Abstract

The results of the development of a much simpler optical configuration for the long-trace profiler (LTP) are presented. The current technique employs a cyclic optical configuration to achieve zero optical path difference for the closely spaced, laterally separated laser beams. The accuracy of measurement is found to remain as good as that in the case of the widely used LTP, although the geometrical alignment problem is simplified significantly.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Freund, “Mirrors for synchrotron beamlines,” in Handbook of Optics III, M. Bass, J. M. Enoch, E. W. V. Stryland, W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001), pp. 26.3–26.8.
  2. P. Z. Takacs, K. Furenlid, R. A. DeBiasse, “Surface topography measurements over the 1 meter to 10 micrometer spatial period bandwidth,” in Surface Characterization and Testing II, J. E. Greivenkamp, M. Young, eds., Proc. SPIE1164, 203–211 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. C. Irick, “Determining surface profile from sequential interference patterns from a long trace profiler,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1432–1435 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Z. Takacs, S. Qian, “Metrology laboratory requirements for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurements for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 160–167 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. A. Paquin, M. R. Howells, “Mirror materials for synchrotron radiation optics,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurements for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 2–16 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Z. Takacs, S. Qian, J. Colbert, “Design of a long-trace surface profiler,” in Metrology, Figure and Finish, B. E. Truax, ed., Proc. SPIE749, 59–64 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Z. Takacs, S.-C. K. Feng, E. L. Church, S. Qian, W.-M. Liu, “Long trace profile measurement on cylindrical aspheres,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Optics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parks, eds., Proc. SPIE966, 354–364 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Von Bieren, “Pencil beam interferometer for aspherical optical surfaces,” in Laser Diagnostics, S. Holly, ed., Proc. SPIE343, 101–108 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Qian, W. Jark, P. Z. Takacs, “The penta-prism LTP: a long-trace-profiler with stationary optical head and moving penta-prism,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 2562–2569 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Qian, P. Z. Takacs, G. Sostero, D. Cocco, “Portable long trace profiler: concept and solution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3198–3204 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Qian, G. Sostero, P. Z. Takacs, “Precision calibration and systematic error reduction in the long trace profiler,” Opt. Eng. 39, 304–310 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Z. Takacs, E. L. Church, C. J. Bresloff, L. Assoufid, “Improvements in the accuracy and the repeatability of long trace profiler measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5468–5479 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Qian, W. Jark, G. Sostero, A. Gambitta, F. Mazzolini, A. Savoia, “Precise measuring method for detecting the in situ distortion profile of a high-heat-load mirror for synchrotron radiation by use of a penta prism long trace profiler,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3769–3775 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Li, P. Z. Takacs, T. Oversluizen, “Vertical scanning long trace profiler: a tool for metrology of x-ray mirrors,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurements for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 180–187 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Li, X. Li, M. W. Grindel, P. Z. Takacs, “Measurement of x-ray telescope mirrors using a vertical scanning long trace profiler,” Opt. Eng. 35, 330–338 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. V. R. K. Murty, “Lateral shearing interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 105–148.
  17. W. J. Smith, “Prisms and mirrors,” in Modern Optical Engineering, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1991), p. 97.

2001

S. Qian, P. Z. Takacs, G. Sostero, D. Cocco, “Portable long trace profiler: concept and solution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3198–3204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Qian, G. Sostero, P. Z. Takacs, “Precision calibration and systematic error reduction in the long trace profiler,” Opt. Eng. 39, 304–310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1997

1996

H. Li, X. Li, M. W. Grindel, P. Z. Takacs, “Measurement of x-ray telescope mirrors using a vertical scanning long trace profiler,” Opt. Eng. 35, 330–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. Qian, W. Jark, P. Z. Takacs, “The penta-prism LTP: a long-trace-profiler with stationary optical head and moving penta-prism,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 2562–2569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. C. Irick, “Determining surface profile from sequential interference patterns from a long trace profiler,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1432–1435 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Assoufid, L.

Bresloff, C. J.

Church, E. L.

P. Z. Takacs, E. L. Church, C. J. Bresloff, L. Assoufid, “Improvements in the accuracy and the repeatability of long trace profiler measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5468–5479 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Takacs, S.-C. K. Feng, E. L. Church, S. Qian, W.-M. Liu, “Long trace profile measurement on cylindrical aspheres,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Optics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parks, eds., Proc. SPIE966, 354–364 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cocco, D.

S. Qian, P. Z. Takacs, G. Sostero, D. Cocco, “Portable long trace profiler: concept and solution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3198–3204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Colbert, J.

P. Z. Takacs, S. Qian, J. Colbert, “Design of a long-trace surface profiler,” in Metrology, Figure and Finish, B. E. Truax, ed., Proc. SPIE749, 59–64 (1987).
[CrossRef]

DeBiasse, R. A.

