Abstract

The inherent multifunctionality of holographic optical elements and their light physical weight make them an attractive solution for the receiver optics of portable terminals in indoor infrared wireless communication systems. A parabolic holographic mirror has been recorded in silver halide at a visible wavelength, and its replay wavelength has been shifted to the near infrared. Employment of proprietary swelling technology resulted in a permanent replay wavelength shift without the need for hologram sealing. Despite the relatively low diffraction efficiency of holograms recorded in silver halide in principle, an improvement in the receiver signal-to-noise ratio of more than 20 dB has been measured. The results of the conducted experiments proved undoubtedly the great potential of curved holographic mirrors as a key element of the receiver optical front end in IR wireless communication systems.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. R. Gfeller, U. H. Bapst, “Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation,” Proc. IEEE 67, 1474–1486 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. R. Barry, Wireless Infrared Communications (Kluwer Academic, Boston, Mass., 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85, 265–298 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Pakravan, M. Kavehrad, “Design considerations for broadband indoor infrared wireless communication systems,” Int. J. Wireless Inf. Networks 2, 223–238 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Lomba, R. Valadas, A. Duarte, “Sectored receivers to combat the multipath dispersion of the indoor optical channel,” in Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 321–325.
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Heatley, I. Neild, “Optical wireless: the promise and the reality,” IEEE Colloquium on Optical Wireless Communications (Institute of Electrical Engineers, Cambridge, UK, 1999), pp. 1/1–1/6.
  7. G. Yun, M. Kavehrad, “Spot diffusing and fly-eye receivers for indoor infrared wireless communications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Selected Topics in Wireless Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 262–265.
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. R. Pakravan, M. Kavehrad, H. Hashemi, “Indoor wireless infrared channel characterization by measurements,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 50, 1053–1073 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. T. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Multi-spot diffusing configuration for wireless infrared access,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 970–978 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Akhavan, M. Kavehrad, S. Jivkova, “Wireless infrared in-house communications: how to achieve very high bit rates,” in Proceedings of Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC’2000 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2000), Vol. 2, pp. 698–703.
  11. W. Jeong, M. Kavehrad, S. Jivkova, “Broadband infrared access with a multi-spot diffusing configuration: performance,” Intl. J. Wireless Inf. Networks 8, 27–36 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Akhavan, M. Kavehrad, S. Jivkova, “Power-efficient transmission for high-speed wireless infrared local area networks,” presented at IEEE International Conference on Third Generation Wireless and Beyond, 30 May–2 June 2001, San Francisco, Calif.
  13. M. Kavehrad, S. Jivkova, “Some recent advances in indoor broadband infrared wireless communications,” in Proceedings of the Fifth World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, SCI/ISAS’2001, (International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, Orlando, Fla., 2001), Vol. 4, pp. 421–426.
  14. S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Receiver designs and channel characterization for multi-spot high-bit-rate wireless infrared communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 2145–2153 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Indoor wireless infrared localaccess, multi-spot diffusing with computer generated holographic beam-splitter,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1999), Vol. 1, pp. 604–608.
  16. S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Holographic optical receiver front end for wireless infrared indoor communications,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2828–2835 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. Solymar, D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, New York, 1981).
  18. S. T. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Wireless infrared indoor communications: how to combat the multipath distortion,” in Optical Wireless Communications III, E. J. Korevaar, ed., Proc. SPIE4214, 162–170 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. V. Sainov, M. Mazakova, N. Koleva, “Characteristics of non-bleached reflection holograms,” C. R. Acad. Bulg. Sci. 34, 1241–1244 (1981).
  20. V. Sainov, “Basic characteristics and application of reflection holograms,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Display Holography, Lake Forest, College, Lake Forest, Ill., 1982), pp. 55–70.
  21. V. Sainov, S. Sainov, H. Bjelkhagen, “Color reflection holography,” in Practical Holography, T. H. Jeong, J. E. Ludman, eds., Proc. SPIE615, 88–92 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (4)

M. R. Pakravan, M. Kavehrad, H. Hashemi, “Indoor wireless infrared channel characterization by measurements,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 50, 1053–1073 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Jeong, M. Kavehrad, S. Jivkova, “Broadband infrared access with a multi-spot diffusing configuration: performance,” Intl. J. Wireless Inf. Networks 8, 27–36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Receiver designs and channel characterization for multi-spot high-bit-rate wireless infrared communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 2145–2153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Holographic optical receiver front end for wireless infrared indoor communications,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2828–2835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. T. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Multi-spot diffusing configuration for wireless infrared access,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 970–978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85, 265–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Pakravan, M. Kavehrad, “Design considerations for broadband indoor infrared wireless communication systems,” Int. J. Wireless Inf. Networks 2, 223–238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

V. Sainov, M. Mazakova, N. Koleva, “Characteristics of non-bleached reflection holograms,” C. R. Acad. Bulg. Sci. 34, 1241–1244 (1981).

