Abstract

White-light interferometric techniques allow high-precision shape measurement of objects with discontinuous structures by detecting the peak of the coherence envelope. These techniques assume a specific change in the optical path difference (OPD) between the interfering beams; however, the scanning device effecting that change often introduces OPD errors that are carried over to the measurements. We present a technique for measuring OPD changes from the collected interference fringes during each measurement. Information about the scan is directly fed into the algorithm, which compensates for the errors, resulting in improved measurement accuracy. The method corrects not only the scanner errors but also slowly varying vibrations. In addition, this technique can be easily adapted to any existing low-coherence interferometer because no large data storage or postprocessing is required.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Ai, E. L. Novak, “Centroid approach for estimating modulation peak in broad-bandwidth interferometry,” U.S. patent5,633,715 (27May1997).
  3. P. J. Caber, “Interferometric profiler for rough surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3438–3441 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Creath, “Temporal phase measurement methods,” in Interferogram Analysis, D. Robinson, G. T. Reid, eds. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1993), Chap. 4, pp. 94–140.
  5. D. K. Cohen, P. J. Caber, C. P. Brophy, “Rough surface profiler and method,” U.S. patent5,133,601 (28July1992).
  6. A. Harasaki, J. Schmit, J. C. Wyant, “Improved vertical scanning interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2107–2115 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Sandoz, R. Devillers, A. Plata, “Unambiguous profilometry by fringe-order identification in white-light phase-shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 519–534 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. de Groot, X. C. de Lega, J. Kramer, M. Turzhitsky, “High precision surface inspection on the microscale by broadband interferometry,” in Fringe 2001: The Fourth International Workshop on Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Osten, W. Jüptner, eds., (Elsevier, Paris, 2001), pp. 47–55.
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. D. W. Phillion, “General methods for generating phase-shifting interferometry algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8098–8115 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. I.-B. Kong, S.-W. Kim, “General algorithm of phase-shifting interferometry by iterative least-squares fitting,” Opt. Eng. 34, 183–188 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Kiyono, W. Gao, T. Aramaki, “Self-calibration of scanning white light interference microscope,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2720–2725 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Kim, M. Kang, S. Lee, “White light phase-shifting interferometry with self-compensation of PZT scanning errors,” in Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology, (ICOSN ’99), I. Yamaguchi, ed., Proc. SPIE3740, 16–19 (1999).
  17. L. L. Deck, “Interferometric methods and systems using low coherence illumination,” U.S. patent5,953,124 (14September1999).
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    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Takeda, “Spatial-carrier fringe-pattern analysis and its applications to precision interferometry and profilometry: an overview,” Ind. Metrol. 1, 79–90 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. H. Womack, “Interferometric phase measurement using spatial synchronous detection,” Opt. Eng. 23, 391–395 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. E. Greivenkamp, J. H. Bruning, “Phase shifting interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 14, pp. 533–536.
  22. P. Hariharan, B. F. Oreb, T. Eiju, “Digital phase-shifting interferometry: a simple error-compensating phase calculation algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2504–2505 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  24. A. Olszak, J. Schmit, “High-stability white-light interferometry with reference signal for real-time correction of scanning errors,” Opt. Eng. (to be published).
  25. A. Olszak, J. Schmit, “Scanning interferometry with reference signal,” U.S. patent3,333,333 (application date pending).
  26. A. Harasaki, J. Schmit, J. C. Wyant, “Offset of coherent envelope position due to phase change on reflection,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2102–2106 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M.-C. Park, S.-W. Kim, “Compensation of phase change on reflection in white-light interferometry for step height measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 420–422 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. E. Lowman, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Modeling an interferometer for non-null testing of aspheres,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing, V. J. Daughtery, H. Stabl, eds., Proc. SPIE2536, 139–147 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
  30. W. Krug, J. Rientz, G. Schulz, Contributions to Interference Microscopy (Hilger and Watts, London, 1964).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. A. Harasaki, J. C. Wyant, “Fringe modulation skewing effect in white-light vertical scanning interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2101–2106 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (3)

2000 (4)

1997 (2)

P. Sandoz, R. Devillers, A. Plata, “Unambiguous profilometry by fringe-order identification in white-light phase-shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 519–534 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Phillion, “General methods for generating phase-shifting interferometry algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8098–8115 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I.-B. Kong, S.-W. Kim, “General algorithm of phase-shifting interferometry by iterative least-squares fitting,” Opt. Eng. 34, 183–188 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Takeda, “Spatial-carrier fringe-pattern analysis and its applications to precision interferometry and profilometry: an overview,” Ind. Metrol. 1, 79–90 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

1984 (1)

K. H. Womack, “Interferometric phase measurement using spatial synchronous detection,” Opt. Eng. 23, 391–395 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1966 (1)

P. Carré, “Installation et utilisation du comparateur photoelectrique et interferentiel du Bureau International des Poids et Mesures,” Metrologia 2, 13–23 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ai, C.

