrino, A. I. Caplan, L. H. Tang, L. C. Rosenberg, “Thermal and solvent stability of proteoglycan aggregates by quasi-elastic laser light scattering,” Carbohydrate Res. 160, 329–341 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Carrino, D. A.

A. M. Jamieson, J. Blackwell, H. Reihanian, H. Ohno, R. Gupta, D. A. Carrino, A. I. Caplan, L. H. Tang, L. C. Rosenberg, “Thermal and solvent stability of proteoglycan aggregates by quasi-elastic laser light scattering,” Carbohydrate Res. 160, 329–341 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. Y.

J. Y. Choi, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. E. Milner, X. V. Dao, J. S. Nelson, E. N. Sobol, B. J. F. Wong, “Thermal, mechanical, optical, and morphologic changes in bovine nucleus pulposus induced by Nd:YAG (λ=1.32-µm) laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 248–254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dao, X.

B. J. Wong, T. E. Milner, A. Harrington, J. Ro, X. Dao, E. N. Sobol, J. S. Nelson, “Feedback-controlled laser-mediated cartilage reshaping,” Arch. Facial Plast. Surg. 1, 282–287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dao, X. V.

J. Y. Choi, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. E. Milner, X. V. Dao, J. S. Nelson, E. N. Sobol, B. J. F. Wong, “Thermal, mechanical, optical, and morphologic changes in bovine nucleus pulposus induced by Nd:YAG (λ=1.32-µm) laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 248–254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deng, X.-H.

M. S. Wall, X.-H. Deng, P. A. Torzilli, S. B. Doly, S. J. O’Brien, R. F. Warren, “Thermal modification of collagen,” J. Shoulder Elbow Surg. 8, 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dmitriev, A.

A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Omelchenko, A. Dmitriev, A. Shekhter, Yu. Ovchinnikov, V. Svistushkin, G. Nikiforova, N. Jones, J. Lowe, “Dynamics of optical and mechanical properties of cartilage at laser heating,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics II,J. Albrecht, G. P. Dalacretaz, T. H. Meier, W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, eds., Proc. SPIE2923, 114–117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Doly, S. B.

M. S. Wall, X.-H. Deng, P. A. Torzilli, S. B. Doly, S. J. O’Brien, R. F. Warren, “Thermal modification of collagen,” J. Shoulder Elbow Surg. 8, 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, A. K.

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cerebr. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195–201 (2001).

Enochson, L.

R. K. Otnes, L. Enochson, Applied Time Series Analysis. V. 1. Basic Techniques (Wiley, New York, 1978).

Essex, T. J. H.

T. J. H. Essex, P. O. Byrne, “A laser Doppler scanner for imaging blood flow in skin,” J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189–194 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldchtein, F.

V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, A. Omel’chenko, S. Tsypina, V. Gapontsev, I. Samartsev, F. Feldchtein, R. Kuranov, “Kinetics of water transfer and stress relaxation in cartilage heated with 1.56-µm fiber laser,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction XI: Photochemical, Photothermal, and Photomechanical, D. D. Duncan, J.O. Hollinger, S.L. Jacques, eds., Proc. SPIE3914, 102–107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37, 326–330 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gapontsev, V.

V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, A. Omel’chenko, S. Tsypina, V. Gapontsev, I. Samartsev, F. Feldchtein, R. Kuranov, “Kinetics of water transfer and stress relaxation in cartilage heated with 1.56-µm fiber laser,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction XI: Photochemical, Photothermal, and Photomechanical, D. D. Duncan, J.O. Hollinger, S.L. Jacques, eds., Proc. SPIE3914, 102–107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, R.

A. M. Jamieson, J. Blackwell, H. Reihanian, H. Ohno, R. Gupta, D. A. Carrino, A. I. Caplan, L. H. Tang, L. C. Rosenberg, “Thermal and solvent stability of proteoglycan aggregates by quasi-elastic laser light scattering,” Carbohydrate Res. 160, 329–341 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hale, G. M.

Harding, E.

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omelchenko, V. Bagratashvili, M. Kitai, E. Harding, N. Jones, K. Jumel, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, Y. Ovchinnikov, A. Shekhter, V. Svistuchkin, “Laser reshaping of cartilage,” Biotech Genetic Eng. Rev. 17, 553–577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, A.