1979 (1)

F. R. Gfeller, U. H. Bapst, “Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation,” Proc. IEEE 67, 1474–1486 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Akhavan, K.

K. Akhavan, M. Kavehrad, S. Jivkova, “Wireless infrared in-house communications: how to achieve very high bit rates,” in Proceedings of Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC’2000 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2000), Vol. 2, pp. 698–703.

K. Akhavan, M. Kavehrad, S. Jivkova, “Power-efficient transmission for high-speed wireless infrared local area networks,” presented at IEEE International Conference on Third Generation Wireless and Beyond, 30 May–2 June 2001, San Francisco, Calif.

Bapst, U. H.

F. R. Gfeller, U. H. Bapst, “Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation,” Proc. IEEE 67, 1474–1486 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Barry, J. R.

M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85, 265–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Barry, Wireless Infrared Communications (Kluwer Academic, Boston, Mass., 1994).
[CrossRef]

Bjelkhagen, H.

V. Sainov, S. Sainov, H. Bjelkhagen, “Color reflection holography,” in Practical Holography, T. H. Jeong, J. E. Ludman, eds., Proc. SPIE615, 88–92 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, D. J.

L. Solymar, D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, New York, 1981).

Duarte, A.

C. Lomba, R. Valadas, A. Duarte, “Sectored receivers to combat the multipath dispersion of the indoor optical channel,” in Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 321–325.
[CrossRef]

Gfeller, F. R.

F. R. Gfeller, U. H. Bapst, “Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation,” Proc. IEEE 67, 1474–1486 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hashemi, H.

M. R. Pakravan, M. Kavehrad, H. Hashemi, “Indoor wireless infrared channel characterization by measurements,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 50, 1053–1073 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heatley, D.

D. Heatley, I. Neild, “Optical wireless: the promise and the reality,” IEEE Colloquium on Optical Wireless Communications (Institute of Electrical Engineers, Cambridge, UK, 1999), pp. 1/1–1/6.

Jeong, W.

W. Jeong, M. Kavehrad, S. Jivkova, “Broadband infrared access with a multi-spot diffusing configuration: performance,” Intl. J. Wireless Inf. Networks 8, 27–36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jivkova, S.

W. Jeong, M. Kavehrad, S. Jivkova, “Broadband infrared access with a multi-spot diffusing configuration: performance,” Intl. J. Wireless Inf. Networks 8, 27–36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Receiver designs and channel characterization for multi-spot high-bit-rate wireless infrared communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 2145–2153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Holographic optical receiver front end for wireless infrared indoor communications,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2828–2835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Indoor wireless infrared localaccess, multi-spot diffusing with computer generated holographic beam-splitter,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1999), Vol. 1, pp. 604–608.

M. Kavehrad, S. Jivkova, “Some recent advances in indoor broadband infrared wireless communications,” in Proceedings of the Fifth World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, SCI/ISAS’2001, (International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, Orlando, Fla., 2001), Vol. 4, pp. 421–426.

K. Akhavan, M. Kavehrad, S. Jivkova, “Power-efficient transmission for high-speed wireless infrared local area networks,” presented at IEEE International Conference on Third Generation Wireless and Beyond, 30 May–2 June 2001, San Francisco, Calif.

K. Akhavan, M. Kavehrad, S. Jivkova, “Wireless infrared in-house communications: how to achieve very high bit rates,” in Proceedings of Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC’2000 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2000), Vol. 2, pp. 698–703.

Jivkova, S. T.

S. T. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Multi-spot diffusing configuration for wireless infrared access,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 970–978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Wireless infrared indoor communications: how to combat the multipath distortion,” in Optical Wireless Communications III, E. J. Korevaar, ed., Proc. SPIE4214, 162–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, M.