C. Ai, E. L. Novak, “Centroid approach for estimating modulation peak in broad-bandwidth interferometry,” U.S. patent5,633,715 (27May1997).

Aramaki, T.

S. Kiyono, W. Gao, T. Aramaki, “Self-calibration of scanning white light interference microscope,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2720–2725 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brophy, C. P.

D. K. Cohen, P. J. Caber, C. P. Brophy, “Rough surface profiler and method,” U.S. patent5,133,601 (28July1992).

Brown, T. G.

Bruning, J. H.

J. E. Greivenkamp, J. H. Bruning, “Phase shifting interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 14, pp. 533–536.

Caber, P. J.

P. J. Caber, “Interferometric profiler for rough surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3438–3441 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Cohen, P. J. Caber, C. P. Brophy, “Rough surface profiler and method,” U.S. patent5,133,601 (28July1992).

Carré, P.

P. Carré, “Installation et utilisation du comparateur photoelectrique et interferentiel du Bureau International des Poids et Mesures,” Metrologia 2, 13–23 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, D. K.

D. K. Cohen, P. J. Caber, C. P. Brophy, “Rough surface profiler and method,” U.S. patent5,133,601 (28July1992).

Creath, K.

K. Creath, “Calibration of numerical aperture effects in interferometric microscope objectives,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3333–3338 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Creath, “Temporal phase measurement methods,” in Interferogram Analysis, D. Robinson, G. T. Reid, eds. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1993), Chap. 4, pp. 94–140.

J. Schmit, K. Creath, “Fast calculation of phase in spatial n-point phase shifting technique,” in Interferometry VII: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, R. J. Pryputniewicz, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE2544, 102–111 (1995).

J. Schmit, K. Creath, “Errors in spatial phase-stepping techniques,” in Interferometry VI: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE2340, 170–176 (1994).

de Groot, P.

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. de Groot, X. C. de Lega, J. Kramer, M. Turzhitsky, “High precision surface inspection on the microscale by broadband interferometry,” in Fringe 2001: The Fourth International Workshop on Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Osten, W. Jüptner, eds., (Elsevier, Paris, 2001), pp. 47–55.

de Lega, X. C.

P. de Groot, X. C. de Lega, J. Kramer, M. Turzhitsky, “High precision surface inspection on the microscale by broadband interferometry,” in Fringe 2001: The Fourth International Workshop on Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Osten, W. Jüptner, eds., (Elsevier, Paris, 2001), pp. 47–55.

Deck, L.

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Deck, L. L.

L. L. Deck, “Interferometric methods and systems using low coherence illumination,” U.S. patent5,953,124 (14September1999).

Devillers, R.

P. Sandoz, R. Devillers, A. Plata, “Unambiguous profilometry by fringe-order identification in white-light phase-shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 519–534 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eiju, T.

Gao, W.

S. Kiyono, W. Gao, T. Aramaki, “Self-calibration of scanning white light interference microscope,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2720–2725 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Greivenkamp, J. E.

J. E. Greivenkamp, J. H. Bruning, “Phase shifting interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 14, pp. 533–536.

A. E. Lowman, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Modeling an interferometer for non-null testing of aspheres,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing, V. J. Daughtery, H. Stabl, eds., Proc. SPIE2536, 139–147 (1995).

Harasaki, A.

Hariharan, P.

Ina, H.

Kang, M.

S. Kim, M. Kang, S. Lee, “White light phase-shifting interferometry with self-compensation of PZT scanning errors,” in Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology, (ICOSN ’99), I. Yamaguchi, ed., Proc. SPIE3740, 16–19 (1999).

Kim, S.

S. Kim, M. Kang, S. Lee, “White light phase-shifting interferometry with self-compensation of PZT scanning errors,” in Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology, (ICOSN ’99), I. Yamaguchi, ed., Proc. SPIE3740, 16–19 (1999).

