Abstract

The derivation of radiometric specifications for imaging spectrometers from the visible to the short-wave infrared part of the spectrum is a task based on the requirements of potential scientific applications. A method for modeling the noise equivalent radiance at-sensor level is proposed. The model starts with surface reflectance signatures, transforms them to at-sensor signatures, and combines signatures of various applications with regard to performance requirements. The wavelength-dependent delta radiances are then derived at predefined radiance levels by use of a model of the sensor performance. The model is applied with regard to the upcoming Airborne Prism Experiment imaging spectrometer system. A combination of various potential application disciplines forms the basis of the experiment. The results help in the definition of radiometric levels for laboratory calibration of the noise equivalent radiance levels, the quantization of the signal, and the spectral range of an instrument to be designed.

© 2002 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. I. Itten, M. Schaepman, L. De Vos, L. Hermans, H. Schlaepfer, F. Droz, “APEX: Airborne Prism Experiment, a new concept for an airborne imaging spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the Third International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition, B. J. Petoskey, ed. (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan International, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 181–188.
  2. M. Schaepman, S. Dangel, “Solid laboratory calibration of a nonimaging spectroradiometer,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3754–3764 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. Schläpfer, M. Schaepman, S. Bojinski, A. Börner, “Calibration concept for the airborne PRISM Experiment (APEX),” Can. J. Remote Sens. 26, 455–465 (2000).
  4. R. Richter, “Model SENSAT: a tool for evaluating the system performance of optical sensors,” in Propagation Engineering III, L. R. Bissonnette, W. B. Miller eds., Proc. SPIE1312, 286–297 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, M. Schaepman, D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Blonski, C. Cao, J. Gasser, R. Ryan, V. Zanoni, T. Stanley, “Satellite hyperspectral imaging simulation,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (ISSSR) 1999, A. J. Bruzewicz ed. (U.S. Corps of Engineers, Hanover, N.H.2000), CD-ROM.
  7. R. Richter, D. Schläpfer, “Geo-atmospheric processing of airborne imaging spectrometry data. Part 2: atmospheric topographic correction,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2609–2630 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  8. G. P. Asner, C. A. Wessman, D. S. Schimel, S. Archer, “Variability in leaf and litter optical properties: implications for BRDF model inversions using AVHRR, MODIS, and MISR,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 243–257 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. H. Weiss, H. Chauki, D. Troufleau, F. Baret, “Coupling canopy functioning and canopy radiative transfer models for remote sensing data assimilation,” Agric. Forest Meteorol. 108(2), 113–128 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, MODTRAN: a Moderate Resolution Model for LOWTRAN7, GL-TR-89-0122 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1989).
  11. D. Schläpfer, “MODO: an interface to MODTRAN for the simulation of imaging spectrometry at-sensor signals,” in Proceedings of the Tenth Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne Earth Science Workshop, R. Green, ed. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 2001), JPL 02-1, pp. 343–350.
  12. H. J. Kostowski, Reliable Spectroradiometry (Spectroradiometry Consulting, La Plata, Md., 1997), ISBN 0-9657713-0-X, 1997), pp. 276 ff.
  13. M. Schaepman, D. Schläpfer, K. Itten, P. Strobl, W. Mooshuber, A. Müller, W. Debruyn, I. Reusen, D. Fransaer, “Performance and calibration requirements for APEX,” Final Report ESA/ESTEC Contract 14906/00/NL/DC (Remote Sensing Laboratories, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2001), CD-ROM.
  14. S. Jacquemoud, F. Baret, “PROSPECT: a model of leaf optical properties spectra,” Remote Sens. Environ. 34, 75–91 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  15. W. Verhoef, “Light scattering by leaf layers with application to canopy reflectance modeling: the SAIL model,” Remote Sens. Environ. 16, 125–141 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. P. Asner, “Biophysical and biochemical sources of variability in canopy reflectance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 64, 234–253 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  17. P. Keller, Imaging Spectroscopy of Lake Water Quality Parameters, Vol. 32 of Remote Sensing Series (Remote Sensing Laboratories, University of Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland, 2001).
  18. T. H. Painter, D. A. Roberts, R. O. Green, J. Dozier, “Improving mixture analysis estimates of snow-covered-area from AVIRIS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 320–332 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. W. Boardman, “Inversion of high spectral resolution data,” in Imaging Spectroscopy of the Terrestrial Environment, G. Vane, ed., Proc. SPIE1298, 222–233 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  20. D. Schläpfer, Differential Absorption Methodology for Imaging Spectroscopy of Atmospheric Water Vapor, Vol. 32 of Remote Sensing Series (Remote Sensing Laboratories, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 1998).
  21. D. J. Diner, C. J. Brügge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. Lilienthal, D. J. Nakamoto, R. J. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multiangle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 200–214 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  22. R. G. Isaacs, W.-C. Wang, R. D. Worsham, S. Goldenberg, “Multiple scattering LOWTRAN and FASCODE models,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1272–1281 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. SPECTRA: Surface Processes and Ecosystem Changes through Response Analysis, ESA SP-1257(5) Reports for assessment: the five earth explorer core missions (European Space Agency, Paris, 2001).