M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85, 265–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kavehrad, M.

M. R. Pakravan, M. Kavehrad, H. Hashemi, “Indoor wireless infrared channel characterization by measurements,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 50, 1053–1073 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Receiver designs and channel characterization for multi-spot high-bit-rate wireless infrared communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 2145–2153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Jeong, M. Kavehrad, S. Jivkova, “Broadband infrared access with a multi-spot diffusing configuration: performance,” Intl. J. Wireless Inf. Networks 8, 27–36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Holographic optical receiver front end for wireless infrared indoor communications,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2828–2835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Multi-spot diffusing configuration for wireless infrared access,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 970–978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Pakravan, M. Kavehrad, “Design considerations for broadband indoor infrared wireless communication systems,” Int. J. Wireless Inf. Networks 2, 223–238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Yun, M. Kavehrad, “Spot diffusing and fly-eye receivers for indoor infrared wireless communications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Selected Topics in Wireless Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 262–265.
[CrossRef]

K. Akhavan, M. Kavehrad, S. Jivkova, “Wireless infrared in-house communications: how to achieve very high bit rates,” in Proceedings of Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC’2000 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2000), Vol. 2, pp. 698–703.

K. Akhavan, M. Kavehrad, S. Jivkova, “Power-efficient transmission for high-speed wireless infrared local area networks,” presented at IEEE International Conference on Third Generation Wireless and Beyond, 30 May–2 June 2001, San Francisco, Calif.

M. Kavehrad, S. Jivkova, “Some recent advances in indoor broadband infrared wireless communications,” in Proceedings of the Fifth World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, SCI/ISAS’2001, (International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, Orlando, Fla., 2001), Vol. 4, pp. 421–426.

S. T. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Wireless infrared indoor communications: how to combat the multipath distortion,” in Optical Wireless Communications III, E. J. Korevaar, ed., Proc. SPIE4214, 162–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Indoor wireless infrared localaccess, multi-spot diffusing with computer generated holographic beam-splitter,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1999), Vol. 1, pp. 604–608.

Koleva, N.

V. Sainov, M. Mazakova, N. Koleva, “Characteristics of non-bleached reflection holograms,” C. R. Acad. Bulg. Sci. 34, 1241–1244 (1981).

Lomba, C.

C. Lomba, R. Valadas, A. Duarte, “Sectored receivers to combat the multipath dispersion of the indoor optical channel,” in Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 321–325.
[CrossRef]

Mazakova, M.

V. Sainov, M. Mazakova, N. Koleva, “Characteristics of non-bleached reflection holograms,” C. R. Acad. Bulg. Sci. 34, 1241–1244 (1981).

Neild, I.

D. Heatley, I. Neild, “Optical wireless: the promise and the reality,” IEEE Colloquium on Optical Wireless Communications (Institute of Electrical Engineers, Cambridge, UK, 1999), pp. 1/1–1/6.

Pakravan, M.

M. Pakravan, M. Kavehrad, “Design considerations for broadband indoor infrared wireless communication systems,” Int. J. Wireless Inf. Networks 2, 223–238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pakravan, M. R.

M. R. Pakravan, M. Kavehrad, H. Hashemi, “Indoor wireless infrared channel characterization by measurements,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 50, 1053–1073 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sainov, S.

V. Sainov, S. Sainov, H. Bjelkhagen, “Color reflection holography,” in Practical Holography, T. H. Jeong, J. E. Ludman, eds., Proc. SPIE615, 88–92 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sainov, V.

V. Sainov, M. Mazakova, N. Koleva, “Characteristics of non-bleached reflection holograms,” C. R. Acad. Bulg. Sci. 34, 1241–1244 (1981).

V. Sainov, “Basic characteristics and application of reflection holograms,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Display Holography, Lake Forest, College, Lake Forest, Ill., 1982), pp. 55–70.

V. Sainov, S. Sainov, H. Bjelkhagen, “Color reflection holography,” in Practical Holography, T. H. Jeong, J. E. Ludman, eds., Proc. SPIE615, 88–92 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Solymar, L.

L. Solymar, D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, New York, 1981).

Valadas, R.

C. Lomba, R. Valadas, A. Duarte, “Sectored receivers to combat the multipath dispersion of the indoor optical channel,” in Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 321–325.
[CrossRef]

Yun, G.