Kim, S.-W.

M.-C. Park, S.-W. Kim, “Compensation of phase change on reflection in white-light interferometry for step height measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 420–422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I.-B. Kong, S.-W. Kim, “General algorithm of phase-shifting interferometry by iterative least-squares fitting,” Opt. Eng. 34, 183–188 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M.-C. Park, S.-W. Kim, “Some special issues in white-light interferometry for measurement of meso-scale objects,” in Fringe 2001: The Fourth International Workshop on Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Osten, W. Jüptner, eds., (Elsevier, Paris, 2001), pp. 56–63.

Kiyono, S.

S. Kiyono, W. Gao, T. Aramaki, “Self-calibration of scanning white light interference microscope,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2720–2725 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

Kong, I.-B.

I.-B. Kong, S.-W. Kim, “General algorithm of phase-shifting interferometry by iterative least-squares fitting,” Opt. Eng. 34, 183–188 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, J.

P. de Groot, X. C. de Lega, J. Kramer, M. Turzhitsky, “High precision surface inspection on the microscale by broadband interferometry,” in Fringe 2001: The Fourth International Workshop on Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Osten, W. Jüptner, eds., (Elsevier, Paris, 2001), pp. 47–55.

Krug, W.

W. Krug, J. Rientz, G. Schulz, Contributions to Interference Microscopy (Hilger and Watts, London, 1964).

Larkin, K. G.

Lee, S.

S. Kim, M. Kang, S. Lee, “White light phase-shifting interferometry with self-compensation of PZT scanning errors,” in Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology, (ICOSN ’99), I. Yamaguchi, ed., Proc. SPIE3740, 16–19 (1999).

Lowman, A. E.

A. E. Lowman, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Modeling an interferometer for non-null testing of aspheres,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing, V. J. Daughtery, H. Stabl, eds., Proc. SPIE2536, 139–147 (1995).

Moore, D. T.

Murphy, P. E.

Novak, E. L.

C. Ai, E. L. Novak, “Centroid approach for estimating modulation peak in broad-bandwidth interferometry,” U.S. patent5,633,715 (27May1997).

Olszak, A.

A. Olszak, J. Schmit, “High-stability white-light interferometry with reference signal for real-time correction of scanning errors,” Opt. Eng. (to be published).

A. Olszak, J. Schmit, “Scanning interferometry with reference signal,” U.S. patent3,333,333 (application date pending).

Oreb, B. F.

Park, M.-C.

M.-C. Park, S.-W. Kim, “Compensation of phase change on reflection in white-light interferometry for step height measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 420–422 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M.-C. Park, S.-W. Kim, “Some special issues in white-light interferometry for measurement of meso-scale objects,” in Fringe 2001: The Fourth International Workshop on Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Osten, W. Jüptner, eds., (Elsevier, Paris, 2001), pp. 56–63.

Pförtner, A.

Phillion, D. W.

Plata, A.

P. Sandoz, R. Devillers, A. Plata, “Unambiguous profilometry by fringe-order identification in white-light phase-shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 519–534 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rientz, J.

W. Krug, J. Rientz, G. Schulz, Contributions to Interference Microscopy (Hilger and Watts, London, 1964).

Sandoz, P.

P. Sandoz, R. Devillers, A. Plata, “Unambiguous profilometry by fringe-order identification in white-light phase-shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 519–534 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmit, J.

A. Harasaki, J. Schmit, J. C. Wyant, “Offset of coherent envelope position due to phase change on reflection,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2102–2106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Harasaki, J. Schmit, J. C. Wyant, “Improved vertical scanning interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2107–2115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmit, K. Creath, “Fast calculation of phase in spatial n-point phase shifting technique,” in Interferometry VII: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, R. J. Pryputniewicz, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE2544, 102–111 (1995).

A. Olszak, J. Schmit, “Scanning interferometry with reference signal,” U.S. patent3,333,333 (application date pending).

A. Olszak, J. Schmit, “High-stability white-light interferometry with reference signal for real-time correction of scanning errors,” Opt. Eng. (to be published).

J. Schmit, K. Creath, “Errors in spatial phase-stepping techniques,” in Interferometry VI: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE2340, 170–176 (1994).

Schulz, G.

W. Krug, J. Rientz, G. Schulz, Contributions to Interference Microscopy (Hilger and Watts, London, 1964).

Schwider, J.

Takeda, M.

