Abstract

Angular scattering properties of ice crystal particles generated in a laboratory cloud chamber are measured with a lightweight polar nephelometer with a diode laser beam. This cloud chamber produces distinct plate and hollow column ice crystal types for light-scattering experiments and provides a controlled test bed for comparison with results computed from theory. Ice clouds composed predominantly of plates and hollow columns generated noticeable 22° and 46° halo patterns, which are predicted from geometric ray-tracing calculations. With the measured ice crystal shape and size distribution, the angular scattering patterns computed from geometrical optics with a significant contribution by rough surfaces closely match those observed from the nephelometer.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2001

2000

S. Oshchepkov, H. Isaka, J. F. Gayet, A. Sinyuk, F. Auriol, S. Havemann, “Microphysical properties of mixed-phase and ice clouds retrieved from in situ airborne ‘polar nephelometer’ measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 209–212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Rolland, K. N. Liou, M. D. King, S. C. Tsay, G. M. McFarquhar, “Remote sensing of optical and microphysical properties of cirrus clouds using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer channels: methodology and sensitivity to physical assumptions,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11721–11738 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Single-scattering properties of complex ice crystals in terrestrial atmosphere,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 71, 223–248 (1998).

R. P. Lawson, A. J. Heymsfield, S. M. Aulenbach, T. L. Jensen, “Shapes, sizes and light scattering properties of ice crystals in cirrus and a persistent contrail during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1331–1334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

1989

Y. Takano, K. N. Liou, “Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. I: Single-scattering and optical properties of hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3–19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

1986

K. N. Liou, “Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes: a global perspective,” Mon. Weather Rev. 114, 1167–1199 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1979

K. Sassen, K. N. Liou, “Scattering of polarized laser light by water droplet, mixed-phase and ice crystal clouds. Part I: Angular scattering patterns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 838–851 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Arnott, W. P.

Aulenbach, S. M.

R. P. Lawson, A. J. Heymsfield, S. M. Aulenbach, T. L. Jensen, “Shapes, sizes and light scattering properties of ice crystals in cirrus and a persistent contrail during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1331–1334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Auriol, F.

S. Oshchepkov, H. Isaka, J. F. Gayet, A. Sinyuk, F. Auriol, S. Havemann, “Microphysical properties of mixed-phase and ice clouds retrieved from in situ airborne ‘polar nephelometer’ measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 209–212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barkey, B.

Cross, J. D.

J. D. Cross, “Study of the surface of ice with a scanning electron microscope,” in Physics of Ice: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Physics of Ice, N. Riehl, B. Bullemer, H. Engelhardt, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1969), pp. 81–94.

Dong, Ya Y.

Gayet, J. F.

S. Oshchepkov, H. Isaka, J. F. Gayet, A. Sinyuk, F. Auriol, S. Havemann, “Microphysical properties of mixed-phase and ice clouds retrieved from in situ airborne ‘polar nephelometer’ measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 209–212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hallett, J.

Havemann, S.

S. Oshchepkov, H. Isaka, J. F. Gayet, A. Sinyuk, F. Auriol, S. Havemann, “Microphysical properties of mixed-phase and ice clouds retrieved from in situ airborne ‘polar nephelometer’ measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 209–212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heymsfield, A. J.

R. P. Lawson, A. J. Heymsfield, S. M. Aulenbach, T. L. Jensen, “Shapes, sizes and light scattering properties of ice crystals in cirrus and a persistent contrail during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1331–1334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Isaka, H.

S. Oshchepkov, H. Isaka, J. F. Gayet, A. Sinyuk, F. Auriol, S. Havemann, “Microphysical properties of mixed-phase and ice clouds retrieved from in situ airborne ‘polar nephelometer’ measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 209–212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T. L.

R. P. Lawson, A. J. Heymsfield, S. M. Aulenbach, T. L. Jensen, “Shapes, sizes and light scattering properties of ice crystals in cirrus and a persistent contrail during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1331–1334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

P. Rolland, K. N. Liou, M. D. King, S. C. Tsay, G. M. McFarquhar, “Remote sensing of optical and microphysical properties of cirrus clouds using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer channels: methodology and sensitivity to physical assumptions,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11721–11738 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klett, J. D.

J. D. Klett, “Orientation model for particles in turbulence,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 2276–2285 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Pruppacher, J. D. Klett, Microphysics of Clouds and Radiation (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1980), p. 40.

Lawson, R. P.

R. P. Lawson, A. J. Heymsfield, S. M. Aulenbach, T. L. Jensen, “Shapes, sizes and light scattering properties of ice crystals in cirrus and a persistent contrail during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1331–1334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liou, K. N.

B. Barkey, K. N. Liou, “Polar nephelometer for light-scattering measurements of ice crystals,” Opt. Lett. 26, 232–234 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Rolland, K. N. Liou, M. D. King, S. C. Tsay, G. M. McFarquhar, “Remote sensing of optical and microphysical properties of cirrus clouds using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer channels: methodology and sensitivity to physical assumptions,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11721–11738 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Single-scattering properties of complex ice crystals in terrestrial atmosphere,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 71, 223–248 (1998).