2002 (1)

R. Richter, D. Schläpfer, “Geo-atmospheric processing of airborne imaging spectrometry data. Part 2: atmospheric topographic correction,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2609–2630 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

M. H. Weiss, H. Chauki, D. Troufleau, F. Baret, “Coupling canopy functioning and canopy radiative transfer models for remote sensing data assimilation,” Agric. Forest Meteorol. 108(2), 113–128 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, M. Schaepman, D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

M. Schaepman, S. Dangel, “Solid laboratory calibration of a nonimaging spectroradiometer,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3754–3764 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. Schläpfer, M. Schaepman, S. Bojinski, A. Börner, “Calibration concept for the airborne PRISM Experiment (APEX),” Can. J. Remote Sens. 26, 455–465 (2000).

1998 (3)

G. P. Asner, C. A. Wessman, D. S. Schimel, S. Archer, “Variability in leaf and litter optical properties: implications for BRDF model inversions using AVHRR, MODIS, and MISR,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 243–257 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. P. Asner, “Biophysical and biochemical sources of variability in canopy reflectance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 64, 234–253 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. H. Painter, D. A. Roberts, R. O. Green, J. Dozier, “Improving mixture analysis estimates of snow-covered-area from AVIRIS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 320–332 (1998).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

S. Jacquemoud, F. Baret, “PROSPECT: a model of leaf optical properties spectra,” Remote Sens. Environ. 34, 75–91 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

D. J. Diner, C. J. Brügge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. Lilienthal, D. J. Nakamoto, R. J. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multiangle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 200–214 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

1984 (1)

W. Verhoef, “Light scattering by leaf layers with application to canopy reflectance modeling: the SAIL model,” Remote Sens. Environ. 16, 125–141 (1984).
[Crossref]

Ackerman, T. P.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Brügge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. Lilienthal, D. J. Nakamoto, R. J. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multiangle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 200–214 (1989).
[Crossref]

Archer, S.

G. P. Asner, C. A. Wessman, D. S. Schimel, S. Archer, “Variability in leaf and litter optical properties: implications for BRDF model inversions using AVHRR, MODIS, and MISR,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 243–257 (1998).
[Crossref]

Asner, G. P.

G. P. Asner, C. A. Wessman, D. S. Schimel, S. Archer, “Variability in leaf and litter optical properties: implications for BRDF model inversions using AVHRR, MODIS, and MISR,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 243–257 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. P. Asner, “Biophysical and biochemical sources of variability in canopy reflectance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 64, 234–253 (1998).
[Crossref]

Baret, F.

