Abstract

We numerically investigated the performance of an achromatic polarization-preserving beam displacer that was proposed by Galvez [Opt. Lett. 26, 971 (2001)]. First, the four-prism configuration of the Galvez scheme is verified by simulation. We examined the extension of wavelength beyond visible light by considering the corresponding power loss. The degree of polarization is also considered. The tolerance of tilts of reflecting surfaces is comprehensively discussed. It is shown that the second reflector of a four-prism system is the most critical component. Performance of various materials, including plastics, is evaluated. We explain a simplified implementation based on two prisms (the classic Porro configuration), which also improves material performance.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. J. Galvez, “Achromatic polarization-preserving beam displacer,” Opt. Lett. 26, 971–973 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Cojocaru, “Polarization-preserving totally reflecting prisms,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4340–4342 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Z. P. Wang, W. M. Sun, S. L. Ruan, C. Kang, Z. J. Huang, S. Q. Zhang, “Polarization-preserving totally reflecting prisms with a single medium layer,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2802–2806 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. M. Azzam, M. Emdadur Rahman Khan, “Polarization-preserving single-layer-coated beam displacers and axicons,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3314–3322 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. M. Azzam, “Displacement of a monochromatic light beam parallel to itself without change of polarization,” Opt. Lett. 7, 80–82 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. M. Azzam, “Inverting the ratio of the complex parallel and perpendicular reflection coefficients of an absorbing substrate using a transparent thin-film coating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 699–702 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. J. Galvez, M. R. Cheyne, J. B. Stewart, C. D. Holmes, H. I. Sztul, “Variable geometric-phase polarization rotators for the visible,” Opt. Commun. 171, 7–13 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. More information on the OSLO software can be found at http://www.sinopt.com and http://www.lambdares.com .
  9. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, New York, 1999), pp. 26–28.
  10. The plastics data are from the electronic database of CODE V optical software, which is available from Optical Research Associates
  11. Ref. 9, p. 269.

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

E. J. Galvez, M. R. Cheyne, J. B. Stewart, C. D. Holmes, H. I. Sztul, “Variable geometric-phase polarization rotators for the visible,” Opt. Commun. 171, 7–13 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

1984 (1)

1982 (2)

Azzam, R. M.

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, New York, 1999), pp. 26–28.

Cheyne, M. R.

E. J. Galvez, M. R. Cheyne, J. B. Stewart, C. D. Holmes, H. I. Sztul, “Variable geometric-phase polarization rotators for the visible,” Opt. Commun. 171, 7–13 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cojocaru, E.

Emdadur Rahman Khan, M.

Galvez, E. J.

E. J. Galvez, “Achromatic polarization-preserving beam displacer,” Opt. Lett. 26, 971–973 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Galvez, M. R. Cheyne, J. B. Stewart, C. D. Holmes, H. I. Sztul, “Variable geometric-phase polarization rotators for the visible,” Opt. Commun. 171, 7–13 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, C. D.

E. J. Galvez, M. R. Cheyne, J. B. Stewart, C. D. Holmes, H. I. Sztul, “Variable geometric-phase polarization rotators for the visible,” Opt. Commun. 171, 7–13 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z. J.

Kang, C.

Ruan, S. L.

Stewart, J. B.

E. J. Galvez, M. R. Cheyne, J. B. Stewart, C. D. Holmes, H. I. Sztul, “Variable geometric-phase polarization rotators for the visible,” Opt. Commun. 171, 7–13 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W. M.

Sztul, H. I.

E. J. Galvez, M. R. Cheyne, J. B. Stewart, C. D. Holmes, H. I. Sztul, “Variable geometric-phase polarization rotators for the visible,” Opt. Commun. 171, 7–13 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. P.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, New York, 1999), pp. 26–28.

Zhang, S. Q.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. J. Galvez, M. R. Cheyne, J. B. Stewart, C. D. Holmes, H. I. Sztul, “Variable geometric-phase polarization rotators for the visible,” Opt. Commun. 171, 7–13 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (4)

More information on the OSLO software can be found at http://www.sinopt.com and http://www.lambdares.com .

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, New York, 1999), pp. 26–28.

The plastics data are from the electronic database of CODE V optical software, which is available from Optical Research Associates

Ref. 9, p. 269.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the prism (Edmund Scientific 32543) used for the simulation. (b) 3-D layout of the Galvez prism-based CPS beam displacer, (c) Schematic of tilting to integrate the displacer. Tilting about the x axis is TLX, the y axis is TLY, and the z axis is TLZ.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulation results of incident-beam misalignment of the prism-based CPS beam displacer. The optical system and corresponding tilt angle are as in Fig. 1(b). (b) Simulation results of normalized output intensity over a wide range of wavelengths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Ellipticity acquired as a function of component 1 tilting errors. (b) The angular change in polarization ellipse as a function of component 1 tilting errors with respect to three different axes. (c) Ellipticity acquired as a function of component 2 tilting errors. (d) Angular changes in ellipticity as a function of component 2 tilting errors with respect to three different axes. Note that the angle changes of TLX and TLY are the same. (d) Ellipticity acquired as a function of component 3 tilting errors, where the square ellipticity of TLY and TLZ are almost the same. (e) Rotation of the polarization ellipse as a function of component 3 tilting errors. (f) Ellipticity acquired as a function of component 4 tilting errors, where the square ellipticity of TLX and TLZ is the same. (g) Corresponding angular change in polarization ellipse.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Corresponding normalized output intensity of different materials for the Galvez four-prism configuration. Comparisons of (a) BK7 and CaF2 and (b) plastic materials.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

System layout of a two-prism configuration: (a) orientation of prisms 1 and 2 and (b) 3-D layout.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Performance degradation that is due to incident-beam misalignment in a two-prism configuration: (a) squared ellipticity and (b) angular change in polarization ellipse.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Ellipticity acquired as a function of tilting errors of component 1 for a two-prism configuration. (b) Corresponding ellipticity angle change of (a). (c) Ellipticity acquired as a function of tilting errors of component 2 for a two-prism configuration in which the squared ellipticity of TLY and TLZ is almost the same. (d) Corresponding ellipticity angle change of (c).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a), (b) Schematics of reflected surfaces in a two-prism Porro configuration and its corresponding four-mirror configuration. (c) Variation of the squared ellipticity with critical tilting angles in a four-mirror case. (d) The influence of critical tilting angles at +5 arc min tilting for a two-prism Porro configuration.

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