Abstract

A detector-based spectral irradiance scale has been realized at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Unlike the previous NIST spectral irradiance scales, the new scale is generated with filter radiometers calibrated for absolute spectral power responsivity traceable to the NIST high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer instead of with the gold freezing-point blackbody. The calibrated filter radiometers are then used to establish the radiance temperature of a high-temperature blackbody (HTBB) operating near 3000 K. The spectral irradiance of the HTBB is then determined with knowledge of the geometric factors and is used to assign the spectral irradiances of a group of 1000-W free-electron laser lamps. The detector-based spectral irradiance scale results in the reduction of the uncertainties from the previous source-based spectral irradiance scale by at least a factor of 2 in the ultraviolet and visible wavelength regions. The new detector-based spectral irradiance scale also leads to a reduction in the uncertainties in the shortwave infrared wavelength region by at least a factor of 2–10, depending on the wavelength. Following the establishment of the spectral irradiance scale in the early 1960s, the detector-based spectral irradiance scale represents a fundamental change in the way that the NIST spectral irradiance scale is realized.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. C. Parr, “A national measurement system for radiometry, photometry, and pyrometry based upon absolute detectors,” NIST Tech. Note 1421 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1996).
  2. T. R. Gentile, J. M. Houston, C. L. Cromer, “Realization of a scale of absolute spectral response using the National Institute of Standards and Technology high-accuracy cryogenic radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4392–4403 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. L. Cromer, G. Eppeldauer, J. E. Hardis, T. C. Larason, A. C. Parr, “National Institute of Standards and Technology detector-based photometric scale,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2936–2948 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Ohno, “Improved photometric standards and calibration procedures at NIST,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 323–331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, J. J. Hsia, “The 1990 NIST scales of thermal radiometry,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 621–629 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations,” NBS Measurement Services SP 250-20 (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1987).
  7. H. J. Kostkowski, D. E. Erminy, A. T. Hattenburg, “High-accuracy spectral radiance calibration of tungten-strip lamps,” Adv. Geophys. 14, 111–127 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, J. B. Shumaker, “Spectroradiometric determination of the freezing temperature of gold,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 49–67 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. I. Sapritsky, “Black-body radiometry,” Metrologia 32, 411–427 (1995–1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Preston-Thomas, “The ITS-90,” Metrologia 27, 3–10 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. B. Fowler, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, “Summary of the high-accuracy aperture-area measurement capabilities at the NIST,” Metrologia 37, 621–623 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. C. Larason, S. S. Bruce, A. C. Parr, “Spectroradiometric detector measurements: Part I—Ultraviolet detectors and Part II—Visible to near-infrared detectors,” NIST Measurement Services SP 250-41 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1998).
  13. P. Sperfeld, J. Metzdorf, S. Gala Yousef, K. D. Stock, W. Möller, “Improvement and extension of the blackbody-based spectral irradiance scale,” Metrologia 35, 267–271 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, “Determination of radiance temperatures using detectors calibrated for absolute spectral power response,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science, J. Dubbeldam, M. J. de Groot, eds. (Edauw and Johannisen, The Netherlands, 1999), pp. 737–742.
  15. P. Sperfeld, S. Galal-Yousef, J. Metzdorf, B. Nawo, W. Moller, “The use of self-consistent calibrations to recover absorption bands in the black-body spectrum,” Metrologia 37, 373–376 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. J. Quinn, Temperature (Academic, London, 1990).
  17. A. Thompson, H. M. Chen, “Beamcon III: a linearity measurement instrument for optical detectors,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 99, 751–755 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, “Comparison of the absolute detector-based spectral radiance assignment with the current NIST-assigned spectral radiance of tungsten strip lamps,” Metrologia 37, 429–432 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, K. D. Mielenz, “Results of a CCPR intercomparison of spectral irradiance measurements by national laboratories,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 647–668 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. K. Huang, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, “New procedure for interpolating NIST FEL lamp irradiances,” Metrologia 35, 381–386 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14321–14345 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Ohno, “Photometric calibrations,” NIST Measurement Services SP 250-37 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1997).