M. H. Weiss, H. Chauki, D. Troufleau, F. Baret, “Coupling canopy functioning and canopy radiative transfer models for remote sensing data assimilation,” Agric. Forest Meteorol. 108(2), 113–128 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Jacquemoud, F. Baret, “PROSPECT: a model of leaf optical properties spectra,” Remote Sens. Environ. 34, 75–91 (1990).
[Crossref]

Berk, A.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, MODTRAN: a Moderate Resolution Model for LOWTRAN7, GL-TR-89-0122 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1989).

Bernstein, L. S.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, MODTRAN: a Moderate Resolution Model for LOWTRAN7, GL-TR-89-0122 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1989).

Blonski, S.

S. Blonski, C. Cao, J. Gasser, R. Ryan, V. Zanoni, T. Stanley, “Satellite hyperspectral imaging simulation,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (ISSSR) 1999, A. J. Bruzewicz ed. (U.S. Corps of Engineers, Hanover, N.H.2000), CD-ROM.

Boardman, J. W.

J. W. Boardman, “Inversion of high spectral resolution data,” in Imaging Spectroscopy of the Terrestrial Environment, G. Vane, ed., Proc. SPIE1298, 222–233 (1990).
[Crossref]

Bojinski, S.

D. Schläpfer, M. Schaepman, S. Bojinski, A. Börner, “Calibration concept for the airborne PRISM Experiment (APEX),” Can. J. Remote Sens. 26, 455–465 (2000).

Börner, A.

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, M. Schaepman, D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Schläpfer, M. Schaepman, S. Bojinski, A. Börner, “Calibration concept for the airborne PRISM Experiment (APEX),” Can. J. Remote Sens. 26, 455–465 (2000).

Brügge, C. J.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Brügge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. Lilienthal, D. J. Nakamoto, R. J. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multiangle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 200–214 (1989).
[Crossref]

Cao, C.

S. Blonski, C. Cao, J. Gasser, R. Ryan, V. Zanoni, T. Stanley, “Satellite hyperspectral imaging simulation,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (ISSSR) 1999, A. J. Bruzewicz ed. (U.S. Corps of Engineers, Hanover, N.H.2000), CD-ROM.

Chauki, H.

M. H. Weiss, H. Chauki, D. Troufleau, F. Baret, “Coupling canopy functioning and canopy radiative transfer models for remote sensing data assimilation,” Agric. Forest Meteorol. 108(2), 113–128 (2001).
[Crossref]

Clark, J.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Brügge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. Lilienthal, D. J. Nakamoto, R. J. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multiangle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 200–214 (1989).
[Crossref]

Dangel, S.

Daniels, J. A.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Brügge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. Lilienthal, D. J. Nakamoto, R. J. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multiangle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 200–214 (1989).
[Crossref]

Danielson, E. D.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Brügge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. Lilienthal, D. J. Nakamoto, R. J. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multiangle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 200–214 (1989).
[Crossref]

Davies, R.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Brügge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. Lilienthal, D. J. Nakamoto, R. J. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multiangle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 200–214 (1989).
[Crossref]

De Vos, L.

K. I. Itten, M. Schaepman, L. De Vos, L. Hermans, H. Schlaepfer, F. Droz, “APEX: Airborne Prism Experiment, a new concept for an airborne imaging spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the Third International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition, B. J. Petoskey, ed. (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan International, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 181–188.

Debruyn, W.

M. Schaepman, D. Schläpfer, K. Itten, P. Strobl, W. Mooshuber, A. Müller, W. Debruyn, I. Reusen, D. Fransaer, “Performance and calibration requirements for APEX,” Final Report ESA/ESTEC Contract 14906/00/NL/DC (Remote Sensing Laboratories, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2001), CD-ROM.

Diner, D. J.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Brügge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. Lilienthal, D. J. Nakamoto, R. J. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multiangle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 200–214 (1989).
[Crossref]

Dozier, J.

T. H. Painter, D. A. Roberts, R. O. Green, J. Dozier, “Improving mixture analysis estimates of snow-covered-area from AVIRIS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 320–332 (1998).
[Crossref]

Droz, F.