B. J. Wong, T. E. Milner, A. Harrington, J. Ro, X. Dao, E. N. Sobol, J. S. Nelson, “Feedback-controlled laser-mediated cartilage reshaping,” Arch. Facial Plast. Surg. 1, 282–287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Helidonis, E.

E. N. Sobol, V. N. Bagratashvili, A. P. Sviridov, A. I. Omel’chenko, Yu. M. Ovchinnikov, A. B. Shekhter, E. Helidonis, “Cartilage shaping under laser radiation,” in Laser Surgery: Advanced Characterizations, Therapeutics, and Systems, IV, R. Anderson, ed., Proc. SPIE2128, 43–47 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

Jamieson, A. M.

A. M. Jamieson, J. Blackwell, H. Reihanian, H. Ohno, R. Gupta, D. A. Carrino, A. I. Caplan, L. H. Tang, L. C. Rosenberg, “Thermal and solvent stability of proteoglycan aggregates by quasi-elastic laser light scattering,” Carbohydrate Res. 160, 329–341 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jones, N.

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omelchenko, V. Bagratashvili, M. Kitai, E. Harding, N. Jones, K. Jumel, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, Y. Ovchinnikov, A. Shekhter, V. Svistuchkin, “Laser reshaping of cartilage,” Biotech Genetic Eng. Rev. 17, 553–577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Sviridov, E. N. Sobol, N. Jones, J. Lowe, “Effect of holmium laser radiation on stress, temperature, and structure in cartilage,” Lasers Med. Sci. 13, 73–77 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Omelchenko, A. Dmitriev, A. Shekhter, Yu. Ovchinnikov, V. Svistushkin, G. Nikiforova, N. Jones, J. Lowe, “Dynamics of optical and mechanical properties of cartilage at laser heating,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics II,J. Albrecht, G. P. Dalacretaz, T. H. Meier, W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, eds., Proc. SPIE2923, 114–117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jumel, K.

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omelchenko, V. Bagratashvili, M. Kitai, E. Harding, N. Jones, K. Jumel, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, Y. Ovchinnikov, A. Shekhter, V. Svistuchkin, “Laser reshaping of cartilage,” Biotech Genetic Eng. Rev. 17, 553–577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. H.

J. F. Wong, T. E. Milner, H. H. Kim, J. S. Nelson, E. N. Sobol, “Stress relaxation of porcine septal cartilage during Nd:YAG (1.32-µm) laser irradiation: mechanical, optical, and thermal responses,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 409–414 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

Kitai, M.

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omelchenko, V. Bagratashvili, M. Kitai, E. Harding, N. Jones, K. Jumel, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, Y. Ovchinnikov, A. Shekhter, V. Svistuchkin, “Laser reshaping of cartilage,” Biotech Genetic Eng. Rev. 17, 553–577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuranov, R.

V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, A. Omel’chenko, S. Tsypina, V. Gapontsev, I. Samartsev, F. Feldchtein, R. Kuranov, “Kinetics of water transfer and stress relaxation in cartilage heated with 1.56-µm fiber laser,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction XI: Photochemical, Photothermal, and Photomechanical, D. D. Duncan, J.O. Hollinger, S.L. Jacques, eds., Proc. SPIE3914, 102–107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, J.

A. P. Sviridov, E. N. Sobol, N. Jones, J. Lowe, “Effect of holmium laser radiation on stress, temperature, and structure in cartilage,” Lasers Med. Sci. 13, 73–77 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Omelchenko, A. Dmitriev, A. Shekhter, Yu. Ovchinnikov, V. Svistushkin, G. Nikiforova, N. Jones, J. Lowe, “Dynamics of optical and mechanical properties of cartilage at laser heating,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics II,J. Albrecht, G. P. Dalacretaz, T. H. Meier, W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, eds., Proc. SPIE2923, 114–117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maitland, D. J.

D. J. Maitland, J. T. Walsh, “Quantitative measurements of linear birefringence during heating of native collagen,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 310–318 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mertig, M.