2000 (3)

J. B. Fowler, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, “Summary of the high-accuracy aperture-area measurement capabilities at the NIST,” Metrologia 37, 621–623 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Sperfeld, S. Galal-Yousef, J. Metzdorf, B. Nawo, W. Moller, “The use of self-consistent calibrations to recover absorption bands in the black-body spectrum,” Metrologia 37, 373–376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, “Comparison of the absolute detector-based spectral radiance assignment with the current NIST-assigned spectral radiance of tungsten strip lamps,” Metrologia 37, 429–432 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14321–14345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

L. K. Huang, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, “New procedure for interpolating NIST FEL lamp irradiances,” Metrologia 35, 381–386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Sperfeld, J. Metzdorf, S. Gala Yousef, K. D. Stock, W. Möller, “Improvement and extension of the blackbody-based spectral irradiance scale,” Metrologia 35, 267–271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. Ohno, “Improved photometric standards and calibration procedures at NIST,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 323–331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

A. Thompson, H. M. Chen, “Beamcon III: a linearity measurement instrument for optical detectors,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 99, 751–755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, K. D. Mielenz, “Results of a CCPR intercomparison of spectral irradiance measurements by national laboratories,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 647–668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, J. J. Hsia, “The 1990 NIST scales of thermal radiometry,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 621–629 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, J. B. Shumaker, “Spectroradiometric determination of the freezing temperature of gold,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 49–67 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Preston-Thomas, “The ITS-90,” Metrologia 27, 3–10 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

H. J. Kostkowski, D. E. Erminy, A. T. Hattenburg, “High-accuracy spectral radiance calibration of tungten-strip lamps,” Adv. Geophys. 14, 111–127 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bernhard, G.

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14321–14345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bruce, S. S.

T. C. Larason, S. S. Bruce, A. C. Parr, “Spectroradiometric detector measurements: Part I—Ultraviolet detectors and Part II—Visible to near-infrared detectors,” NIST Measurement Services SP 250-41 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1998).

Cebula, R. P.

L. K. Huang, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, “New procedure for interpolating NIST FEL lamp irradiances,” Metrologia 35, 381–386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. M.

A. Thompson, H. M. Chen, “Beamcon III: a linearity measurement instrument for optical detectors,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 99, 751–755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cromer, C. L.

Eppeldauer, G.

Erminy, D. E.

H. J. Kostkowski, D. E. Erminy, A. T. Hattenburg, “High-accuracy spectral radiance calibration of tungten-strip lamps,” Adv. Geophys. 14, 111–127 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, J. B.

J. B. Fowler, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, “Summary of the high-accuracy aperture-area measurement capabilities at the NIST,” Metrologia 37, 621–623 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gala Yousef, S.

P. Sperfeld, J. Metzdorf, S. Gala Yousef, K. D. Stock, W. Möller, “Improvement and extension of the blackbody-based spectral irradiance scale,” Metrologia 35, 267–271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Galal-Yousef, S.

P. Sperfeld, S. Galal-Yousef, J. Metzdorf, B. Nawo, W. Moller, “The use of self-consistent calibrations to recover absorption bands in the black-body spectrum,” Metrologia 37, 373–376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gentile, T. R.

Gibson, C. E.

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, “Comparison of the absolute detector-based spectral radiance assignment with the current NIST-assigned spectral radiance of tungsten strip lamps,” Metrologia 37, 429–432 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, “Determination of radiance temperatures using detectors calibrated for absolute spectral power response,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science, J. Dubbeldam, M. J. de Groot, eds. (Edauw and Johannisen, The Netherlands, 1999), pp. 737–742.

Hardis, J. E.

Hattenburg, A. T.

H. J. Kostkowski, D. E. Erminy, A. T. Hattenburg, “High-accuracy spectral radiance calibration of tungten-strip lamps,” Adv. Geophys. 14, 111–127 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Hilsenrath, E.

L. K. Huang, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, “New procedure for interpolating NIST FEL lamp irradiances,” Metrologia 35, 381–386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Houston, J. M.

Hsia, J. J.

K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, J. J. Hsia, “The 1990 NIST scales of thermal radiometry,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 621–629 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L. K.

L. K. Huang, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, “New procedure for interpolating NIST FEL lamp irradiances,” Metrologia 35, 381–386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. K.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, K. D. Mielenz, “Results of a CCPR intercomparison of spectral irradiance measurements by national laboratories,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 647–668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations,” NBS Measurement Services SP 250-20 (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1987).