K. I. Itten, M. Schaepman, L. De Vos, L. Hermans, H. Schlaepfer, F. Droz, “APEX: Airborne Prism Experiment, a new concept for an airborne imaging spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the Third International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition, B. J. Petoskey, ed. (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan International, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 181–188.

Duval, V. G.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Brügge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. Lilienthal, D. J. Nakamoto, R. J. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multiangle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 200–214 (1989).
[Crossref]

Fransaer, D.

M. Schaepman, D. Schläpfer, K. Itten, P. Strobl, W. Mooshuber, A. Müller, W. Debruyn, I. Reusen, D. Fransaer, “Performance and calibration requirements for APEX,” Final Report ESA/ESTEC Contract 14906/00/NL/DC (Remote Sensing Laboratories, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2001), CD-ROM.

Gasser, J.

S. Blonski, C. Cao, J. Gasser, R. Ryan, V. Zanoni, T. Stanley, “Satellite hyperspectral imaging simulation,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (ISSSR) 1999, A. J. Bruzewicz ed. (U.S. Corps of Engineers, Hanover, N.H.2000), CD-ROM.

Gerstl, S. A. W.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Brügge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. Lilienthal, D. J. Nakamoto, R. J. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multiangle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 200–214 (1989).
[Crossref]

Goldenberg, S.

Gordon, H. R.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Brügge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. Lilienthal, D. J. Nakamoto, R. J. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multiangle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 200–214 (1989).
[Crossref]

Green, R. O.

T. H. Painter, D. A. Roberts, R. O. Green, J. Dozier, “Improving mixture analysis estimates of snow-covered-area from AVIRIS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 320–332 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Weiss, M.

M. H. Weiss, H. Chauki, D. Troufleau, F. Baret, “Coupling canopy functioning and canopy radiative transfer models for remote sensing data assimilation,” Agric. Forest Meteorol. 108(2), 113–128 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hermans, L.

K. I. Itten, M. Schaepman, L. De Vos, L. Hermans, H. Schlaepfer, F. Droz, “APEX: Airborne Prism Experiment, a new concept for an airborne imaging spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the Third International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition, B. J. Petoskey, ed. (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan International, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 181–188.

Isaacs, R. G.

Itten, K.

M. Schaepman, D. Schläpfer, K. Itten, P. Strobl, W. Mooshuber, A. Müller, W. Debruyn, I. Reusen, D. Fransaer, “Performance and calibration requirements for APEX,” Final Report ESA/ESTEC Contract 14906/00/NL/DC (Remote Sensing Laboratories, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2001), CD-ROM.

Itten, K. I.

K. I. Itten, M. Schaepman, L. De Vos, L. Hermans, H. Schlaepfer, F. Droz, “APEX: Airborne Prism Experiment, a new concept for an airborne imaging spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the Third International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition, B. J. Petoskey, ed. (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan International, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 181–188.

Jacquemoud, S.

S. Jacquemoud, F. Baret, “PROSPECT: a model of leaf optical properties spectra,” Remote Sens. Environ. 34, 75–91 (1990).
[Crossref]

Keller, P.

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, M. Schaepman, D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Keller, Imaging Spectroscopy of Lake Water Quality Parameters, Vol. 32 of Remote Sensing Series (Remote Sensing Laboratories, University of Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland, 2001).

Klaasen, K. P.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Brügge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. Lilienthal, D. J. Nakamoto, R. J. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multiangle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 200–214 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kostowski, H. J.

H. J. Kostowski, Reliable Spectroradiometry (Spectroradiometry Consulting, La Plata, Md., 1997), ISBN 0-9657713-0-X, 1997), pp. 276 ff.

Lilienthal, G. W.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Brügge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. Lilienthal, D. J. Nakamoto, R. J. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multiangle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 200–214 (1989).
[Crossref]

Martonchik, J. V.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Brügge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. Lilienthal, D. J. Nakamoto, R. J. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multiangle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 200–214 (1989).
[Crossref]

Mooshuber, W.