G. Yun, M. Kavehrad, “Spot diffusing and fly-eye receivers for indoor infrared wireless communications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Selected Topics in Wireless Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 262–265.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

C. R. Acad. Bulg. Sci. (1)

V. Sainov, M. Mazakova, N. Koleva, “Characteristics of non-bleached reflection holograms,” C. R. Acad. Bulg. Sci. 34, 1241–1244 (1981).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Receiver designs and channel characterization for multi-spot high-bit-rate wireless infrared communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 2145–2153 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Multi-spot diffusing configuration for wireless infrared access,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 970–978 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. (1)

M. R. Pakravan, M. Kavehrad, H. Hashemi, “Indoor wireless infrared channel characterization by measurements,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 50, 1053–1073 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Wireless Inf. Networks (1)

M. Pakravan, M. Kavehrad, “Design considerations for broadband indoor infrared wireless communication systems,” Int. J. Wireless Inf. Networks 2, 223–238 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Intl. J. Wireless Inf. Networks (1)

W. Jeong, M. Kavehrad, S. Jivkova, “Broadband infrared access with a multi-spot diffusing configuration: performance,” Intl. J. Wireless Inf. Networks 8, 27–36 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (2)

M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE 85, 265–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Gfeller, U. H. Bapst, “Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation,” Proc. IEEE 67, 1474–1486 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

J. R. Barry, Wireless Infrared Communications (Kluwer Academic, Boston, Mass., 1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Lomba, R. Valadas, A. Duarte, “Sectored receivers to combat the multipath dispersion of the indoor optical channel,” in Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1995), pp. 321–325.
[CrossRef]

D. Heatley, I. Neild, “Optical wireless: the promise and the reality,” IEEE Colloquium on Optical Wireless Communications (Institute of Electrical Engineers, Cambridge, UK, 1999), pp. 1/1–1/6.

G. Yun, M. Kavehrad, “Spot diffusing and fly-eye receivers for indoor infrared wireless communications,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Selected Topics in Wireless Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1992), pp. 262–265.
[CrossRef]

K. Akhavan, M. Kavehrad, S. Jivkova, “Power-efficient transmission for high-speed wireless infrared local area networks,” presented at IEEE International Conference on Third Generation Wireless and Beyond, 30 May–2 June 2001, San Francisco, Calif.

M. Kavehrad, S. Jivkova, “Some recent advances in indoor broadband infrared wireless communications,” in Proceedings of the Fifth World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, SCI/ISAS’2001, (International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, Orlando, Fla., 2001), Vol. 4, pp. 421–426.

K. Akhavan, M. Kavehrad, S. Jivkova, “Wireless infrared in-house communications: how to achieve very high bit rates,” in Proceedings of Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC’2000 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2000), Vol. 2, pp. 698–703.

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Indoor wireless infrared localaccess, multi-spot diffusing with computer generated holographic beam-splitter,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York, 1999), Vol. 1, pp. 604–608.

L. Solymar, D. J. Cooke, Volume Holography and Volume Gratings (Academic, New York, 1981).

S. T. Jivkova, M. Kavehrad, “Wireless infrared indoor communications: how to combat the multipath distortion,” in Optical Wireless Communications III, E. J. Korevaar, ed., Proc. SPIE4214, 162–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Sainov, “Basic characteristics and application of reflection holograms,” in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Display Holography, Lake Forest, College, Lake Forest, Ill., 1982), pp. 55–70.

V. Sainov, S. Sainov, H. Bjelkhagen, “Color reflection holography,” in Practical Holography, T. H. Jeong, J. E. Ludman, eds., Proc. SPIE615, 88–92 (1986).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Multispot diffusing configuration: T, transmitter; R, receiver.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Refractive and (b) holographic receiver optical front end.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical setup for recording of (a) an on-axis parabolic holographic mirror and (b) an off-axis parabolic holographic mirror.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular dependence of the optical power concentrated on a photodiode positioned at the focal plane of an off-axis parabolic holographic mirror.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photograph of the on-axis holographic parabolic mirror recorded at the CLOSPI, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission spectrum of the on-axis HPM measured one year after recording.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Angular dependence of the optical power concentrated on a photodiode positioned at the focal plane of an on-axis parabolic holographic mirror.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental arrangement for receiver optical front-end performance evaluation.

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