E. Sobol, A. Omel’chenko, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, “Scanning force microscopy of the fine structure of cartilage irradiated with a CO2 laser,” Lasers Med. Sci. 15, 15–23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omelchenko, V. Bagratashvili, M. Kitai, E. Harding, N. Jones, K. Jumel, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, Y. Ovchinnikov, A. Shekhter, V. Svistuchkin, “Laser reshaping of cartilage,” Biotech Genetic Eng. Rev. 17, 553–577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

J. Y. Choi, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. E. Milner, X. V. Dao, J. S. Nelson, E. N. Sobol, B. J. F. Wong, “Thermal, mechanical, optical, and morphologic changes in bovine nucleus pulposus induced by Nd:YAG (λ=1.32-µm) laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 248–254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Wong, T. E. Milner, A. Harrington, J. Ro, X. Dao, E. N. Sobol, J. S. Nelson, “Feedback-controlled laser-mediated cartilage reshaping,” Arch. Facial Plast. Surg. 1, 282–287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Wong, T. E. Milner, H. H. Kim, J. S. Nelson, E. N. Sobol, “Stress relaxation of porcine septal cartilage during Nd:YAG (1.32-µm) laser irradiation: mechanical, optical, and thermal responses,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 409–414 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moskowitz, M. A.

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cerebr. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195–201 (2001).

Nelson, J. S.

J. Y. Choi, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. E. Milner, X. V. Dao, J. S. Nelson, E. N. Sobol, B. J. F. Wong, “Thermal, mechanical, optical, and morphologic changes in bovine nucleus pulposus induced by Nd:YAG (λ=1.32-µm) laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 248–254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Wong, T. E. Milner, A. Harrington, J. Ro, X. Dao, E. N. Sobol, J. S. Nelson, “Feedback-controlled laser-mediated cartilage reshaping,” Arch. Facial Plast. Surg. 1, 282–287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Wong, T. E. Milner, H. H. Kim, J. S. Nelson, E. N. Sobol, “Stress relaxation of porcine septal cartilage during Nd:YAG (1.32-µm) laser irradiation: mechanical, optical, and thermal responses,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 409–414 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikiforova, G.

A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Omelchenko, A. Dmitriev, A. Shekhter, Yu. Ovchinnikov, V. Svistushkin, G. Nikiforova, N. Jones, J. Lowe, “Dynamics of optical and mechanical properties of cartilage at laser heating,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics II,J. Albrecht, G. P. Dalacretaz, T. H. Meier, W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, eds., Proc. SPIE2923, 114–117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nishioka, N. S.

O’Brien, S. J.

M. S. Wall, X.-H. Deng, P. A. Torzilli, S. B. Doly, S. J. O’Brien, R. F. Warren, “Thermal modification of collagen,” J. Shoulder Elbow Surg. 8, 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohno, H.

A. M. Jamieson, J. Blackwell, H. Reihanian, H. Ohno, R. Gupta, D. A. Carrino, A. I. Caplan, L. H. Tang, L. C. Rosenberg, “Thermal and solvent stability of proteoglycan aggregates by quasi-elastic laser light scattering,” Carbohydrate Res. 160, 329–341 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Omel’chenko, A.

E. Sobol, A. Omel’chenko, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, “Scanning force microscopy of the fine structure of cartilage irradiated with a CO2 laser,” Lasers Med. Sci. 15, 15–23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omel’chenko, V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, V. Popov, “Mechanism of laser-induced stress relaxation in cartilage,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VIII, S.L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2975, 310–315 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, A. Omel’chenko, S. Tsypina, V. Gapontsev, I. Samartsev, F. Feldchtein, R. Kuranov, “Kinetics of water transfer and stress relaxation in cartilage heated with 1.56-µm fiber laser,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction XI: Photochemical, Photothermal, and Photomechanical, D. D. Duncan, J.O. Hollinger, S.L. Jacques, eds., Proc. SPIE3914, 102–107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Omel’chenko, A. I.