P. Z. Takacs, K. Furenlid, R. A. DeBiasse, “Surface topography measurements over the 1 meter to 10 micrometer spatial period bandwidth,” in Surface Characterization and Testing II, J. E. Greivenkamp, M. Young, eds., Proc. SPIE1164, 203–211 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Feng, S.-C. K.

P. Z. Takacs, S.-C. K. Feng, E. L. Church, S. Qian, W.-M. Liu, “Long trace profile measurement on cylindrical aspheres,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Optics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parks, eds., Proc. SPIE966, 354–364 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Freund, A.

A. Freund, “Mirrors for synchrotron beamlines,” in Handbook of Optics III, M. Bass, J. M. Enoch, E. W. V. Stryland, W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001), pp. 26.3–26.8.

Furenlid, K.

P. Z. Takacs, K. Furenlid, R. A. DeBiasse, “Surface topography measurements over the 1 meter to 10 micrometer spatial period bandwidth,” in Surface Characterization and Testing II, J. E. Greivenkamp, M. Young, eds., Proc. SPIE1164, 203–211 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gambitta, A.

Grindel, M. W.

H. Li, X. Li, M. W. Grindel, P. Z. Takacs, “Measurement of x-ray telescope mirrors using a vertical scanning long trace profiler,” Opt. Eng. 35, 330–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Howells, M. R.

R. A. Paquin, M. R. Howells, “Mirror materials for synchrotron radiation optics,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurements for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 2–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Irick, S. C.

S. C. Irick, “Determining surface profile from sequential interference patterns from a long trace profiler,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1432–1435 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jark, W.

Li, H.

H. Li, X. Li, M. W. Grindel, P. Z. Takacs, “Measurement of x-ray telescope mirrors using a vertical scanning long trace profiler,” Opt. Eng. 35, 330–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, P. Z. Takacs, T. Oversluizen, “Vertical scanning long trace profiler: a tool for metrology of x-ray mirrors,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurements for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 180–187 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

H. Li, X. Li, M. W. Grindel, P. Z. Takacs, “Measurement of x-ray telescope mirrors using a vertical scanning long trace profiler,” Opt. Eng. 35, 330–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.-M.

P. Z. Takacs, S.-C. K. Feng, E. L. Church, S. Qian, W.-M. Liu, “Long trace profile measurement on cylindrical aspheres,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Optics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parks, eds., Proc. SPIE966, 354–364 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mazzolini, F.

Murty, M. V. R. K.

M. V. R. K. Murty, “Lateral shearing interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 105–148.

Oversluizen, T.

H. Li, P. Z. Takacs, T. Oversluizen, “Vertical scanning long trace profiler: a tool for metrology of x-ray mirrors,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurements for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 180–187 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Paquin, R. A.

R. A. Paquin, M. R. Howells, “Mirror materials for synchrotron radiation optics,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurements for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 2–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Qian, S.

S. Qian, P. Z. Takacs, G. Sostero, D. Cocco, “Portable long trace profiler: concept and solution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3198–3204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Qian, G. Sostero, P. Z. Takacs, “Precision calibration and systematic error reduction in the long trace profiler,” Opt. Eng. 39, 304–310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Qian, W. Jark, G. Sostero, A. Gambitta, F. Mazzolini, A. Savoia, “Precise measuring method for detecting the in situ distortion profile of a high-heat-load mirror for synchrotron radiation by use of a penta prism long trace profiler,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3769–3775 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Qian, W. Jark, P. Z. Takacs, “The penta-prism LTP: a long-trace-profiler with stationary optical head and moving penta-prism,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 2562–2569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Takacs, S. Qian, J. Colbert, “Design of a long-trace surface profiler,” in Metrology, Figure and Finish, B. E. Truax, ed., Proc. SPIE749, 59–64 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Takacs, S.-C. K. Feng, E. L. Church, S. Qian, W.-M. Liu, “Long trace profile measurement on cylindrical aspheres,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Optics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parks, eds., Proc. SPIE966, 354–364 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Takacs, S. Qian, “Metrology laboratory requirements for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurements for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 160–167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Savoia, A.

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, “Prisms and mirrors,” in Modern Optical Engineering, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1991), p. 97.

Sostero, G.

S. Qian, P. Z. Takacs, G. Sostero, D. Cocco, “Portable long trace profiler: concept and solution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3198–3204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Qian, G. Sostero, P. Z. Takacs, “Precision calibration and systematic error reduction in the long trace profiler,” Opt. Eng. 39, 304–310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Qian, W. Jark, G. Sostero, A. Gambitta, F. Mazzolini, A. Savoia, “Precise measuring method for detecting the in situ distortion profile of a high-heat-load mirror for synchrotron radiation by use of a penta prism long trace profiler,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3769–3775 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takacs, P. Z.