M. Schaepman, D. Schläpfer, K. Itten, P. Strobl, W. Mooshuber, A. Müller, W. Debruyn, I. Reusen, D. Fransaer, “Performance and calibration requirements for APEX,” Final Report ESA/ESTEC Contract 14906/00/NL/DC (Remote Sensing Laboratories, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2001), CD-ROM.

Müller, A.

M. Schaepman, D. Schläpfer, K. Itten, P. Strobl, W. Mooshuber, A. Müller, W. Debruyn, I. Reusen, D. Fransaer, “Performance and calibration requirements for APEX,” Final Report ESA/ESTEC Contract 14906/00/NL/DC (Remote Sensing Laboratories, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2001), CD-ROM.

Nakamoto, D. J.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Brügge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. Lilienthal, D. J. Nakamoto, R. J. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multiangle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 200–214 (1989).
[Crossref]

Pagano, R. J.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Brügge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. Lilienthal, D. J. Nakamoto, R. J. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multiangle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 200–214 (1989).
[Crossref]

Painter, T. H.

T. H. Painter, D. A. Roberts, R. O. Green, J. Dozier, “Improving mixture analysis estimates of snow-covered-area from AVIRIS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 320–332 (1998).
[Crossref]

Reilly, T. H.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Brügge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. Lilienthal, D. J. Nakamoto, R. J. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multiangle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 200–214 (1989).
[Crossref]

Reulke, R.

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, M. Schaepman, D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[Crossref]

Reusen, I.

M. Schaepman, D. Schläpfer, K. Itten, P. Strobl, W. Mooshuber, A. Müller, W. Debruyn, I. Reusen, D. Fransaer, “Performance and calibration requirements for APEX,” Final Report ESA/ESTEC Contract 14906/00/NL/DC (Remote Sensing Laboratories, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2001), CD-ROM.

Richter, R.

R. Richter, D. Schläpfer, “Geo-atmospheric processing of airborne imaging spectrometry data. Part 2: atmospheric topographic correction,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2609–2630 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, M. Schaepman, D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Richter, “Model SENSAT: a tool for evaluating the system performance of optical sensors,” in Propagation Engineering III, L. R. Bissonnette, W. B. Miller eds., Proc. SPIE1312, 286–297 (1990).
[Crossref]

Roberts, D. A.

T. H. Painter, D. A. Roberts, R. O. Green, J. Dozier, “Improving mixture analysis estimates of snow-covered-area from AVIRIS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 320–332 (1998).
[Crossref]

Robertson, D. C.

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, MODTRAN: a Moderate Resolution Model for LOWTRAN7, GL-TR-89-0122 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1989).

Ryan, R.

S. Blonski, C. Cao, J. Gasser, R. Ryan, V. Zanoni, T. Stanley, “Satellite hyperspectral imaging simulation,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (ISSSR) 1999, A. J. Bruzewicz ed. (U.S. Corps of Engineers, Hanover, N.H.2000), CD-ROM.

Schaepman, M.

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, M. Schaepman, D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Schläpfer, M. Schaepman, S. Bojinski, A. Börner, “Calibration concept for the airborne PRISM Experiment (APEX),” Can. J. Remote Sens. 26, 455–465 (2000).

M. Schaepman, S. Dangel, “Solid laboratory calibration of a nonimaging spectroradiometer,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3754–3764 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Schaepman, D. Schläpfer, K. Itten, P. Strobl, W. Mooshuber, A. Müller, W. Debruyn, I. Reusen, D. Fransaer, “Performance and calibration requirements for APEX,” Final Report ESA/ESTEC Contract 14906/00/NL/DC (Remote Sensing Laboratories, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2001), CD-ROM.