E. N. Sobol, V. N. Bagratashvili, A. P. Sviridov, A. I. Omel’chenko, Yu. M. Ovchinnikov, A. B. Shekhter, E. Helidonis, “Cartilage shaping under laser radiation,” in Laser Surgery: Advanced Characterizations, Therapeutics, and Systems, IV, R. Anderson, ed., Proc. SPIE2128, 43–47 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Omelchenko, A.

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omelchenko, V. Bagratashvili, M. Kitai, E. Harding, N. Jones, K. Jumel, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, Y. Ovchinnikov, A. Shekhter, V. Svistuchkin, “Laser reshaping of cartilage,” Biotech Genetic Eng. Rev. 17, 553–577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Omelchenko, A. Dmitriev, A. Shekhter, Yu. Ovchinnikov, V. Svistushkin, G. Nikiforova, N. Jones, J. Lowe, “Dynamics of optical and mechanical properties of cartilage at laser heating,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics II,J. Albrecht, G. P. Dalacretaz, T. H. Meier, W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, eds., Proc. SPIE2923, 114–117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Otnes, R. K.

R. K. Otnes, L. Enochson, Applied Time Series Analysis. V. 1. Basic Techniques (Wiley, New York, 1978).

Ovchinnikov, Y.

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omelchenko, V. Bagratashvili, M. Kitai, E. Harding, N. Jones, K. Jumel, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, Y. Ovchinnikov, A. Shekhter, V. Svistuchkin, “Laser reshaping of cartilage,” Biotech Genetic Eng. Rev. 17, 553–577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ovchinnikov, Yu.

A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Omelchenko, A. Dmitriev, A. Shekhter, Yu. Ovchinnikov, V. Svistushkin, G. Nikiforova, N. Jones, J. Lowe, “Dynamics of optical and mechanical properties of cartilage at laser heating,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics II,J. Albrecht, G. P. Dalacretaz, T. H. Meier, W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, eds., Proc. SPIE2923, 114–117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ovchinnikov, Yu. M.

E. N. Sobol, V. N. Bagratashvili, A. P. Sviridov, A. I. Omel’chenko, Yu. M. Ovchinnikov, A. B. Shekhter, E. Helidonis, “Cartilage shaping under laser radiation,” in Laser Surgery: Advanced Characterizations, Therapeutics, and Systems, IV, R. Anderson, ed., Proc. SPIE2128, 43–47 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pompe, W.

E. Sobol, A. Omel’chenko, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, “Scanning force microscopy of the fine structure of cartilage irradiated with a CO2 laser,” Lasers Med. Sci. 15, 15–23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omelchenko, V. Bagratashvili, M. Kitai, E. Harding, N. Jones, K. Jumel, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, Y. Ovchinnikov, A. Shekhter, V. Svistuchkin, “Laser reshaping of cartilage,” Biotech Genetic Eng. Rev. 17, 553–577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Popov, V.

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omel’chenko, V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, V. Popov, “Mechanism of laser-induced stress relaxation in cartilage,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VIII, S.L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2975, 310–315 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Reihanian, H.

A. M. Jamieson, J. Blackwell, H. Reihanian, H. Ohno, R. Gupta, D. A. Carrino, A. I. Caplan, L. H. Tang, L. C. Rosenberg, “Thermal and solvent stability of proteoglycan aggregates by quasi-elastic laser light scattering,” Carbohydrate Res. 160, 329–341 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ro, J.

B. J. Wong, T. E. Milner, A. Harrington, J. Ro, X. Dao, E. N. Sobol, J. S. Nelson, “Feedback-controlled laser-mediated cartilage reshaping,” Arch. Facial Plast. Surg. 1, 282–287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, L. C.

A. M. Jamieson, J. Blackwell, H. Reihanian, H. Ohno, R. Gupta, D. A. Carrino, A. I. Caplan, L. H. Tang, L. C. Rosenberg, “Thermal and solvent stability of proteoglycan aggregates by quasi-elastic laser light scattering,” Carbohydrate Res. 160, 329–341 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sadhwani, A.

Samartsev, I.

V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, A. Omel’chenko, S. Tsypina, V. Gapontsev, I. Samartsev, F. Feldchtein, R. Kuranov, “Kinetics of water transfer and stress relaxation in cartilage heated with 1.56-µm fiber laser,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction XI: Photochemical, Photothermal, and Photomechanical, D. D. Duncan, J.O. Hollinger, S.L. Jacques, eds., Proc. SPIE3914, 102–107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schomacker, K. T.

