Abstract

We propose a new configuration for a high-resolution heterodyne interferometer that employs a two-longitudinal-mode He-Ne laser with an intermode beat frequency of 600–1000 MHz. The high beat frequency is downconverted to 5 MHz such that the phase change of the interferometer output is precisely measured with a displacement resolution of 0.1 nm. A thermal control scheme is adopted to stabilize the cavity length of the He-Ne plasma tube such that a frequency stability of 2 parts in 109 is obtained by suppression of frequency drifts caused by the phenomena of frequency pulling and polarization anisotropy. This two-longitudinal-mode He-Ne laser yields a high output power of 2.0 mW, which permits multiple measurements of as many as 10 machine axes simultaneously.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Kunzmann, T. Pfeifer, J. Flügge, “Scales vs. laser interferometers, performance and comparison of two measuring systems,” Ann. CIRP 42, 753–767 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Bobroff, “Recent advances in displacement measuring interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 4, 907–926 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Sommargren, “A new laser measurement system for precision metrology,” Precis. Eng. 9, 179–184 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Demarest, “High-resolution, high speed, low data age uncertainty, heterodyne displacement measuring interferometer electronics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1024–1030 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Araki, Y. Nakajima, N. Suzuki, “Frequency and intensity stabilization of a high output power, internal mirror He-Ne laser using interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1525–1528 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Bartlett, F. Farahi, D. Jackson, “A dual resolution noncontact vibration and displacement sensor based upon a two wavelength source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1014–1017 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Yokoyama, T. Araki, N. Suzuki, “Intermode beat stabilized laser with frequency pulling,” Appl. Opt. 33, 358–363 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. L. Barker, “Introduction to single chip microwave PLLs,” application notes 885 (National Semiconductor Corporation, Tokyo, Japan; 2002), pp. 1–4; http://www.national.com/an/AN/AN-885.pdf .
  9. R. Balhorn, F. Lebowsky, D. Ullrich, “Beat frequency between two axial modes of a He-Ne laser with internal mirrors and its dependence on cavity Q,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2955–2959 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Yariv, “Interaction of radiation and atomic systems,” in Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1997), p. 175.
  11. J. Ishikawa, “Accurate frequency control of an internal-mirror He-Ne laser by means of a radiation-heating system,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6095–6098 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. F. Aiello, J. J. Grazulis, “Single frequency adapter,” U.S. patent4,672,618 (9June1987).

1998 (1)

F. Demarest, “High-resolution, high speed, low data age uncertainty, heterodyne displacement measuring interferometer electronics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1024–1030 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

H. Kunzmann, T. Pfeifer, J. Flügge, “Scales vs. laser interferometers, performance and comparison of two measuring systems,” Ann. CIRP 42, 753–767 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Bobroff, “Recent advances in displacement measuring interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 4, 907–926 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. Bartlett, F. Farahi, D. Jackson, “A dual resolution noncontact vibration and displacement sensor based upon a two wavelength source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1014–1017 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

G. Sommargren, “A new laser measurement system for precision metrology,” Precis. Eng. 9, 179–184 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

Aiello, M. F.

M. F. Aiello, J. J. Grazulis, “Single frequency adapter,” U.S. patent4,672,618 (9June1987).

Araki, T.

Balhorn, R.

Barker, C. L.

C. L. Barker, “Introduction to single chip microwave PLLs,” application notes 885 (National Semiconductor Corporation, Tokyo, Japan; 2002), pp. 1–4; http://www.national.com/an/AN/AN-885.pdf .

Bartlett, S.

S. Bartlett, F. Farahi, D. Jackson, “A dual resolution noncontact vibration and displacement sensor based upon a two wavelength source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1014–1017 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bobroff, N.

N. Bobroff, “Recent advances in displacement measuring interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 4, 907–926 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Demarest, F.

F. Demarest, “High-resolution, high speed, low data age uncertainty, heterodyne displacement measuring interferometer electronics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1024–1030 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Farahi, F.