M. Takeda, “Spatial-carrier fringe-pattern analysis and its applications to precision interferometry and profilometry: an overview,” Ind. Metrol. 1, 79–90 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Takeda, H. Ina, S. Kobayashi, “Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 156–160 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Turzhitsky, M.

P. de Groot, X. C. de Lega, J. Kramer, M. Turzhitsky, “High precision surface inspection on the microscale by broadband interferometry,” in Fringe 2001: The Fourth International Workshop on Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Osten, W. Jüptner, eds., (Elsevier, Paris, 2001), pp. 47–55.

Womack, K. H.

K. H. Womack, “Interferometric phase measurement using spatial synchronous detection,” Opt. Eng. 23, 391–395 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wyant, J. C.

Appl. Opt. (9)

Ind. Metrol. (1)

M. Takeda, “Spatial-carrier fringe-pattern analysis and its applications to precision interferometry and profilometry: an overview,” Ind. Metrol. 1, 79–90 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

P. de Groot, L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Sandoz, R. Devillers, A. Plata, “Unambiguous profilometry by fringe-order identification in white-light phase-shifting interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 44, 519–534 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Metrologia (1)

P. Carré, “Installation et utilisation du comparateur photoelectrique et interferentiel du Bureau International des Poids et Mesures,” Metrologia 2, 13–23 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

I.-B. Kong, S.-W. Kim, “General algorithm of phase-shifting interferometry by iterative least-squares fitting,” Opt. Eng. 34, 183–188 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Kiyono, W. Gao, T. Aramaki, “Self-calibration of scanning white light interference microscope,” Opt. Eng. 39, 2720–2725 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Womack, “Interferometric phase measurement using spatial synchronous detection,” Opt. Eng. 23, 391–395 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (14)

J. E. Greivenkamp, J. H. Bruning, “Phase shifting interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992), Chap. 14, pp. 533–536.

J. Schmit, K. Creath, “Errors in spatial phase-stepping techniques,” in Interferometry VI: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE2340, 170–176 (1994).

A. Olszak, J. Schmit, “High-stability white-light interferometry with reference signal for real-time correction of scanning errors,” Opt. Eng. (to be published).

A. Olszak, J. Schmit, “Scanning interferometry with reference signal,” U.S. patent3,333,333 (application date pending).

J. Schmit, K. Creath, “Fast calculation of phase in spatial n-point phase shifting technique,” in Interferometry VII: Techniques and Analysis, M. Kujawinska, R. J. Pryputniewicz, M. Takeda, eds., Proc. SPIE2544, 102–111 (1995).

W. Krug, J. Rientz, G. Schulz, Contributions to Interference Microscopy (Hilger and Watts, London, 1964).

M.-C. Park, S.-W. Kim, “Some special issues in white-light interferometry for measurement of meso-scale objects,” in Fringe 2001: The Fourth International Workshop on Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Osten, W. Jüptner, eds., (Elsevier, Paris, 2001), pp. 56–63.

A. E. Lowman, J. E. Greivenkamp, “Modeling an interferometer for non-null testing of aspheres,” in Optical Manufacturing and Testing, V. J. Daughtery, H. Stabl, eds., Proc. SPIE2536, 139–147 (1995).

S. Kim, M. Kang, S. Lee, “White light phase-shifting interferometry with self-compensation of PZT scanning errors,” in Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology, (ICOSN ’99), I. Yamaguchi, ed., Proc. SPIE3740, 16–19 (1999).

L. L. Deck, “Interferometric methods and systems using low coherence illumination,” U.S. patent5,953,124 (14September1999).

P. de Groot, X. C. de Lega, J. Kramer, M. Turzhitsky, “High precision surface inspection on the microscale by broadband interferometry,” in Fringe 2001: The Fourth International Workshop on Automatic Processing of Fringe Patterns, W. Osten, W. Jüptner, eds., (Elsevier, Paris, 2001), pp. 47–55.

C. Ai, E. L. Novak, “Centroid approach for estimating modulation peak in broad-bandwidth interferometry,” U.S. patent5,633,715 (27May1997).

K. Creath, “Temporal phase measurement methods,” in Interferogram Analysis, D. Robinson, G. T. Reid, eds. (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1993), Chap. 4, pp. 94–140.

D. K. Cohen, P. J. Caber, C. P. Brophy, “Rough surface profiler and method,” U.S. patent5,133,601 (28July1992).

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