Shekhter, A.

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omelchenko, V. Bagratashvili, M. Kitai, E. Harding, N. Jones, K. Jumel, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, Y. Ovchinnikov, A. Shekhter, V. Svistuchkin, “Laser reshaping of cartilage,” Biotech Genetic Eng. Rev. 17, 553–577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Omelchenko, A. Dmitriev, A. Shekhter, Yu. Ovchinnikov, V. Svistushkin, G. Nikiforova, N. Jones, J. Lowe, “Dynamics of optical and mechanical properties of cartilage at laser heating,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics II,J. Albrecht, G. P. Dalacretaz, T. H. Meier, W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, eds., Proc. SPIE2923, 114–117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shekhter, A. B.

E. N. Sobol, V. N. Bagratashvili, A. P. Sviridov, A. I. Omel’chenko, Yu. M. Ovchinnikov, A. B. Shekhter, E. Helidonis, “Cartilage shaping under laser radiation,” in Laser Surgery: Advanced Characterizations, Therapeutics, and Systems, IV, R. Anderson, ed., Proc. SPIE2128, 43–47 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sobol, E.

E. Sobol, A. Omel’chenko, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, “Scanning force microscopy of the fine structure of cartilage irradiated with a CO2 laser,” Lasers Med. Sci. 15, 15–23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omelchenko, V. Bagratashvili, M. Kitai, E. Harding, N. Jones, K. Jumel, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, Y. Ovchinnikov, A. Shekhter, V. Svistuchkin, “Laser reshaping of cartilage,” Biotech Genetic Eng. Rev. 17, 553–577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Omelchenko, A. Dmitriev, A. Shekhter, Yu. Ovchinnikov, V. Svistushkin, G. Nikiforova, N. Jones, J. Lowe, “Dynamics of optical and mechanical properties of cartilage at laser heating,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics II,J. Albrecht, G. P. Dalacretaz, T. H. Meier, W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, eds., Proc. SPIE2923, 114–117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, A. Omel’chenko, S. Tsypina, V. Gapontsev, I. Samartsev, F. Feldchtein, R. Kuranov, “Kinetics of water transfer and stress relaxation in cartilage heated with 1.56-µm fiber laser,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction XI: Photochemical, Photothermal, and Photomechanical, D. D. Duncan, J.O. Hollinger, S.L. Jacques, eds., Proc. SPIE3914, 102–107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omel’chenko, V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, V. Popov, “Mechanism of laser-induced stress relaxation in cartilage,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VIII, S.L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2975, 310–315 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sobol, E. N.

J. Y. Choi, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. E. Milner, X. V. Dao, J. S. Nelson, E. N. Sobol, B. J. F. Wong, “Thermal, mechanical, optical, and morphologic changes in bovine nucleus pulposus induced by Nd:YAG (λ=1.32-µm) laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 248–254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Wong, T. E. Milner, A. Harrington, J. Ro, X. Dao, E. N. Sobol, J. S. Nelson, “Feedback-controlled laser-mediated cartilage reshaping,” Arch. Facial Plast. Surg. 1, 282–287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Sviridov, E. N. Sobol, N. Jones, J. Lowe, “Effect of holmium laser radiation on stress, temperature, and structure in cartilage,” Lasers Med. Sci. 13, 73–77 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Wong, T. E. Milner, H. H. Kim, J. S. Nelson, E. N. Sobol, “Stress relaxation of porcine septal cartilage during Nd:YAG (1.32-µm) laser irradiation: mechanical, optical, and thermal responses,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 409–414 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. N. Sobol, V. N. Bagratashvili, A. P. Sviridov, A. I. Omel’chenko, Yu. M. Ovchinnikov, A. B. Shekhter, E. Helidonis, “Cartilage shaping under laser radiation,” in Laser Surgery: Advanced Characterizations, Therapeutics, and Systems, IV, R. Anderson, ed., Proc. SPIE2128, 43–47 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stern, M. D.