K. I. Itten, M. Schaepman, L. De Vos, L. Hermans, H. Schlaepfer, F. Droz, “APEX: Airborne Prism Experiment, a new concept for an airborne imaging spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the Third International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition, B. J. Petoskey, ed. (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan International, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 181–188.

Schimel, D. S.

G. P. Asner, C. A. Wessman, D. S. Schimel, S. Archer, “Variability in leaf and litter optical properties: implications for BRDF model inversions using AVHRR, MODIS, and MISR,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 243–257 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schlaepfer, H.

K. I. Itten, M. Schaepman, L. De Vos, L. Hermans, H. Schlaepfer, F. Droz, “APEX: Airborne Prism Experiment, a new concept for an airborne imaging spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the Third International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition, B. J. Petoskey, ed. (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan International, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 181–188.

Schläpfer, D.

R. Richter, D. Schläpfer, “Geo-atmospheric processing of airborne imaging spectrometry data. Part 2: atmospheric topographic correction,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2609–2630 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, M. Schaepman, D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Schläpfer, M. Schaepman, S. Bojinski, A. Börner, “Calibration concept for the airborne PRISM Experiment (APEX),” Can. J. Remote Sens. 26, 455–465 (2000).

M. Schaepman, D. Schläpfer, K. Itten, P. Strobl, W. Mooshuber, A. Müller, W. Debruyn, I. Reusen, D. Fransaer, “Performance and calibration requirements for APEX,” Final Report ESA/ESTEC Contract 14906/00/NL/DC (Remote Sensing Laboratories, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2001), CD-ROM.

D. Schläpfer, “MODO: an interface to MODTRAN for the simulation of imaging spectrometry at-sensor signals,” in Proceedings of the Tenth Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne Earth Science Workshop, R. Green, ed. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 2001), JPL 02-1, pp. 343–350.

D. Schläpfer, Differential Absorption Methodology for Imaging Spectroscopy of Atmospheric Water Vapor, Vol. 32 of Remote Sensing Series (Remote Sensing Laboratories, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 1998).

Sellers, P. J.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Brügge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. Lilienthal, D. J. Nakamoto, R. J. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multiangle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 200–214 (1989).
[Crossref]

Stanley, T.

S. Blonski, C. Cao, J. Gasser, R. Ryan, V. Zanoni, T. Stanley, “Satellite hyperspectral imaging simulation,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (ISSSR) 1999, A. J. Bruzewicz ed. (U.S. Corps of Engineers, Hanover, N.H.2000), CD-ROM.

Strobl, P.

M. Schaepman, D. Schläpfer, K. Itten, P. Strobl, W. Mooshuber, A. Müller, W. Debruyn, I. Reusen, D. Fransaer, “Performance and calibration requirements for APEX,” Final Report ESA/ESTEC Contract 14906/00/NL/DC (Remote Sensing Laboratories, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2001), CD-ROM.

Troufleau, D.

M. H. Weiss, H. Chauki, D. Troufleau, F. Baret, “Coupling canopy functioning and canopy radiative transfer models for remote sensing data assimilation,” Agric. Forest Meteorol. 108(2), 113–128 (2001).
[Crossref]

Verhoef, W.

W. Verhoef, “Light scattering by leaf layers with application to canopy reflectance modeling: the SAIL model,” Remote Sens. Environ. 16, 125–141 (1984).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.-C.

Wessman, C. A.

G. P. Asner, C. A. Wessman, D. S. Schimel, S. Archer, “Variability in leaf and litter optical properties: implications for BRDF model inversions using AVHRR, MODIS, and MISR,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 243–257 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wiest, L.

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, M. Schaepman, D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[Crossref]

Worsham, R. D.

Zanoni, V.

S. Blonski, C. Cao, J. Gasser, R. Ryan, V. Zanoni, T. Stanley, “Satellite hyperspectral imaging simulation,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (ISSSR) 1999, A. J. Bruzewicz ed. (U.S. Corps of Engineers, Hanover, N.H.2000), CD-ROM.