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “A geometric-optics integral-equation method for light scattering by nonspherical ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6568–6584 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takano, K. N. Liou, “Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. I: Single-scattering and optical properties of hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3–19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Liou, “Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes: a global perspective,” Mon. Weather Rev. 114, 1167–1199 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, K. N. Liou, “Scattering of polarized laser light by water droplet, mixed-phase and ice crystal clouds. Part I: Angular scattering patterns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 838–851 (1979).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Liou, Radiation and Cloud Processes in the Atmosphere: Theory, Observation and Modeling (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1992).

McFarquhar, G. M.

P. Rolland, K. N. Liou, M. D. King, S. C. Tsay, G. M. McFarquhar, “Remote sensing of optical and microphysical properties of cirrus clouds using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer channels: methodology and sensitivity to physical assumptions,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11721–11738 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oshchepkov, S.

S. Oshchepkov, H. Isaka, J. F. Gayet, A. Sinyuk, F. Auriol, S. Havemann, “Microphysical properties of mixed-phase and ice clouds retrieved from in situ airborne ‘polar nephelometer’ measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 209–212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pluchino, A.

Pruppacher, H. R.

H. R. Pruppacher, J. D. Klett, Microphysics of Clouds and Radiation (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1980), p. 40.

Rolland, P.

P. Rolland, K. N. Liou, M. D. King, S. C. Tsay, G. M. McFarquhar, “Remote sensing of optical and microphysical properties of cirrus clouds using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer channels: methodology and sensitivity to physical assumptions,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11721–11738 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sassen, K.

K. Sassen, K. N. Liou, “Scattering of polarized laser light by water droplet, mixed-phase and ice crystal clouds. Part I: Angular scattering patterns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 838–851 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sinyuk, A.

S. Oshchepkov, H. Isaka, J. F. Gayet, A. Sinyuk, F. Auriol, S. Havemann, “Microphysical properties of mixed-phase and ice clouds retrieved from in situ airborne ‘polar nephelometer’ measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 209–212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takano, Y.

Y. Takano, K. N. Liou, “Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. I: Single-scattering and optical properties of hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3–19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, S. C.

P. Rolland, K. N. Liou, M. D. King, S. C. Tsay, G. M. McFarquhar, “Remote sensing of optical and microphysical properties of cirrus clouds using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer channels: methodology and sensitivity to physical assumptions,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11721–11738 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1957), Chap. 5.

Yang, P.

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Single-scattering properties of complex ice crystals in terrestrial atmosphere,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 71, 223–248 (1998).

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “A geometric-optics integral-equation method for light scattering by nonspherical ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6568–6584 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Contrib. Atmos. Phys.

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Single-scattering properties of complex ice crystals in terrestrial atmosphere,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 71, 223–248 (1998).

Geophys. Res. Lett.

S. Oshchepkov, H. Isaka, J. F. Gayet, A. Sinyuk, F. Auriol, S. Havemann, “Microphysical properties of mixed-phase and ice clouds retrieved from in situ airborne ‘polar nephelometer’ measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 209–212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Lawson, A. J. Heymsfield, S. M. Aulenbach, T. L. Jensen, “Shapes, sizes and light scattering properties of ice crystals in cirrus and a persistent contrail during SUCCESS,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1331–1334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

K. Sassen, K. N. Liou, “Scattering of polarized laser light by water droplet, mixed-phase and ice crystal clouds. Part I: Angular scattering patterns,” J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 838–851 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takano, K. N. Liou, “Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. I: Single-scattering and optical properties of hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3–19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Klett, “Orientation model for particles in turbulence,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 2276–2285 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

P. Rolland, K. N. Liou, M. D. King, S. C. Tsay, G. M. McFarquhar, “Remote sensing of optical and microphysical properties of cirrus clouds using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer channels: methodology and sensitivity to physical assumptions,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11721–11738 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Mon. Weather Rev.

K. N. Liou, “Influence of cirrus clouds on weather and climate processes: a global perspective,” Mon. Weather Rev. 114, 1167–1199 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

K. N. Liou, Radiation and Cloud Processes in the Atmosphere: Theory, Observation and Modeling (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1992).

H. R. Pruppacher, J. D. Klett, Microphysics of Clouds and Radiation (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1980), p. 40.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1957), Chap. 5.

J. D. Cross, “Study of the surface of ice with a scanning electron microscope,” in Physics of Ice: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Physics of Ice, N. Riehl, B. Bullemer, H. Engelhardt, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1969), pp. 81–94.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Physical layout of the polar nephelometer showing how the laser beam intersects the falling ice crystals confined to the center of the fiber-optic coupled detector array by the sample tube with a 3-mm inside diameter. Not shown are the light absorbers placed above and below the scattering plane to minimize the effect of secondary internal reflections.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Water droplets are injected into the top of the growth column and nucleated near the center. The cloud scope and polar nephelometer are placed in the cold chamber at the bottom of the growth column.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top plot is the two-dimensional angular scattering intensities measured by the polar nephelometer when predominantly plates and small columns are seen, as shown in the lower video cloud-scope image. The particle count is summarized in the histogram. The white area that can be seen in the middle of the image is due to the cloud-scope light source.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as Fig. 3, except for a case in which columnar shapes were seen by the cloud scope.

Equations (1)

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Ce=3a223+4L2a,

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