M. D. Stern, “In vivo evaluation of microcirculation by coherent light scattering,” Nature (London) 254, 56–58 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sviridov, A.

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omelchenko, V. Bagratashvili, M. Kitai, E. Harding, N. Jones, K. Jumel, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, Y. Ovchinnikov, A. Shekhter, V. Svistuchkin, “Laser reshaping of cartilage,” Biotech Genetic Eng. Rev. 17, 553–577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Omelchenko, A. Dmitriev, A. Shekhter, Yu. Ovchinnikov, V. Svistushkin, G. Nikiforova, N. Jones, J. Lowe, “Dynamics of optical and mechanical properties of cartilage at laser heating,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics II,J. Albrecht, G. P. Dalacretaz, T. H. Meier, W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, eds., Proc. SPIE2923, 114–117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omel’chenko, V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, V. Popov, “Mechanism of laser-induced stress relaxation in cartilage,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VIII, S.L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2975, 310–315 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, A. Omel’chenko, S. Tsypina, V. Gapontsev, I. Samartsev, F. Feldchtein, R. Kuranov, “Kinetics of water transfer and stress relaxation in cartilage heated with 1.56-µm fiber laser,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction XI: Photochemical, Photothermal, and Photomechanical, D. D. Duncan, J.O. Hollinger, S.L. Jacques, eds., Proc. SPIE3914, 102–107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sviridov, A. P.

A. P. Sviridov, E. N. Sobol, N. Jones, J. Lowe, “Effect of holmium laser radiation on stress, temperature, and structure in cartilage,” Lasers Med. Sci. 13, 73–77 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Sobol, V. N. Bagratashvili, A. P. Sviridov, A. I. Omel’chenko, Yu. M. Ovchinnikov, A. B. Shekhter, E. Helidonis, “Cartilage shaping under laser radiation,” in Laser Surgery: Advanced Characterizations, Therapeutics, and Systems, IV, R. Anderson, ed., Proc. SPIE2128, 43–47 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Svistuchkin, V.

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omelchenko, V. Bagratashvili, M. Kitai, E. Harding, N. Jones, K. Jumel, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, Y. Ovchinnikov, A. Shekhter, V. Svistuchkin, “Laser reshaping of cartilage,” Biotech Genetic Eng. Rev. 17, 553–577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Svistushkin, V.

A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Omelchenko, A. Dmitriev, A. Shekhter, Yu. Ovchinnikov, V. Svistushkin, G. Nikiforova, N. Jones, J. Lowe, “Dynamics of optical and mechanical properties of cartilage at laser heating,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics II,J. Albrecht, G. P. Dalacretaz, T. H. Meier, W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, eds., Proc. SPIE2923, 114–117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tanenbaum, B. S.

J. Y. Choi, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. E. Milner, X. V. Dao, J. S. Nelson, E. N. Sobol, B. J. F. Wong, “Thermal, mechanical, optical, and morphologic changes in bovine nucleus pulposus induced by Nd:YAG (λ=1.32-µm) laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 248–254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tang, L. H.

A. M. Jamieson, J. Blackwell, H. Reihanian, H. Ohno, R. Gupta, D. A. Carrino, A. I. Caplan, L. H. Tang, L. C. Rosenberg, “Thermal and solvent stability of proteoglycan aggregates by quasi-elastic laser light scattering,” Carbohydrate Res. 160, 329–341 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

Torzilli, P. A.

M. S. Wall, X.-H. Deng, P. A. Torzilli, S. B. Doly, S. J. O’Brien, R. F. Warren, “Thermal modification of collagen,” J. Shoulder Elbow Surg. 8, 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsypina, S.

V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, A. Omel’chenko, S. Tsypina, V. Gapontsev, I. Samartsev, F. Feldchtein, R. Kuranov, “Kinetics of water transfer and stress relaxation in cartilage heated with 1.56-µm fiber laser,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction XI: Photochemical, Photothermal, and Photomechanical, D. D. Duncan, J.O. Hollinger, S.L. Jacques, eds., Proc. SPIE3914, 102–107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wall, M. S.

M. S. Wall, X.-H. Deng, P. A. Torzilli, S. B. Doly, S. J. O’Brien, R. F. Warren, “Thermal modification of collagen,” J. Shoulder Elbow Surg. 8, 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, J. T.