Agric. Forest Meteorol. (1)

M. H. Weiss, H. Chauki, D. Troufleau, F. Baret, “Coupling canopy functioning and canopy radiative transfer models for remote sensing data assimilation,” Agric. Forest Meteorol. 108(2), 113–128 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Can. J. Remote Sens. (1)

D. Schläpfer, M. Schaepman, S. Bojinski, A. Börner, “Calibration concept for the airborne PRISM Experiment (APEX),” Can. J. Remote Sens. 26, 455–465 (2000).

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

D. J. Diner, C. J. Brügge, J. V. Martonchik, T. P. Ackerman, R. Davies, S. A. W. Gerstl, H. R. Gordon, P. J. Sellers, J. Clark, J. A. Daniels, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Duval, K. P. Klaasen, G. W. Lilienthal, D. J. Nakamoto, R. J. Pagano, T. H. Reilly, “MISR: a multiangle imaging spectroradiometer for geophysical and climatological research from EOS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27, 200–214 (1989).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

R. Richter, D. Schläpfer, “Geo-atmospheric processing of airborne imaging spectrometry data. Part 2: atmospheric topographic correction,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2609–2630 (2002).
[Crossref]

ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. (1)

A. Börner, L. Wiest, P. Keller, R. Reulke, R. Richter, M. Schaepman, D. Schläpfer, “SENSOR: a tool for the simulation of hyperspectral remote sensing systems,” ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 55, 299–312 (2001).
[Crossref]

Remote Sens. Environ. (5)

G. P. Asner, C. A. Wessman, D. S. Schimel, S. Archer, “Variability in leaf and litter optical properties: implications for BRDF model inversions using AVHRR, MODIS, and MISR,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 243–257 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. H. Painter, D. A. Roberts, R. O. Green, J. Dozier, “Improving mixture analysis estimates of snow-covered-area from AVIRIS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 320–332 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Jacquemoud, F. Baret, “PROSPECT: a model of leaf optical properties spectra,” Remote Sens. Environ. 34, 75–91 (1990).
[Crossref]

W. Verhoef, “Light scattering by leaf layers with application to canopy reflectance modeling: the SAIL model,” Remote Sens. Environ. 16, 125–141 (1984).
[Crossref]

G. P. Asner, “Biophysical and biochemical sources of variability in canopy reflectance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 64, 234–253 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (11)

P. Keller, Imaging Spectroscopy of Lake Water Quality Parameters, Vol. 32 of Remote Sensing Series (Remote Sensing Laboratories, University of Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland, 2001).

J. W. Boardman, “Inversion of high spectral resolution data,” in Imaging Spectroscopy of the Terrestrial Environment, G. Vane, ed., Proc. SPIE1298, 222–233 (1990).
[Crossref]

D. Schläpfer, Differential Absorption Methodology for Imaging Spectroscopy of Atmospheric Water Vapor, Vol. 32 of Remote Sensing Series (Remote Sensing Laboratories, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 1998).

S. Blonski, C. Cao, J. Gasser, R. Ryan, V. Zanoni, T. Stanley, “Satellite hyperspectral imaging simulation,” in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spectral Sensing Research (ISSSR) 1999, A. J. Bruzewicz ed. (U.S. Corps of Engineers, Hanover, N.H.2000), CD-ROM.

R. Richter, “Model SENSAT: a tool for evaluating the system performance of optical sensors,” in Propagation Engineering III, L. R. Bissonnette, W. B. Miller eds., Proc. SPIE1312, 286–297 (1990).
[Crossref]

A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, MODTRAN: a Moderate Resolution Model for LOWTRAN7, GL-TR-89-0122 (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1989).

D. Schläpfer, “MODO: an interface to MODTRAN for the simulation of imaging spectrometry at-sensor signals,” in Proceedings of the Tenth Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne Earth Science Workshop, R. Green, ed. (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., 2001), JPL 02-1, pp. 343–350.