S. Bartlett, F. Farahi, D. Jackson, “A dual resolution noncontact vibration and displacement sensor based upon a two wavelength source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1014–1017 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Flügge, J.

H. Kunzmann, T. Pfeifer, J. Flügge, “Scales vs. laser interferometers, performance and comparison of two measuring systems,” Ann. CIRP 42, 753–767 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Grazulis, J. J.

M. F. Aiello, J. J. Grazulis, “Single frequency adapter,” U.S. patent4,672,618 (9June1987).

Ishikawa, J.

Jackson, D.

S. Bartlett, F. Farahi, D. Jackson, “A dual resolution noncontact vibration and displacement sensor based upon a two wavelength source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1014–1017 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kunzmann, H.

H. Kunzmann, T. Pfeifer, J. Flügge, “Scales vs. laser interferometers, performance and comparison of two measuring systems,” Ann. CIRP 42, 753–767 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lebowsky, F.

Nakajima, Y.

Pfeifer, T.

H. Kunzmann, T. Pfeifer, J. Flügge, “Scales vs. laser interferometers, performance and comparison of two measuring systems,” Ann. CIRP 42, 753–767 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sommargren, G.

G. Sommargren, “A new laser measurement system for precision metrology,” Precis. Eng. 9, 179–184 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, N.

Ullrich, D.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, “Interaction of radiation and atomic systems,” in Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1997), p. 175.

Yokoyama, S.

Ann. CIRP (1)

H. Kunzmann, T. Pfeifer, J. Flügge, “Scales vs. laser interferometers, performance and comparison of two measuring systems,” Ann. CIRP 42, 753–767 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

F. Demarest, “High-resolution, high speed, low data age uncertainty, heterodyne displacement measuring interferometer electronics,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1024–1030 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Bobroff, “Recent advances in displacement measuring interferometry,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 4, 907–926 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Precis. Eng. (1)

G. Sommargren, “A new laser measurement system for precision metrology,” Precis. Eng. 9, 179–184 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. Bartlett, F. Farahi, D. Jackson, “A dual resolution noncontact vibration and displacement sensor based upon a two wavelength source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1014–1017 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

C. L. Barker, “Introduction to single chip microwave PLLs,” application notes 885 (National Semiconductor Corporation, Tokyo, Japan; 2002), pp. 1–4; http://www.national.com/an/AN/AN-885.pdf .

A. Yariv, “Interaction of radiation and atomic systems,” in Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1997), p. 175.

M. F. Aiello, J. J. Grazulis, “Single frequency adapter,” U.S. patent4,672,618 (9June1987).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two adjacent longitudinal modes standing within the gain curve of a He-Ne laser. Adjacent modes whose frequencies separated by the free spectral range (FSR) are orthogonally polarized.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optoelectronic configuration of the high-resolution heterodyne interferometer with a two-mode He-Ne laser: APDs, avalanche photodiodes; DBMs, double-balanced mixers; LO, local oscillator; PS, power splitter; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; P’s, polarizers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation in beat frequency with change in cavity length. The vertical axis represents beat-frequency fluctuation from the basic longitudinal mode interval of 746 MHz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Control block diagram of the digital frequency stabilization system: INT, interrupt input of a micomputer chip; PWM, pulse-width modulation output of a micomputer chip.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Beat-frequency variation before and after frequency stabilization. An enlarged view of the stabilized region is shown at the right.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fluctuation of beat frequency between the stabilized two-mode laser and a standard single-mode stabilized He-Ne laser.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic of the experimental setup for testing of phase-measuring electronics: Ps, polarizers; CC, corner cube; LO, local oscillator; APDs, avalanche photodiodes; DBMs, double-balanced mixers; PS, power splitter.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Test results of phase-measuring electronics. Two measurements, performed separately, are marked B and C.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ir=A cos2πf1-f2t,
Im=B cos2πf1-f2t+ϕ,
Ir=A cos2πfIFt, Im=B cos2πfIFt+ϕ,
dΔν=-cdL2L2.

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