D. J. Maitland, J. T. Walsh, “Quantitative measurements of linear birefringence during heating of native collagen,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 310–318 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, R. F.

M. S. Wall, X.-H. Deng, P. A. Torzilli, S. B. Doly, S. J. O’Brien, R. F. Warren, “Thermal modification of collagen,” J. Shoulder Elbow Surg. 8, 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webster, S.

J. D. Briers, S. Webster, “Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA): a nonscanning, full-field technique for monitoring capillary blood flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 174–179 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, B. J.

B. J. Wong, T. E. Milner, A. Harrington, J. Ro, X. Dao, E. N. Sobol, J. S. Nelson, “Feedback-controlled laser-mediated cartilage reshaping,” Arch. Facial Plast. Surg. 1, 282–287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wong, B. J. F.

J. Y. Choi, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. E. Milner, X. V. Dao, J. S. Nelson, E. N. Sobol, B. J. F. Wong, “Thermal, mechanical, optical, and morphologic changes in bovine nucleus pulposus induced by Nd:YAG (λ=1.32-µm) laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 248–254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wong, J. F.

J. F. Wong, T. E. Milner, H. H. Kim, J. S. Nelson, E. N. Sobol, “Stress relaxation of porcine septal cartilage during Nd:YAG (1.32-µm) laser irradiation: mechanical, optical, and thermal responses,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 409–414 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Arch. Facial Plast. Surg. (1)

B. J. Wong, T. E. Milner, A. Harrington, J. Ro, X. Dao, E. N. Sobol, J. S. Nelson, “Feedback-controlled laser-mediated cartilage reshaping,” Arch. Facial Plast. Surg. 1, 282–287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Biotech Genetic Eng. Rev. (1)

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omelchenko, V. Bagratashvili, M. Kitai, E. Harding, N. Jones, K. Jumel, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, Y. Ovchinnikov, A. Shekhter, V. Svistuchkin, “Laser reshaping of cartilage,” Biotech Genetic Eng. Rev. 17, 553–577 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carbohydrate Res. (1)

A. M. Jamieson, J. Blackwell, H. Reihanian, H. Ohno, R. Gupta, D. A. Carrino, A. I. Caplan, L. H. Tang, L. C. Rosenberg, “Thermal and solvent stability of proteoglycan aggregates by quasi-elastic laser light scattering,” Carbohydrate Res. 160, 329–341 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Eng. (1)

T. J. H. Essex, P. O. Byrne, “A laser Doppler scanner for imaging blood flow in skin,” J. Biomed. Eng. 13, 189–194 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

J. D. Briers, S. Webster, “Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA): a nonscanning, full-field technique for monitoring capillary blood flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 174–179 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Wong, T. E. Milner, H. H. Kim, J. S. Nelson, E. N. Sobol, “Stress relaxation of porcine septal cartilage during Nd:YAG (1.32-µm) laser irradiation: mechanical, optical, and thermal responses,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 409–414 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cerebr. Blood Flow Metab. (1)

A. K. Dunn, H. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, D. A. Boas, “Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle,” J. Cerebr. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195–201 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Shoulder Elbow Surg. (1)

M. S. Wall, X.-H. Deng, P. A. Torzilli, S. B. Doly, S. J. O’Brien, R. F. Warren, “Thermal modification of collagen,” J. Shoulder Elbow Surg. 8, 339–344 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci. (2)

A. P. Sviridov, E. N. Sobol, N. Jones, J. Lowe, “Effect of holmium laser radiation on stress, temperature, and structure in cartilage,” Lasers Med. Sci. 13, 73–77 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Sobol, A. Omel’chenko, M. Mertig, W. Pompe, “Scanning force microscopy of the fine structure of cartilage irradiated with a CO2 laser,” Lasers Med. Sci. 15, 15–23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

J. Y. Choi, B. S. Tanenbaum, T. E. Milner, X. V. Dao, J. S. Nelson, E. N. Sobol, B. J. F. Wong, “Thermal, mechanical, optical, and morphologic changes in bovine nucleus pulposus induced by Nd:YAG (λ=1.32-µm) laser irradiation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 248–254 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Maitland, J. T. Walsh, “Quantitative measurements of linear birefringence during heating of native collagen,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 310–318 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (London) (1)