H. J. Kostowski, Reliable Spectroradiometry (Spectroradiometry Consulting, La Plata, Md., 1997), ISBN 0-9657713-0-X, 1997), pp. 276 ff.

M. Schaepman, D. Schläpfer, K. Itten, P. Strobl, W. Mooshuber, A. Müller, W. Debruyn, I. Reusen, D. Fransaer, “Performance and calibration requirements for APEX,” Final Report ESA/ESTEC Contract 14906/00/NL/DC (Remote Sensing Laboratories, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2001), CD-ROM.

K. I. Itten, M. Schaepman, L. De Vos, L. Hermans, H. Schlaepfer, F. Droz, “APEX: Airborne Prism Experiment, a new concept for an airborne imaging spectrometer,” in Proceedings of the Third International Airborne Remote Sensing Conference and Exhibition, B. J. Petoskey, ed. (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan International, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1997), Vol. 1, pp. 181–188.

SPECTRA: Surface Processes and Ecosystem Changes through Response Analysis, ESA SP-1257(5) Reports for assessment: the five earth explorer core missions (European Space Agency, Paris, 2001).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Workflow for the derivation of critical radiometric signatures, noise equivalent radiance, and SNR values.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relation between L and ΔL at 560-nm wavelength for leaf chlorophyll. A fit of a square-root function was used to derive the lower limit of the cloud (lower curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance signatures and modeled at-sensor radiance signature for vegetation parameters. The levels of reflectance and radiance are shown at left, the respective delta signatures for the variable leaf chlorophyll are shown in the two plots at right.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalization of the vegetation variables leaf chlorophyll, LAI (leaf area index), and leaf water to median radiance levels at two exemplary wavelengths. The square-root normalization function is fitted to the lower boundary of the signature points in the LL space. Fitting points are indicated by squares on the curves.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Selection of relevant signatures for vegetation variables leaf chlorophyll, leaf water, and leaf area index. Top, normalized signatures at median radiance conditions; middle, relative signature strength for each variable with potential exclusion levels; bottom, selected signatures after application of the 20% exclusion level.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Generic minimum, median, and maximum radiance levels for all applications including a MODTRAN simulation for a theoretical minimum (0% reflectance) and maximum (100% reflectance) situation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Delta radiance requirements (equivalent to NedL) as derived from a combination of all the variables at median radiance level in comparison with cross-calibration requirements. The results are given at the 20% exclusion level, smoothed by a 30-nm averaging filter.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

SNR requirement for all applications at median radiance on three signature exclusion levels (smoothed by a 30-nm filter).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

SNR requirement for the APEX at median radiance conditions, smoothed by a 30-nm filter (top). Bottom, unsmoothed wavelength-dependent driver applications.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Applications and Variables Used for the Model

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρλ,a=ρpi, λ, θ, ρλ,a=ρpi+Δpi, λ, θ=ρλ,a+Δρλ,a,
pi=pi,1, pi,2 , pi,mi, Δpi=Δpi,1, Δpi,2, , Δpi,mi,
Lλ,a=Lρλ,a|ρλ,aSc=Lpi, Δpi, λ, θSc,
ΔLλ,a=|Lρλ,aSc-Lρλ,aSc|.
L|ΔLλ,a=Lpi, λ, θSc|ΔLλ,a.
σSc,t=ΦpQτ+Idce τ1/2electrons,
Lλ=nλΦpQτ,
σLλ=σnλΦpQτ=nλΦpQτ1/2=nλ1nλ Lλ1/2=nλLλ1/2.
ΔLλ=nλLλ1/2, nλ=ΔLλ2Lλ.
sigλ=ΔLλLλ, Srel=sigλmaxsigλ.
ΔLλ,S=ΔLλ Srellundefined Srel<l.
ΔLλ,Sm=minΔLλ,S,i|i=0,kλ,
NedLΔLλ,Sm,
SNRλ=Lλ/NedLLλ/ΔLλ,Sm.

Metrics