Kostkowski, H. J.

H. J. Kostkowski, D. E. Erminy, A. T. Hattenburg, “High-accuracy spectral radiance calibration of tungten-strip lamps,” Adv. Geophys. 14, 111–127 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Larason, T. C.

C. L. Cromer, G. Eppeldauer, J. E. Hardis, T. C. Larason, A. C. Parr, “National Institute of Standards and Technology detector-based photometric scale,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2936–2948 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Larason, S. S. Bruce, A. C. Parr, “Spectroradiometric detector measurements: Part I—Ultraviolet detectors and Part II—Visible to near-infrared detectors,” NIST Measurement Services SP 250-41 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1998).

McSparron, D. A.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations,” NBS Measurement Services SP 250-20 (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1987).

Metzdorf, J.

P. Sperfeld, S. Galal-Yousef, J. Metzdorf, B. Nawo, W. Moller, “The use of self-consistent calibrations to recover absorption bands in the black-body spectrum,” Metrologia 37, 373–376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Sperfeld, J. Metzdorf, S. Gala Yousef, K. D. Stock, W. Möller, “Improvement and extension of the blackbody-based spectral irradiance scale,” Metrologia 35, 267–271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mielenz, K. D.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, K. D. Mielenz, “Results of a CCPR intercomparison of spectral irradiance measurements by national laboratories,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 647–668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, J. J. Hsia, “The 1990 NIST scales of thermal radiometry,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 621–629 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, J. B. Shumaker, “Spectroradiometric determination of the freezing temperature of gold,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 49–67 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Moller, W.

P. Sperfeld, S. Galal-Yousef, J. Metzdorf, B. Nawo, W. Moller, “The use of self-consistent calibrations to recover absorption bands in the black-body spectrum,” Metrologia 37, 373–376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Möller, W.

P. Sperfeld, J. Metzdorf, S. Gala Yousef, K. D. Stock, W. Möller, “Improvement and extension of the blackbody-based spectral irradiance scale,” Metrologia 35, 267–271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nawo, B.

P. Sperfeld, S. Galal-Yousef, J. Metzdorf, B. Nawo, W. Moller, “The use of self-consistent calibrations to recover absorption bands in the black-body spectrum,” Metrologia 37, 373–376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, Y.

Y. Ohno, “Improved photometric standards and calibration procedures at NIST,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 323–331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohno, “Photometric calibrations,” NIST Measurement Services SP 250-37 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1997).

Parr, A. C.

J. B. Fowler, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, “Summary of the high-accuracy aperture-area measurement capabilities at the NIST,” Metrologia 37, 621–623 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Cromer, G. Eppeldauer, J. E. Hardis, T. C. Larason, A. C. Parr, “National Institute of Standards and Technology detector-based photometric scale,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2936–2948 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, J. J. Hsia, “The 1990 NIST scales of thermal radiometry,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 621–629 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Parr, “A national measurement system for radiometry, photometry, and pyrometry based upon absolute detectors,” NIST Tech. Note 1421 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1996).

T. C. Larason, S. S. Bruce, A. C. Parr, “Spectroradiometric detector measurements: Part I—Ultraviolet detectors and Part II—Visible to near-infrared detectors,” NIST Measurement Services SP 250-41 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1998).

Preston-Thomas, H.

H. Preston-Thomas, “The ITS-90,” Metrologia 27, 3–10 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, T. J.

T. J. Quinn, Temperature (Academic, London, 1990).

Sapritsky, V. I.

V. I. Sapritsky, “Black-body radiometry,” Metrologia 32, 411–427 (1995–1996).
[CrossRef]

Saunders, R. D.

J. B. Fowler, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, “Summary of the high-accuracy aperture-area measurement capabilities at the NIST,” Metrologia 37, 621–623 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, K. D. Mielenz, “Results of a CCPR intercomparison of spectral irradiance measurements by national laboratories,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 647–668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, J. J. Hsia, “The 1990 NIST scales of thermal radiometry,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 621–629 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, J. B. Shumaker, “Spectroradiometric determination of the freezing temperature of gold,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 49–67 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations,” NBS Measurement Services SP 250-20 (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1987).

Seckmeyer, G.

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14321–14345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shumaker, J. B.