M. D. Stern, “In vivo evaluation of microcirculation by coherent light scattering,” Nature (London) 254, 56–58 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, J. D. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37, 326–330 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Omelchenko, A. Dmitriev, A. Shekhter, Yu. Ovchinnikov, V. Svistushkin, G. Nikiforova, N. Jones, J. Lowe, “Dynamics of optical and mechanical properties of cartilage at laser heating,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction and Tissue Optics II,J. Albrecht, G. P. Dalacretaz, T. H. Meier, W. Steiner, L. O. Svaasand, eds., Proc. SPIE2923, 114–117 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Sobol, V. N. Bagratashvili, A. P. Sviridov, A. I. Omel’chenko, Yu. M. Ovchinnikov, A. B. Shekhter, E. Helidonis, “Cartilage shaping under laser radiation,” in Laser Surgery: Advanced Characterizations, Therapeutics, and Systems, IV, R. Anderson, ed., Proc. SPIE2128, 43–47 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Sobol, A. Sviridov, A. Omel’chenko, V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, V. Popov, “Mechanism of laser-induced stress relaxation in cartilage,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction VIII, S.L. Jacques, ed., Proc. SPIE2975, 310–315 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Bagratashvili, N. Bagratashvili, A. Sviridov, E. Sobol, A. Omel’chenko, S. Tsypina, V. Gapontsev, I. Samartsev, F. Feldchtein, R. Kuranov, “Kinetics of water transfer and stress relaxation in cartilage heated with 1.56-µm fiber laser,” in Laser-Tissue Interaction XI: Photochemical, Photothermal, and Photomechanical, D. D. Duncan, J.O. Hollinger, S.L. Jacques, eds., Proc. SPIE3914, 102–107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Otnes, L. Enochson, Applied Time Series Analysis. V. 1. Basic Techniques (Wiley, New York, 1978).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a, Experimental setup; b, time-averaged images of the treated tissue: left, before treatment; right, during treatment. The treatment zones are marked by white circles. A D C, analog-to-digital converter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two-dimensional distributions of local estimates of the time-averaged contrast at various stages of the thermal-treatment-thermal-relaxation process. On the surface area around the laser-treatment zone, the Er laser output P is 1.2 W: a, before the laser treatment; b, during the laser treatment, time lapse equal to 16.1 s; c, laser treatment, time lapse equal to 41.4 s; d, end of laser treatment, time lapse equal to 64.8 s; e, thermal relaxation, time lapse equal to 82.8 s; f, thermal relaxation, time lapse equal to 116.7 s. The time lapse is evaluated from the beginning of the laser treatment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of the tissue surface with the use of local estimates of V i,j k as the visualization parameter. Experimental conditions are the same as for Fig. 2: I. 1, before laser treatment (see Fig. 2a); 2, end of laser treatment, time lapse equal to 64.8 s (see Fig. 2d); 3, thermal relaxation, time lapse equal to 116.7 s (see Fig. 2f). The area marked in 3 by a dashed square corresponds to the plotted two-dimensional distributions in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependencies of dotted curve, i,j (t) and, continuous curve, T on t during and after the laser treatment (a and b, respectively). The Er laser output P is 1.2 W.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependencies of i,j (t) on T for the treatment-relaxation cycle. Squares, 1, P = 1.2 W, near the center of the treatment zone; circles, 2, P = 0.8 W, near the center of the zone. Black arrow, heating stage; gray arrows, thermal-relaxation stage.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Presentation of the evolution of the studied dynamic scattering system in the (T, ) coordinates. P = 1.2 W.

Equations (4)

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Ĩi,jk=m=-kK Ii,jk+m2K+1
Ĩi,jk=1Mm,n Ĩi+m,j+nkm2+n2r2; σI i,jk=1Mm,nĨi+m,j+nk -Ĩi,ji2m2+n2r21/2,
ε·t, T-K1TtK2T-1/1+K3TtK2T2,
τcΛλ0/lε·n,

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