S. Qian, P. Z. Takacs, G. Sostero, D. Cocco, “Portable long trace profiler: concept and solution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3198–3204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Qian, G. Sostero, P. Z. Takacs, “Precision calibration and systematic error reduction in the long trace profiler,” Opt. Eng. 39, 304–310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Takacs, E. L. Church, C. J. Bresloff, L. Assoufid, “Improvements in the accuracy and the repeatability of long trace profiler measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5468–5479 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, X. Li, M. W. Grindel, P. Z. Takacs, “Measurement of x-ray telescope mirrors using a vertical scanning long trace profiler,” Opt. Eng. 35, 330–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Qian, W. Jark, P. Z. Takacs, “The penta-prism LTP: a long-trace-profiler with stationary optical head and moving penta-prism,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 2562–2569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Takacs, S. Qian, J. Colbert, “Design of a long-trace surface profiler,” in Metrology, Figure and Finish, B. E. Truax, ed., Proc. SPIE749, 59–64 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Takacs, S. Qian, “Metrology laboratory requirements for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurements for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 160–167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Takacs, K. Furenlid, R. A. DeBiasse, “Surface topography measurements over the 1 meter to 10 micrometer spatial period bandwidth,” in Surface Characterization and Testing II, J. E. Greivenkamp, M. Young, eds., Proc. SPIE1164, 203–211 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Takacs, S.-C. K. Feng, E. L. Church, S. Qian, W.-M. Liu, “Long trace profile measurement on cylindrical aspheres,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Optics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parks, eds., Proc. SPIE966, 354–364 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, P. Z. Takacs, T. Oversluizen, “Vertical scanning long trace profiler: a tool for metrology of x-ray mirrors,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurements for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 180–187 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Von Bieren, K.

K. Von Bieren, “Pencil beam interferometer for aspherical optical surfaces,” in Laser Diagnostics, S. Holly, ed., Proc. SPIE343, 101–108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Eng.

H. Li, X. Li, M. W. Grindel, P. Z. Takacs, “Measurement of x-ray telescope mirrors using a vertical scanning long trace profiler,” Opt. Eng. 35, 330–338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Qian, G. Sostero, P. Z. Takacs, “Precision calibration and systematic error reduction in the long trace profiler,” Opt. Eng. 39, 304–310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

S. C. Irick, “Determining surface profile from sequential interference patterns from a long trace profiler,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 1432–1435 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Qian, W. Jark, P. Z. Takacs, “The penta-prism LTP: a long-trace-profiler with stationary optical head and moving penta-prism,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 2562–2569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Qian, P. Z. Takacs, G. Sostero, D. Cocco, “Portable long trace profiler: concept and solution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3198–3204 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Freund, “Mirrors for synchrotron beamlines,” in Handbook of Optics III, M. Bass, J. M. Enoch, E. W. V. Stryland, W. L. Wolfe, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001), pp. 26.3–26.8.

P. Z. Takacs, K. Furenlid, R. A. DeBiasse, “Surface topography measurements over the 1 meter to 10 micrometer spatial period bandwidth,” in Surface Characterization and Testing II, J. E. Greivenkamp, M. Young, eds., Proc. SPIE1164, 203–211 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Takacs, S. Qian, “Metrology laboratory requirements for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurements for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 160–167 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Paquin, M. R. Howells, “Mirror materials for synchrotron radiation optics,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurements for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 2–16 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Takacs, S. Qian, J. Colbert, “Design of a long-trace surface profiler,” in Metrology, Figure and Finish, B. E. Truax, ed., Proc. SPIE749, 59–64 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. Z. Takacs, S.-C. K. Feng, E. L. Church, S. Qian, W.-M. Liu, “Long trace profile measurement on cylindrical aspheres,” in Advances in Fabrication and Metrology for Optics and Large Optics, J. B. Arnold, R. E. Parks, eds., Proc. SPIE966, 354–364 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Von Bieren, “Pencil beam interferometer for aspherical optical surfaces,” in Laser Diagnostics, S. Holly, ed., Proc. SPIE343, 101–108 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. V. R. K. Murty, “Lateral shearing interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 105–148.

W. J. Smith, “Prisms and mirrors,” in Modern Optical Engineering, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1991), p. 97.

H. Li, P. Z. Takacs, T. Oversluizen, “Vertical scanning long trace profiler: a tool for metrology of x-ray mirrors,” in Materials, Manufacturing and Measurements for Synchrotron Radiation Mirrors, P. Z. Takacs, T. W. Tonnessen, eds., Proc. SPIE3152, 180–187 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical schematic of the LTP with cyclic optical configuration. QWP, quarter-wave plate; M, mirror; PP, pentaprism; HWP, half-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; PL, parallel plate; FT, Fourier transform lens; FL, focal plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Technique for obtaining zero optical path difference, closely spaced parallel beams by longitudinal shifting of mirrors. PBS, polarizing beam splitter; M, mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Principle of slope measurement. FT, Fourier transform lens.

Equations (1)

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D=2t sin I 1- 1-sin2 I/μ2-sin2 I

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