K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, J. B. Shumaker, “Spectroradiometric determination of the freezing temperature of gold,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 49–67 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sperfeld, P.

P. Sperfeld, S. Galal-Yousef, J. Metzdorf, B. Nawo, W. Moller, “The use of self-consistent calibrations to recover absorption bands in the black-body spectrum,” Metrologia 37, 373–376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Sperfeld, J. Metzdorf, S. Gala Yousef, K. D. Stock, W. Möller, “Improvement and extension of the blackbody-based spectral irradiance scale,” Metrologia 35, 267–271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stock, K. D.

P. Sperfeld, J. Metzdorf, S. Gala Yousef, K. D. Stock, W. Möller, “Improvement and extension of the blackbody-based spectral irradiance scale,” Metrologia 35, 267–271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, A.

A. Thompson, H. M. Chen, “Beamcon III: a linearity measurement instrument for optical detectors,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 99, 751–755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J. H.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, K. D. Mielenz, “Results of a CCPR intercomparison of spectral irradiance measurements by national laboratories,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 647–668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations,” NBS Measurement Services SP 250-20 (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1987).

Yoon, H. W.

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, “Comparison of the absolute detector-based spectral radiance assignment with the current NIST-assigned spectral radiance of tungsten strip lamps,” Metrologia 37, 429–432 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, “Determination of radiance temperatures using detectors calibrated for absolute spectral power response,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science, J. Dubbeldam, M. J. de Groot, eds. (Edauw and Johannisen, The Netherlands, 1999), pp. 737–742.

Adv. Geophys. (1)

H. J. Kostkowski, D. E. Erminy, A. T. Hattenburg, “High-accuracy spectral radiance calibration of tungten-strip lamps,” Adv. Geophys. 14, 111–127 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14321–14345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (5)

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, K. D. Mielenz, “Results of a CCPR intercomparison of spectral irradiance measurements by national laboratories,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 647–668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Thompson, H. M. Chen, “Beamcon III: a linearity measurement instrument for optical detectors,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 99, 751–755 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, J. B. Shumaker, “Spectroradiometric determination of the freezing temperature of gold,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 49–67 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohno, “Improved photometric standards and calibration procedures at NIST,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 102, 323–331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Mielenz, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, J. J. Hsia, “The 1990 NIST scales of thermal radiometry,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 95, 621–629 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (7)

P. Sperfeld, J. Metzdorf, S. Gala Yousef, K. D. Stock, W. Möller, “Improvement and extension of the blackbody-based spectral irradiance scale,” Metrologia 35, 267–271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Sapritsky, “Black-body radiometry,” Metrologia 32, 411–427 (1995–1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Preston-Thomas, “The ITS-90,” Metrologia 27, 3–10 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Fowler, R. D. Saunders, A. C. Parr, “Summary of the high-accuracy aperture-area measurement capabilities at the NIST,” Metrologia 37, 621–623 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, “Comparison of the absolute detector-based spectral radiance assignment with the current NIST-assigned spectral radiance of tungsten strip lamps,” Metrologia 37, 429–432 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Sperfeld, S. Galal-Yousef, J. Metzdorf, B. Nawo, W. Moller, “The use of self-consistent calibrations to recover absorption bands in the black-body spectrum,” Metrologia 37, 373–376 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Huang, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, “New procedure for interpolating NIST FEL lamp irradiances,” Metrologia 35, 381–386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

Y. Ohno, “Photometric calibrations,” NIST Measurement Services SP 250-37 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1997).

A. C. Parr, “A national measurement system for radiometry, photometry, and pyrometry based upon absolute detectors,” NIST Tech. Note 1421 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1996).

T. J. Quinn, Temperature (Academic, London, 1990).

T. C. Larason, S. S. Bruce, A. C. Parr, “Spectroradiometric detector measurements: Part I—Ultraviolet detectors and Part II—Visible to near-infrared detectors,” NIST Measurement Services SP 250-41 (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., 1998).

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, “Determination of radiance temperatures using detectors calibrated for absolute spectral power response,” in Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science, J. Dubbeldam, M. J. de Groot, eds. (Edauw and Johannisen, The Netherlands, 1999), pp. 737–742.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, “Spectral irradiance calibrations,” NBS Measurement Services SP 250-20 (National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md., 1987).

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